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THE DICTIONABY OF 
AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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THE DICTIONARY OF 

Australasian biography. 



COMPRISING 



NOTICES OF EMINENT COLONISTS 

FROM THE INAUGURATION OF RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT 
DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME. 

[1855-1892] 



PHILIP MENNELL, F.K.G.S. 



LONDON : 

HUTCHINSON & CO., 
25, PATERNOSTER SQUARE. 



1892. 



Printed by Hazell, Wataon, & Viney, Ld. t London and Aylesbury. 

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PREFACE. 



ris unnecessary to enter into any lengthened exposition of the objects 
and utility of a work such as the present, either from an English or 
an Australasian point of view. The public appetite for such publications 
is evidenced by the issue of innumerable "Biographical Dictionaries" and 
the success of such a work as the " National Dictionary of Biography/' and 
there seems no valid reason why what Sir Thomas McDwraith calls "the 
future Australasian empire " should not have the careers of its publicists 
in various walks of distinction recorded in permanent and concise form. 
Owing to the increase of federal feeling in the various colonies, the present 
moment seems an opportune one for the presentation of a work which 
" federalises," so to speak, the mass of what previous writers have produced 
in a similar direction in regard to the separate colonies. I have often had 
occasion to remark on the limited knowledge which the public men of one 
colony possess of the public men of another, and in a period which has 
produced the " Commonwealth of Australasia Bill " I may perhaps be 
excused for endeavouring to contribute my mite towards the extension of 
that intercommunity of knowledge which is to a large extent the necessary 
condition precedent to intercommunity of sympathy and action. 

Not only has the federal feeling in Australasia witnessed a wonderful 
growth of recent years, but the interest in and desire for knowledge about 
the Australasian colonies has been quickened to at least an equal extent at 
the centre of the empire. It is hoped therefore that the "Dictionary of 
Australasian Biography " may at the present juncture equally meet the 
acceptance of large classes both in England and at the Antipodes. It has 
been one of the most difficult parts of an arduous task to combine that 
particularity which local biography for local circulation demands with that 
more comprehensive, if at the same time more condensed, treatment which 
is likely to suit the taste of readers twelve thousand miles away from the 
stage on which the actors whose achievements are set forth have played 
their parts. In the attempt to furnish a book which will be equally satis- 
factory to English and colonial readers, I cannot hope to have entirely 
succeeded ; bat I have at least kept this object in view, and am sanguine 

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;V PREFACE. 



enough to believe that I have fulfilled my aim in so far as the contrarieties 
of the case will permit. 

As to the scope of the work, it records the careers of the majority of 
the eminent Australasian colonists who survived to see the inauguration 
of responsible government in 1855, and who have died in the interval of 
thirty-seven years which has elapsed since that epoch-making era. It also 
includes the biographies of living persons, and thus contains the class of 
information which is to be found in the usual run of biographical dic- 
tionaries regarding deceased worthies, in addition to the more recent data 
respecting living persons which are afforded by such publications as the 
English " Men of the Time." The extent of the information presented will 
be best gathered when I state that the " Dictionary " comprises nearly two 
thousand biographies, including those of the governors of the several colonies, 
the prelates of the Anglican and Roman Catholic communions, the heads of 
the principal religious denominations and of the several universities, as well 
as notices of all politicians, with a few unavoidable exceptions, who have 
held Ministerial office in the Australian colonies, New Zealand, and Tasmania 
since the year 1855. The principal members of the Civil Service and the 
explorers, authors, scientists, musicians, and actors who have won distinction 
in the colonial arena have been dealt with as adequately as circumstances 
permitted ; and the work also includes lives of a number of the pastoral, 
mercantile, and industrial pioneers of the various colonies, as well as of those 
who have distinguished themselves in the domain of sport and athleticism. 

There are one or two special points to which I should like to draw atten- 
tion. In the first place, the titles of honour and office given to the several 
subjects of biography are those which they are entitled to bear in their 
respective colonies, though, by a strange anomaly in the constitutional formu- 
laries of a country which will mainly go down to history in connection with 
the glories of its colonial empire, the most commonly borne title in the 
last-mentioned portion of her Majesty's dominions — that of "Honourable" 
— is not conceded recognition outside of the colony in which the public 

rvices of which it is the reward have been rendered. If therefore 
the present work should do anything to " imperialise " — if I may use the 
word — a title to which there is really no valid democratic objection, and to 
promote its recognition and that of the good service which it typifies in 
every part of the empire, I shall take pride in having contributed even 
in this humble way to the disappearance of the last vestige of that hateful 
doctrine of colonial inferiority which comes to us from the dark, but unfor- 
tunately not yet very distant, ages of Colonial Office ineptitude and insular 
presumption. 

With regard to the incidence of this title of "Honourable," some confusion 
may arise in the minds of English, and even Australasian readers. Broadly 
speaking, the Australasian public man is entitled to bear the title of 
" Honourable " within his own colony during his actual tenure of office as 
a member of the tJpper House or as a member of the Ministry of the day 

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in such colony. In all the Australasian colonies members of the Ministry 
•- lembers for the time being of the Executive Council, which corresponds 
ewhat to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, and it is to their 
'^Smbership of this. body that they owe the title of "Honourable," which 
they cannot assume until they have been sworn into its privileged precincts. 
In all these colonies, except Victoria and Tasmania, the members of a retiring 
Ministry cease to be members of the Executive Council, and would thus lose 
the title of " Honourable " were it not that, under the Duke of Newcastle's 
despatch dealing with the case, any member of the Executive Council who 
has served as a member of the Government either consecutively or cumula- 
tively for three years may by royal warrant be permitted to retain the title 
of " Honourable " within his particular colony for the term of his life. In 
Victoria and, it would also seem, in Tasmania, when once a public man has 
been sworn a member of the Executive Council, he remains one for life, and 
thus retains the degree of " Honourable " for life also. The Speaker of the 
Lower House in each colony assumes the title whilst he occupies the chair, 
and it is a moot point whether the judges of the Supreme Court are not 
entitled to the distinction, though the preponderance of local custom gives 
them (including even the Chief Justice) the designation of " His Honour " 
in common with the District and County Court judiciary. 

There may be some confusion, too, in the English mind as to the designation 
of members of Parliament in the various Australasian colonies. Membership 
of the Upper House in each of the colonies is signified by the addition of 
the letters " M.L.C." ; but with regard to the Lower House a good deal 
of contrariety prevails. In New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, 
Queensland, and Western Australia the Lower House is called the Legislative 
Assembly, and except in the case of South Australia the members are styled 
" M.L.A." In the case of the latter colony, however, the more pretentious 
affix of " M.P." is employed. In this regard there is a general tendency in 
all the colonies to give the title of " MP." to members of the Lower House, 
especially where it is desired to be particularly complimentary ; but in South 
Australia alone does the designation " M.P." appear to have crystallised into 
normal official and social use. In Tasmania the Lower House is called the 
House of Assembly, and members are styled "M.H.A." In New Zealand 
what is known as the Legislative Assembly in most of the other colonies is 
styled the House of Representatives, and the letters "M.H.R." are appended 
to the names of members. 

It now remains for me to return my grateful thanks to the various gentle- 
men but for whose aid, even after eighteen months of almost continuous 
labour, it would have been impossible for me to give my work to the public 
at so early a date. Here it may be premised that all occurrences in the 
present volume have as far as possible been brought down to July 1892. 

Mr. J. Henniker Heaton, M.P., so well known in connection with the 
universally interesting question of postal reform, must have the credit of 
having been the first to explore in any comprehensive manner the mine 

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Vi PREFACE. 



of Australasian biography, in his " Australian Dictionary of Dates and Men 
of the Time," published in 1879. " Much," however, " has happened " during 
the thirteen years which have elapsed since this book saw the light, and 
as regards the biographical portion it is now completely out of date, except 
in the case of those "worthies" whose careers had been closed by death 
prior to 1879. Even as regards these, however, their lives are given in the 
present volume in almost every instance in an expanded and revised form, 
the result of much laborious personal research. In addition to the valuable 
aid derived from his " Men of the Time," I am indebted to Mr. Heaton for 
a considerable amount of information deduced from his valuable stores of 
Australasian data in print and manuscript 

I have to return my sincere thanks for much assistance afforded me by 
the present Agents-General, as well as by their immediate predecessors, and 
by the able and courteous Secretaries to their several offices. In this 
connection I may especially mention the late Sir Arthur Blyth, the pre- 
decessor of Sir John Bray in the London representation of South Australia. 
That gentleman kindly revised my list of " worthies " of that colony, and 
covered it with copious annotations drawn from his long experience of 
South Australia and his special aptitude for biographical investigation and 
local chronology. As regards Tasmania, Sir E. N. C. Braddon performed 
for me much the same services, and in the case of South Australia and 
Queensland I am specially indebted to Mr. S. Deering, the Assistant Agent- 
General of the former colony, and to Mr. C. S. Dicken, C.M.G., Secretary 
to the Agent-General for the latter, both of whom bring to bear on all 
matters connected with their several colonies a very accurate personal know- 
ledge of their history and circumstances. I am also under considerable 
obligations to Mr. S. Yardley, of the New South Wales, Mr. W. Kennaway, 
C.M.G., of the New Zealand, and to Mr. S. B. H. Rodgerson, of the Victoria 
office. 

The most substantial contribution in the way of literary assistance I have 
received from Mr. James Backhouse Walker, of Hobart, whose equally 
accurate memory and memoranda have enabled him, as his kindness prompted 
him, to supply me with a number of admirably compiled biographies, which 
add an element of real historical value to the department of the work which 
he generously undertook, and which, in addition to much original matter, 
comprised the laborious revision of the biographies of eminent Tasmanians 
which I already had in print, when I had the good fortune to be introduced 
to him by a member of the eminent firm of Tasmanian publishers, Messrs. 
Walch and Co., of Hobart. 

Next in order I must acknowledge my obligations to my friends Mr. 
A. Patchett Martin and Mr. H. B. Marriott Watson, both of whom have 
not only contributed a number of complete lives, but have greatly aided me 
in the selection of names and the revision of proofs. In this connection, 
as very valuable and substantial helpers, I must also mention Mr. G. W. 
Rusden, the distinguished historian of Australia and New Zealand, who 

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PREFACE. Vil 

has supplemented the stores of information which I have derived from 
his works with much valuable data personally conveyed ; my old friend 
Mr. A. M. Topp, of the Melbourne Argus ; Mr. Alexander Sutherland, the 
well-known Australian litterateur ; and Mr. J. F. Hogan, whose " Irish in 
Australia * is a mine of biographical detail, and to whose personal assistance 
I am also greatly beholden. My South Australian biographies would have 
been sadly incomplete but for the aid I derived from my friend Mr. J. L. 
Bonython, of the Adelaide Advertiser, and from Mr. F. Johns, of the South 
Australian Register, who, through the medium of the proprietor of that 
paper, Mr. K. Kyffin Thomas, kindly cleared up for me a number of 
troublesome queries and essential dates. The New Zealand portion of my 
work owes a heavy debt to Mr. Leys, of the Auckland Star, who kindly 
forwarded a number of biographies and carefully checked others. Mr. 
George Fenwick, of the Otago Daily Times, has also helped me materially; 
and I have to thank Sir Walter Buller for a valuable element in the insertion 
of a number of Maori biographies. Through Mr. Fenwick I was fortunate 
enough to enlist the aid of Dr. Hocken, of Dunedin, an expert and enthu- 
siast in all that concerns New Zealand history and antiquities, and who 
kindly placed his fine library at my disposal. To my wife I owe thanks for 
invaluable aid in the work of transcription, and to Mr. David and Mr. Joseph 
Gowen Syme, of Melbourne, for much kindly assistance in promoting the 
success of the work. 

Taking the colonies separately, I have to acknowledge valuable help 
as regards New South Wales from Mr. F. W. Ward, the late editor of the 
Sydney Daily Telegraph, from Mrs. Ward, and from Mr. C. A. W. Lett 
and Mr. Gilbert Parker ; Victoria : Hon. J. F. Vesey Fitzgerald, Hon. 
Alfred Deakin, Mr. George Syme, Mr. T. S. Townend, and Mr. Charles 
Short, of the Melbourne Argus, Mr. Julian Thomas, and Mr. H. Britton ; 
Queensland: Mr. Buzacott, Mr. Brentnall, and Mr. Gresley Lukin; Western 
Australia: Sir John and Lady Forrest, Sir James G. Lee Steere, Hon. G. W. 
Leake, M.L.C., Hon. J. W. Hackett, M.L.C.,and Mr. F. Hart; New Zealand: 
Mr. H. Brett, Mr. W. L. Rees, M.H.R., Rev. H. C. M. Watson, Christchurch ; 
Mr. T. E. Richardson, Wellington ; Mr. Hart, The Press, Christchurch ; and 
Mr. Ahearne, Lyttelton Times, Christchurch. 

In regard to matter drawn from books, my first acknowledgments are due 
to Mr. David Blair's " Encyclopaedia of Australasia," of which a second 
edition is much called for. I must also mention, as having supplied me with 
much excellent material, Mr. George Rusden's " History of Australia " and 
"History of New Zealand," " Victorian Men of the Time,*' "Victoria and 
its Metropolis," McCombie's " History of the Colony of Victoria," Mr. James 
Bonwick's " Port Phillip Settlement," Mr. George E. Loyau's " Representa- 
tive Men of Sonth Australia," Stow's "South Australia," "The Statistical 
Register of South Australia," Mr. H. Brett's " Heroes of New Zealand " 
and "The Early History of New Zealand," Mr. Gisborne's "New Zealand 
Balers and Statesmen," Mr. Alfred Cox's "Men of Mark of New Zealand" 

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Vlll PREFACE. 

and " Recollections " ; the admirable annual " Blue-books " of the several 
colonies, which are in every case a credit to those responsible for their 
production ; Messrs. Gordon and Gotch's "Australian Handbook*' and Mr. 
Greville's "Year-book of Australia." Amongst works of a more general 
character, I must confess my great indebtedness to " The National Dictionary 
of Biography," Mr. F. Boase's "Modern English Biography,' 1 to "The Colonial 
Office List, 11 Burke's " Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage " and " Colonial 
Gentry," Debrett's " Baronetage, Knightage, and Companionage " and " House 
of Commons and the Judicial Bench, 11 Mr. Joseph Foster's "Men-at-the- 
Bar," Messrs. Routledge's " Men and Women of the Time " and " Men of 
the Reign, 11 Crockf ord's " Clerical Directory " and " The Annual Register." 

PHILIP MENNELL,. 



St Stephen's Club, S.W., 
August lit, 1892. 



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DICnONABY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Abb] J 

Abbott, Hon. Sir Joseph Palmer, M.LJL, 
Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, 
New Sooth Wales, was born at Muswell- 
brook, N.8.W., on Sep. 29th, 1842. From 
his youth Mr. Abbott has been engaged in 
pastoral pursuits ; but he is also a solicitor 
by profession. He was M.L.A. for the 
district of Qunnedah from 1880 to 1885, 
and has since represented Wentworth. 
Mr. Abbott was Secretary for Mines in 
the Stuart Government from Jan. 7th, 
1883, to Oct. 7th, 1885; and held the 
post of Secretary for Lands in the Bibbs 
Ministry from Nov. 7th to Dec. 22nd, 
1885. Subsequently Mr. Abbott sat with 
Mr. Dibbs in Opposition. He, however, 
found occasion to take an independent 
stand, and separated himself from the 
main body of protectionists, and was 
looked upon as leader of the Third Party 
in the Assembly — a section also known 
as the Independent and the "Law and 
Order" party. He was a member of the 
New South Wales Commission for the 
Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 
1888; and in Oct. 1890 he was elected 
Speaker of the Legislative Assembly on 
the retirement of Mr. Young. He was 
one of the delegates of New South Wales 
to the Federation Convention held in 
Sydney in 1891. During the shearers 1 
strike in 1891 he offered his intervention. 
He was re-elected Speaker later in the 
year, and was gazetted to a knighthood 
on May 25% 1892. 

Abbott, Eobert Palmer, J.P., was 
born in Ireland, and came to Sydney 
when a boy with his parents. He was 
admitted a solicitor in 1854. Mr. Abbott 
entered the Legislative Assembly in 1872 
as member for Tenterfield, and was re- 
turned for Hartley in 1880. He was 
nominated to the Legislative Council in 
1885, and sat till March 1st, 1888, when 
he resigned, owing to his objection to 
certain appointments. He was Secretary 
for Mines in the first Parkes Administra- 
tion from July 27th, 1874, to Feb. 8th, 



L [a'Be 

1875, and a member of the New South 
Wales Commission in London for the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886. 

alleokett, His Honour Thomas, puisne 
judge, Victoria, is the eldest son of Mr. 
Thomas Turner a'Beckett (tf.t\) t and was 
born in 1836. He went to Victoria with 
his father, and returned to London in 
1856, entering as a student of Lincoln's 
Inn on May 18th, 1857. He won a stu- 
dentship in Nov. 1859, and was called to 
the bar on Nov. 17th of the same year. 
Judge a'Beckett returned to Victoria, 
and was admitted to the bar there on 
Aug. 16th, 1860, and practised before 
the Supreme Court in Melbourne. He 
married, in 1875, Isabella, daughter of 
8ir Archibald Michie, K.C.M.S., Q.O. 
(?.*.)• and was appointed a puisne judge 
of the Supreme Court of Victoria on 
Sept. 30th, 1886. Mr. Justice a'Beckett 
was formerly a law lecturer in Melbourne 
University, but resigned in 1880. He is 
still a member of the Faculty of Law 
in the University, and was elected a 
member of the Council on Jan. 10th v 
1887. 

a'Beckett, Hon. Thomas Turner, J.P., 
comes of a well-known Wiltshire family, 
long settled at West Lavington, in 
that county. He is the son of the late 
William a'Beckett, a solicitor in London, 
and a brother of the late Sir William 
a'Beckett (?.«.), and of the late Gilbert 
Abbott a'Beckett, the well-known Lon- 
don police magistrate, comio author, 
and contributor to Punch. Another 
brother, Arthur Martin a'Beckett,F.R.C.S., 
was a prominent resident in Sydney, 
and died there on May 23rd, 1871. 
Mr. a'Beckett was born on Sept. 18th, 
1808, and educated at Westminster 
School. After leaving he was articled 
to his father, and admitted a solicitor 
and attorney in 1829, when he joined 
his father in practice. Mr. a'Beckett 
wrote a number of able pamphlets 
advocating legal reforms, and was a mem- 

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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[a1< 



ber of the Council of the Law Amend- 
ment Society down to 1850, when he 
emigrated to Victoria, being admitted 
to practise as a solicitor in Melbourne 
in 1851, and was registrar of the diocese 
from 1854 to 1887. During the gold 
fever he published a pamphlet entitled 
"Gold and the Government," and was 
nominated to the Legislative Council on 
July 14th, 1852. On the inauguration of 
responsible government in 1855 he un- 
successfully attempted to enter the Lower 
House for Collingwood, but was elected 
to the Legislative Council for the central 
province, and sat from 1858 to 1878, 
when he retired 'from political life, in 
the course of which he opposed the 
ballot, the abolition of state aid to 
religion and the export duty on gold, 
and gave his adhesion to payment 
of members. Mr. a'Beckett was a 
member of the Heales Ministry without 
portfolio from Nov. 26th, 1860, to Nov. 
11th, 1861 r and was sworn of the Execu- 
tive Council on Jan. 7th, 1861. In April 
1868, on the resignation of Sir James 
M'Culloch during the Darling Grant 
crisis, Mr. a'Beckett was applied to by 
Lord Canterbury to form a conciliation 
ministry; but this, after considerable 
negotiation, he found himself unable to 
do, and in the result the Bladen Ministry 
was formed. Mr. a'Beckett was Com- 
missioner of Trade and Customs in the 
third M'Culloch Administration, from 
April 9th, 1870, to June 19th, 1871. He 
was a member of the Royal Commission 
on the Civil Service in 1862, and Chairman 
of that of 1870. Mr. a'Beckett was also 
for many years a member of the Council 
of Melbourne University, and a trustee 
of the Public Library. He was Chairman 
of the Hobson'8 Bay Railway Company 
down to the time when the line became 
absorbed in the Government railway 
system. Before leaving London, Mr. 
a'Beckett published "Remarks on the 
Present State of the Law of Debtor and 
Creditor," 1844; "Railway Litigation, 
and How to Check It," 1846; "Law- 
reforming Difficulties: a Letter to Lord 
Brougham," 1849. After his arrival in 
Victoria he published "A Comparative 
View of Court Fees and Attorneys' 
Charges,'' 1854; "A Defence of State 
Aid to Religion," 1856 ; " State Aid Ques- 
tion — Strictures on Pamphlets of Dr. 
Cairns," 1856. Mr. a'Beckett from time 



to time delivered lectures at the In* 
dustrial and Technological Museum, 
Melbourne. Several of these, including 
"Painting and Painters," have been 
published. 

a'Beckett, Sir William, first Chid 
Justice of Victoria, was the eldest son of 
William a'Beckett, and the brother of 
T. T. a'Beckett (?.*.). He was bora 
in London on July 28th, 1806, and edu< 
cated at Westminster School, where, in 
conjunction with his brother Gilbert 
Abbott a'Beckett, he started two periodi- 
cals of very promising ability, entitled 
the Censor and Literary Beacon, H« 
was called to the English bar in 1827, 
went to New South Wales in 1837, and 
was in 1841 appointed 8olicitor-General, 
and subsequently Puisne Judge. He 
became judge of the Supreme Court 
for the district of Port Phillip on 
Feb. 3rd, 1846, and on Jan. 19th, 1851 
was made first Chief Justice of the newlj 
constituted colony of yictoria. In tin 
same year the reckless abandonmenl 
of the population to the excitement d 
the gold fever called forth a cautionary 
pamphlet from Sir William. It was pub 
lished under the pseudonym " Colonus, 1 
and was entitled, " Does the Discovery oi 
Gold in Victoria, viewed in relation to it 
Moral and Social Effects as hitherto deve 
loped, deserve to be considered a National 
Blessing or a National Curse V Th< 
judge evidently leant to the latter view 
The experiences of a holiday trip U 
Europe are contained in a volume by Sii 
William, published in London in 1864 
entitled "Out of Harness," containing 
notes on a tour through Switzerland anc 
Italy. Sir William's health failed, bat 
he postponed his retirement to suit tlM 
convenience of the Haines Ministry 
In 1857, however, he left the bench 
and returned to reside in England ii 
1863, where he published in Londot 
"The Earl's Choice, and other Poems.' 
Sir William died at Upper Norwood, in 
Surrey, on June 27th, 1869. In 1832 ht 
married Emily, daughter of Edward 
Hayley, who died in 1841. In addition 
to the works already mentioned, Sii 
William published "The Siege of Dura 
barton Castle and other Poems," 1824 j 
a large number of biographies in "Tr* 
Georgian Era" (4 vols., 1834-4): "J 
Universal Biography; including Scrip- 
tural, Classical, and Mythological Me 



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DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Ada 



moire, together with Accounts of many 
Eminent Living Characters" (3 vols., 
London, 1835); and "The Magistrates* 
Manual for the Colony of Victoria n 
(Melbourne, 1852). 

aleekett, Horn. William Arthur Cal- 
kntar, J.P., eldest son of the late 8ir 
William a'Beckett (?.*.), was in the 
Legislative Council of Victoria from 1868 
to 1876, and held office without portfolio 
in the Administration of Sir Charles Gavan 
Duffy from June 1871 to June 10th, 1872. 
He was sworn in as a member of the 
Executive Council on July 31st, 1871. 
He represented the first Berry Govern- 
ment in the Legislative Council, being a 
member of the Ministry without office 
from Aug. 7th to Oct. 20th, 1875. He 
was admitted to the Victorian bar on 
Sept. 15th, 1875. Mr. a'Beckett, who 
was born at Kensington on July 7th, 
1833, and educated at King's College, 
London, and at Downing College, Cam- 
bridge, where he was a Fellow Commoner, 
has also been called to the English 
(Inner Temple) and New South Wales 
bars. He married, in Sept. 1855, Emma, 
only child and heiress of John Mills, of 
Melbourne. He has been a magistrate 
of the colony of Victoria since 1862, but 
now resides at Penleigh House, Weetbury, 
Wilts. 

Abigail, Francis, J.P n son of the late 
William Abigail, was born in London 
in 1840. He emigrated to Sydney in 
I860, and married there, in 1861. Mr. 
Abigail was M.L.A. for West Sydney 
from 1880 to June 1891, when he was 
defeated. He was Minister of Mines in 
Sir Henry Parkes' 'Administration from 
Jan. 20th, 1887, to Jan. 10th, 1889, and 
is a J. P. of the colonies of New South 
Wales and Victoria. He was a member 
of the New South Wales Commission for 
the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 
1888, and for the Exhibition of Mining 
and Metallurgy, held at the Crystal Palace 
in 1890, in which year he visited England, 
and received a cordial welcome from the 
various Orange bodies in England and 
the north of Ireland. Whilst in London 
he gave valuable evidence before the 
Royal Commission on Mines. 

Abraham, light Beverend Charles John, 
M JL, DJ)., the son of the late Captain 
Abraham, R.N., of Farnborough, Hants, 
was born in 1815, and educated at 
Eton and King's College, Cambridge, of 



which he was successively Scholar and 
Fellow. He was admitted to the degree 
of B.A. in 1837, M.A. in 1840, B.D. in 
1849, and received the degree of D.D. in 
1859. He was ordained deacon in 1838, 
and priest in the following year. He was 
Assistant Master at Eton until 1850, 
when he went out to New Zealand to 
become Master of the English department 
of St. John's College, Auckland. In 1853 
he was appointed Archdeacon of Waite- 
mata by the Bishop (Selwyn) of New 
Zealand. The Bishop had for two or 
three years been offering to members of 
the Church of England a Church Consti- 
tution, whereby they were to govern 
themselves; and during the two years 
which followed, while absent in England, 
he left Archdeacon Abraham to propagate 
and expound the principles of the Church 
Constitution. In 1857 a convention of 
representative churchmen from all parts 
of the colony was held in Auckland, 
which resulted in the framing of the 
Constitution now in force. In the fol- 
lowing year Archdeacon Abraham, who 
had also been acting as chaplain to the 
Bishop, was consecrated first Bishop of 
Wellington by the Archbishop (Sumner) 
of Canterbury and Bishops (Wilberforce) 
of Oxford and (Lonsdale) of Lichfield. 
When the Maori war broke out by reason 
of the purchase by the Government of the 
Waitara block, Bishop Abraham presented 
a protest to the Governor, claiming for 
the Maoris as British subjects the right 
to be heard in the 8upreme Court. In 
1870 he resigned his see, and, returning 
to England, was made coadjutor to Dr. 
Selwyn, then Bishop of Lichfield. This 
office he held until the death of Bishop 
Selwyn, in 1878. From 1872 to 1876 he 
was Prebendary of Bobenhall in Lichfield 
Cathedral, and in 1875-6 was rector of 
Tattenhill, Staffordshire. Since 1876 he 
has been Canon and Precentor of Lich- 
field Cathedral. He married in 1850 
Caroline Harriet, daughter of Sir Charles 
Thomas Palmer, Bart., of Wanlip Hall, 
Leicestershire, and cousin of the wife of 
Bishop Selwyn. She died in 1877. Bishop 
Abraham is the author of " Festival and 
Lenten Lectures in St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, 1 * 1848-9 (Parker), and other 
works. 

Adams, Francis William Leith, is the 
son of the late Professor Andrew Leith 
Adams, F.R.S., F.G.S., and grandson of 



ed by Google 



Ada] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Add 



Frauds Adams, M.D., LL.D., a distin- 
guished 8ootoh physician and classical 
scholar. His mother is the well-known 
authoress, Mrs. Bertha Leith Adams (now 
Mrs. B. 8. de Couroy Laffan), of Stratford- 
on- Avon. Mr. Adams resided in Queens- 
land and various other parts of Australia, 
and published his «' poetical works" in 
Brisbane. He has also written "Lei- 
cester, an Autobiography " (London, 1886) ; 
" Australian Essays n (Melbourne, 1886) ; 
** Songs of the Army of Night w (London, 
1890). The next year he contributed a 
series of remarkable articles on Australia 
to the Fortnightly Review, and early in 
1892 published in London a collection of 
Australian tales. 

Adams, Philip Francis, ex-Surveyor 
General, New South Wales, was born in 
Suffolk in 1828. Ten years later his 
family removed to the north of Ireland, 
and he was educated at the Belfast 
Institution. In 1851 he emigrated to 
Canada, and subsequently had an un- 
lucky experience at the Californian dig- 
gings. He came to Sydney in 1854, and 
was Government Land Surveyor for the 
Maitland district till 1857. He was 
afterwards connected with the Trigono- 
metrical Survey of New South Wales. In 
1864 he was appointed Deputy Surveyor 
General, and Surveyor General on March 
17th, 1868. Mr. Adams retired on a 
pension, and was a member of the New 
South Wales Commission in Sydney for the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886. 

Adams, Bobert Dudley, was born on 
July 9th, 1829, on board the Rotterdam 
packet, in which his mother was travelling 
to England. He was for a time private 
secretary to the Hon. 8idney Herbert 
(afterwards Lord Herbert of Lea), the 
popular War Minister. He arrived in 
New South Wales on Sept. 21st, 1851, 
and engaged in commercial and pas- 
toral pursuits, in the intervals of which, 
between 1860 and 1880, he wrote a series 
of articles on " Australian Finance and 
Resource" for the English press and 
magazines, also for the colonial press, 
numerous political sketches, reviews, and 
essays, also two poems, the "Psalm of 
Time" and "Song of the Stars" (the 
latter subject suggested to him by the 
late Prince Albert). He has been a 
member of all the New South Wales 
Exhibition Commissions (except one), 
including that for Chicago, 



Adams, Hon. Bobert Pattern, puisne 
judge, Tasmania, third son of James 
White Adams, of Martook, Somerset, and 
Mary Anne Elizabeth his wife, was born 
on March 4th, 1831, and educated at Mar- 
tock grammar school and at King's Col- 
lege School, London. He entered at 
the Middle Temple in April 1851, and 
was called to the bar on May 1st, 1854. 
Mr. Justice Adams emigrated to Tas- 
mania, and was called to the bar there 
on Sept. 25th, 1856. He subsequently 
became Chairman of Quarter Sessions 
and a Commissioner of the Court of Be- 
quests for the northern division of Tas- 
mania. Having embraced political life, 
he entered the House of Assembly, and 
was returned for Hobart in 1859, 1861, 
and from 1862-6. He became Solicitor- 
General in 1867, and held the appoint- 
ment till 1887, when on March 14th he 
was appointed a puisne judge. He is 
Chancellor of the Diocese of Tasmania, 
and has been twice married ; his first wife, 
who died in 1867, being Harriett Matilda, 
daughter of the late Captain George 
King, B.N. He married secondly Kate, 
daughter of the late George Francis 
Huston, J. P., of New Norfolk, Tasmania. 

Adamson, Traveri, was called to the 
Irish bar at King's Inn in April 1850, 
and admitted to practise at the Vic- 
torian bar on Nov. 24th, 1852. He 
represented the Murray district in the 
first Legislative Assembly of Victoria, 
which assembled in Nov. 1856. Mr. 
Adamson was 8olioitor-General in the 
Nicholson Administration from Oct. 27th, 
1859, to March 5th, 1860, and was for 
many years Crown prosecutor. 

Addis, William E., B.A., son of the 
late Bev. Thomas Addis, of Edinburgh, 
minister of the Free Church, was born 
in 1844, and was Snell Exhibitioner to 
Balliol College, Oxford. He matriculated 
on Oct. 12th, 1861, and took a first class in 
Classical Moderations in 1863, and a first 
class in the final classical schools in 1865. 
He took his B.A. degree in 1866, and very 
shortly afterwards became a convert to 
the Roman Catholic Church, and a mem- 
ber of the congregation of St. Philip 
Neri at the Brompton Oratory. He 
left the Oratory, and became priest in 
charge of Lower Sydenham. In 1888 he 
resigned the priesthood, after issuing 
a circular to his parishioners announcing 
his abjuration of Roman Catholic doc- 
4 



a<s] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Afr 



trines, and was married, at St. John's, 
Hotting Hill, to Miss Flood. At the end 
of the year he accepted the post of 
assistant to the Rev. Charles Strong, of 
the Australian Church, Melbourne. Mr. 
Addis is the author of " Anglicanism and 
the Fathers," "Anglican Misrepresenta- 
tion,'* and of the " Catholic Dictionary," 
compiled in conjunction with Thomas 
Arnold (?.«.), which was published in 
1884. Since his residence in Melbourne 
Mr. Addis has published some articles on 
Biblical criticism, displaying an acquaint- 
ance with the more advanced school of 
German theologians. 

Agg, Alfred John, sometime Commis- 
sioner of Railways, Victoria, was born 
in 1890 at Evesham, Worcestershire. He 
was educated at the Worcester grammar 
school, and entered the service of the 
Great Western Railway Company as a 
clerk at Reading in 1846, where he re- 
mained until I860, when he emigrated 
to Australia. He arrived in Victoria in 
1851, and was employed in the Chief 
Secretary's office and the Immigration De- 
partment. He was afterwards appointed 
Government Storekeeper, which position 
he resigned in 1866, and became president 
of the new department created to super- 
sede the old system of commissariat 
control. His abilities in this office were 
rewarded by his appointment as Under 
Treasurer, and on Oct. 13th, 1867, he was 
made Commissioner of Audit. In 1883 
he was granted a year's leave, which he 
spent in making a tour of the world, and 
in his absence he was nominated to act 
under Mr. Speight as a commissioner 
under the Railways Management Act. 
Mr. Agg was admitted to the Victorian 
bar on Dec. 6th, 1860, and died on Oct 
16th, 1886. 

Agnew, Hob. James Wilson, M.D., J.P., 
ex-Premier of Tasmania, was admitted a 
member of the Royal College of Surgeons 
(England) in 1838, and M.D. of Glasgow 
University in 1839. Soon afterwards he 
emigrated to Tasmania, and for many 
years practised his profession in Hobart 
Dr. Agnew was made a J. P. for Tasmania 
on Feb. 10th, 1862. He was a member 
of the Legislative Council 1877-81, and 
from 1884 to July 1887, when he resigned. 
He was a member of Mr. Fysh's Ministry 
without office from Aug. 9th, 1877 (on 
which date he was sworn of the Executive 



Council) to March 5tb, 1878, and of the 
Giblin Ministry, which succeeded, from 
March 6th to Deo. 20th, 1878. He 
again took office with Mr. Giblin, without 
portfolio, on Oct 30th, 1879 ; but resigned 
on Feb. 6th, 1881. Dr. Agnew became 
Premier and Chief Secretary of the 
Colony on March 8th, 1886. On March 
1st, 1887, Mr. Rooke was taken into the 
Ministry as Chief Secretary, Dr. Agnew 
remaining Premier until the 29th of the 
month, when he resigned with his col- 
leagues. Dr. Agnew is Vice-President 
and Honorary Secretary of the Royal 
Society of Tasmania, and a member of 
the Council. He was for many years a 
member of the Tasmanian Council of 
Education, and on the establishment of 
the Tasmanian University was elected a 
member of the Council, but, in conse- 
quence of absence from the colony, re- 
signed in 1891. He was President of the 
Tasmanian Commission for the Melbourne 
International Exhibition of 1880. 

Ahearne, Surgeon - Major Joseph, 
L.R.C.P., L.R.C.8., is a native of Ireland, 
and was admitted L.R.C.8. (Ireland) in 
1871, and L.R.C.P. (London) in 1878. 
He emigrated to Queensland, and was 
appointed Government Medical Officer 
at Townsville in Nov. 1879. He was 
appointed Surgeon-Major and Principal 
Medical Officer of the defence force for 
the Northern District in Nov. 1886, and 
Health Officer at Townsville on Nov. 26th, 

1886. In that year he visited England 
as the representative of the Noith 
Queensland Separation League ; and 
much of the progress which has since 
attended the operations of the League 
is to be ascribed to the impetus given 
to it by Dr. Ahearne's exertions. Dr. 
Ahearne married Miss Cunningham, the 
daughter of Edward Cunningham, a 
Queensland squatter. 

Airy, Major Henry Park, D.S.O., of the 
New South Wales Artillery, was formerly 
in the 101st Foot; and having become 
attached to the New South Wales military 
forces, of which he became captain in 
March 1886, served in the Soudan cam- 
paign with the colonial contingent, re- 
ceiving a medal, with clasp, for the 
advance on Tamai. He served with the 
British army in Burmah in 1886 and 

1887, and having behaved with great 
gallantry and been severely wounded, 
was created a Companion of the Dis- 

o 



Akh] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[AH 



tinguished Service Order (in 1888), was 
mentioned in despatches, and pensioned 
by the Government of India. In further 
recognition of his brilliant services in 
Burmah, he was, in June 1887, appointed 
a brevet-major in the New South Wales 
forces by Lord Carrington, then Governor 
of that colony. 

Akhurtt, William, the actor, was born 
at Hammersmith on Dec. 29th, 1822, and 
went to Melbourne, Australia, in 1850. 
Here he joined the Melbourne Aran* as 
sub-editor and musical critic. Subse- 
quently he wrote fourteen pantomimes, 
one of his burlesques, the " Siege of 
Troy," running sixty nights. In 1870 he 
returned to England, and wrote panto- 
mimes for Astley's, the Pavilion, and the 
Elephant and Castle Theatres. He died 
on board of the Patriarch, whilst on his 
way out to 8ydney, on June 7th, 1878. 

Alexander, Samuel, M.A., Fellow of 
Lincoln College, Oxford, son of Samuel 
Alexander and Eliza [Sloman] his wife, 
was born in Sydney on Jan. 6th, 1869. 
He was educated at Wesley College, Mel- 
bourne, and Melbourne University, where 
he matriculated in 1875, winning three 
exhibitions. During the next two years 
he won five exhibitions in the arts 
course, in classics, mathematics, and 
natural science. Mr. Alexander was 
elected scholar of Balliol College, Oxford, 
in Nov. 1877; was Prom. Ace. Univer- 
sity Junior Mathematical Scholarship in 
1878; and was first class in Classical 
Moderations, and first class in Mathema- 
tical Moderations in 1879. He was first 
class in the Final School of IAttera 
Humaniorcs iu 1881. He received the 
degree of B.A. in 1881, and of M.A. in 
1884. Since taking his degree Mr. 
Alexander has devoted himself to the 
study of philosophy. He was elected 
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, in 
1882, and from 1883 to the end of 1888 
lectured on philosophy at Lincoln College. 
In 1885 he was appointed examiner in 
the Final School of Littera Humaniores, 
a position which he held till 1887, when 
he was awarded the Green Memorial 
Prize for Moral Philosophy. In 1889 he 
published a treatise on Ethics, entitled 
44 Moral Order and Progress " (London, 
Trubner). This had been partly founded 
on a prize essay. Mr. Alexander is the 
author of various smaller contributions 
in Mind, and elsewhere; an article on 



Hegel's "Conception of Nature," in 
Mind for 1886, being especially worthy 
of notice. 

Allen, Eon. George, M.L.C., was the 
son of Dr. Richard Allen, physician to 
George in., and was born in London in 
Nov. 1800. He arrived in New 8ooth 
Wales in Jan. 1816, and was the first 
attorney and solicitor admitted by the 
Supreme Court of New South Wales. 
This took place on July 26th, 1822, and 
he had much difficulty in maintaining 
his status against the English-bred 
attorneys who desired to monopolise 
the practice. He married in 1823, and 
was elected Alderman of the Brisbane 
Ward in the first corporation of the 
city of Sydney in 1842, acting as third 
Mayor of the city in 1846. In the latter 
year he was nominated to a seat in 
the old Legislative Council, and was 
appointed honorary Police Magistrate of 
the City and Port. In 1856 he became 
a member of the present Legislative 
Council, and was elected Chairman of 
Committees, an office which he resigned 
in 1873, along with his membership of 
the Council of Education, which he had 
held since 1866. He assisted in found- 
ing Sydney College, and held office on 
the governing body for many years. In 
1859 he was elected a member of the 
Senate of the University, to which be 
bequeathed £1000 for a scholarship for 
proficiency in mathematics in the second 
year. Mr. Allen, who was a prominent 
member of the Wesleyan-Methodist 
body, died at Toxteth Park Glebe on 
Nov. 3rd, 1877. 

Allen, Hon. Sir George Wigraa, 
K.C.M.G., son of the late Hon. George 
Allen, M.LC. (q.v.), was born in Sydney 
on May 16th, 1824. He was educated 
at Cape '8 school and at Sydney College 
where he distinguished himself in classics 
and mathematics. He was articled U 
his father, and admitted an attorney ant 
solicitor of the Supreme Court of New 
South Wales in 1846. He married, ir 
July 1851, Marian, eldest daughter of th< 
late Rev. William Billington Boyce, first 
President of the Australian Wesleyai 
Conference, who survived him. He wa 
a Commissioner of National Educatioi 
from 1853 to 1866, and became a mem be 
of the Council of Education in 1873. li 
1869 he was made a magistrate, a» 
chosen first Mayor of The Glebe, an offio 



All] 



tHCTlOMARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[All 



to which he was many times consecu- 
tively re-elected. He was appointed a 
member of the Legislative Council in 
I860* but resigned his seat ; and was 
elected a member of the Legislative As- 
sembly for The Glebe in 1869. He was 
chosen President of the Law Institute in 
1870 ; and on Dec. 9th, 1873, he accepted 
office in the Parkes Ministry, becoming 
the first Minister of Justice and Public 
Instruction appointed after the creation 
of the office. He retired with his col- 
leagues on Feb. 8th, 1875, and was chosen 
Speaker of the Legislative Assembly on 
March 23rd, 1875, being re-elected on 
Nov. 27th, 1877 (in which year he was 
knighted), and Dec. 15th, 1880. In the 
next parliament he was displaced by 
Mr. Barton (Jan. 3rd, 1883). In 1878 
Sir George was elected to the Senate of 
Sydney University, to fill the vacancy 
created by the death of his father. 8ir 
George was one of the vice-presidents 
of the Royal Commission for the Sydney 
International Exhibition of 1879, and 
also of the New South Wales Commission 
for the Melbourne International Exhibi- 
tion of 1880. In 1884 Sir George was 
created K.C.M.G., and died on July 23rd, 
1885. 

Allen, Harry Brookes, M.D., Professor 
of Anatomy and Pathology in Melbourne 
University, graduated M.B. at Melbourne 
University in 1876, M.D. in 1878, and 
Ch.B. in 1879. He was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Descriptive and Surgical Ana- 
tomy and Pathology in the University in 
Nov. 1882. He is President of the Mel- 
bourne Medical Students' Society and 
of the Melbourne University Boat Club. 
He was president of the Commission 
which sat in 1889 to inquire into the 
sanitary state of Melbourne ; and, having 
received a year's leave of absence, visited 
Europe in 1890 to inquire into the man- 
agement of the various medical schools of 
the United Kingdom and the Continent. 
At Dr. Allen's instance the General 
Medical Council in England agreed to 
recognise Melbourne medical degrees, 
and he was himself the first M.D. of the 
University to be registered in accord- 
ance with the new arrangement. He 
was married at Sutton Forest, Sydney, 
to Miss Ada Rose Elizabeth Mason. 

Allen, James, was born at Birmingham 
in 1806, and educated at Horton College. 
He was for some time a reporter on the 



Morning Pott, but emigrated to Adelaide, 
South Australia, where he started the 
Times and aided in establishing the South 
Australian Register. In the year 1857 he 
went to Melbourne, where he edited 
the Herald and started the Mail, the 
first penny evening paper issued in that 
city. In 1865 Mr. Allen removed to 
Hobart, Tasmania, and edited the 
Mercury, afterwards starting the Evening 
Mail. Mr. Allen then went to New 
Zealand, and conducted the Auckland 
Evening News till 1870, when he returned 
to Victoria and purchased the Camper- 
down Chronicle, of which he remained 
owner till 1880. Mr. Allen, who died in 
1886, published a " History of Australia" 
in 1882. 

Allen, Captain William, was for many 
years a commander in the Hon. East 
India Company's marine, in which he 
greatly distinguished himself. He arrived 
in Adelaide in 1839, and, in conjunction 
with Mr. John Ellis, bought a portion of 
the "Milner Estate," in the neighbour- 
hood of Port Gawler. In 1845 he became 
associated in the purchase of the Burra 
Mine, and assisted in forming the South 
Australian Mining Association, of which 
he became chairman. Captain Allen was 
a member of the Church of England, but 
contributed liberally to the funds of 
various Protestant bodies. He helped to 
establish St. Peter's College in 1849, and 
was a benefactor to its funds to the 
extent of £7000. Captain Allen revisited 
England in 1853, returning in 1855. He 
died suddenly on Oct. 17th, 1856, and by 
his will bequeathed £5000 for pastoral 
aid purposes in connection with the 
Anglican Church in South Australia, the 
disposition of the amount being left to 
the discretion of the Bishop of Adelaide, 
as trustee. 

Allen, Bey. William, was born on 
Nov. 4th, 1847, at Betchworth, Surrey, 
and was taken to Victoria in 1852. 
He was educated at the Scotch and 
Congregational colleges in Melbourne, 
and matriculated at the Melbourne Uni- 
versity in 1869. He became pastor of 
the Sandhurst Congregational church in 
Jan. 1871, was transferred to Mary- 
borough in Jan. 1876, and in Jan. 1880 
was appointed to his present living 
at Carlton. Since 1871 Mr. Allen has 
written for the religious press; he was 
Chairman of the " Congregational Union 

7 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[And 



and Mission of Victoria" in 1886 and 
1886, and in the latter year published 
"Random Rhymes." Mr. Allen gained 
the first prize for the cantata which he 
composed for the opening of the Mel- 
bourne Centennial Exhibition in 1888. 

Allport, Morton, F.L.S., son of Joseph 
Allport, was born in England on Dec. 4th, 
1830. The family emigrated to Tasmania 
when Mr. Allport was an infant. He was 
educated In the colony, and chose his 
father's profession, being admitted a so- 
licitor of the Supreme Court in 1852. Mr. 
Allport was an ardent and accomplished 
naturalist, and by his original work added 
largely to the knowledge of the zoology 
and botany of Tasmania. To the study of 
the fishes of the colony he gave special 
attention. He introduced the perch and 
tench into Tasmanian waters, and was a 
zealous promoter of the acclimatisation of 
salmon and trout, an experiment which he 
lived to see a splendid success. He also 
introduced the English water-lily into the 
colony. Mr. Allport was a Fellow of the 
Linmean Society of London and of the 
Zoological Society, corresponding member 
of the Anthropological Institute, life 
member of the Entomological and Malaco- 
logical Societies, and foreign member of 
several Continental scientific societies. He 
was a Vice-President of the Royal Society 
of Tasmania, to the Proceedings of which 
last-named Society he contributed a num- 
ber of valuable pacers on the subjects of 
his favourite studies. He was a mem- 
ber of the Council of Education for many 
years. He died at Hobart on Sept. 10th, 
1878. 

Allwood, Bey. Canon Robert, B.A., ex- 
Vice-Chancellor of Sydney University, 
was the son of Chief Justice Allwood, of 
Jamaica, and was educated at Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1825. He took holy 
orders, and was ordained deacon in 1826 by 
the Bishop of Bath and Wells, and priest 
in 1827 by the Bishop of Gloucester and 
Bristol. He was a minor canon of Bristol 
Cathedral from 1826 to 1839, and curate of 
Clifton from 1829 to 1839. In the latter 
year he emigrated to New South Wales, 
arriving in Sydney on Dec. 8th. From 
1840 to 1884 he was incumbent of St. 
James's, Sydney, and was appointed 
canon of St. Andrew's Cathedral in 1852. 
Canon Allwood was Chancellor of the 
diocese of Sydney from 1876 to 1884, and 



8 



Vice-Chancellor of the University in 1869. 
In 1843 he published a brochure entitled 
"The Papal Claim of Jurisdiction** (in 
Australia). He died on Oct. 27th, 1891. 

Anderson, George, Deputy-Master Mel- 
bourne Mint, is the son of the late George 
Anderson, of Luscar, Fifeshire, Scotland. 
He was born in 1819, and educated at 
Edinburgh and St. Andrew's Universities. 
He was Formerly Major 4th Lanark Rifle 
Volunteers. He represented the City of 
Glasgow in the House of Commons from 
1868 to 1885. On March 13th of the 
latter year he was appointed Deputy- 
Master of the Mint at Melbourne, in suc- 
cession to Mr. V. D. Broughton (?.t?.), a 
position he still holds. 

Anderson, John Gerard, Mi., J. P., 
Under Secretary for Public Instruction 
Queensland, son of the late Rev. James 
Anderson, M.A., of Orphir, Orkney, was 
born on Feb. 12th, 1836, and graduated 
M.A. at Aberdeen University, afterwards 
remaining there as a student of divinity. 
He emigrated to Queensland in 1862, and 
became connected with the Education 
Service in Sept 1863 as first District 
Inspector of Schools. He was appointed 
Senior Inspector in June 1869, Acting 
General Inspector in Sept. 1874, General 
Inspector in 1876, and Under Secretary 
in Nov. 1878— a position he still holds. 

Anderson, Lieut-Colonel Joseph, C.B., 
K.H., was born in 1789, and joined the 
army in 1805 as ensign in the 78th 
Regiment. He served with singular 
bravery and distinction, being on several 
occasions severely wonnded in Egypt 
and at Talavera, Busaco and Torres 
Vedras in the Peninsular War. Having 
become major of the 50th Regiment 
he was in 1834 appointed by Governor 
Sir Richard Bourke, of New South 
Wales, to take charge of the convict 
establishment at Norfolk Island, as 
Military Commandant and Civil Super- 
intendent. The miserable felons were 
then in a state of chronic mutiny, and 
steeped in every species of crime. At 
imminent personal risk, Major Anderson, 
whilst maintaining rigid discipline, intro- 
duced a kindlier and more humanising 
system, and with the best results. In 
1837 Major Anderson was created K.H., 
and subsequently became lieut.-colonel 
After leaving Norfolk Island, he saw 
active service in India, and commanded 
a brigade in the Gwalior campaign in 1843, 

Digitized by ^ 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[And 



during which he was severely wounded, 
and for which he received the C.B.in 1844. 
In 1848 he retired from the army, and 
took up his permanent residence in Port 
Phillip, where he engaged in squatting 
pursuits on the Goulburn River. In 
1852 he was nominated to the first 
Legislative Council of Victoria, to fill a 
vacancy in the list of non-official nominee 
members, caused by the death of Mr. 
Dunlop. In this capacity he supported 
the Convicts Act Prevention Bill, which 
was designed to prevent the influx of 
convicts from Tasmania into Victoria ; 
and when the measure, having been dis- 
allowed by the Imperial authorities, was 
again adopted by the Council in the 
ensuing session, Colonel Anderson was 
the mover of an address to the Queen, 
setting forth the reasons which induced 
the Legislative Council to again pass the 
bill. In 1854 Colonel Anderson served 
on the Colonial Defence Committee, and 
in the following year in a debate on the 
immigration question strongly advocated 
the adoption of prohibitive legislation, 
with the view of stopping the influx of 
Chinese. Colonel Anderson died at 8outh 
Yarra, Melbourne, on July 18th, 1877. 

Anderson, Hon, Eobsrt Stirling Hon, 
M.L.C., was a native of Coleraine, Lon- 
donderry, Ireland, and was educated at 
the Belfast Academy and at the Uni- 
versity of Dublin, where he graduated. 
After practising as a solicitor in Dublin for 
eight years he decided to emigrate, and 
arrived in Victoria in June 1854. Whilst 
practising as a solicitor in Melbourne he 
resided in the suburb of Emerald Hill, 
and was Chairman of the Municipal 
Council and representative of the district 
in Parliament. Mr. Anderson was Com- 
missioner of Trade and Customs in the 
Heales Ministry from November 1860 to 
January 1861, when he resigned, owing to 
the policy of the Ministry being dictated 
by the opposition, Mr. Heales revising his 
budget in accordance with Sir John 
CShanassy's resolution that the public 
expenditure should be kept down to 
£3,000,000 per annum. Mr. Anderson, 
however, took office in the O'Shanassy 
Ministry which succeeded the Heales 
Government, being Commissioner of Trade 
and Customs from November 1861 to 
June 1863. When Mr. Haines died in 
1864 Mr. Anderson succeeded him as 
member for the Eastern Province in the 



Legislative Council, and he was Com- 
missioner of Public Works and vice-presi- 
dent of the Board of Land and Works in 
the Francis Ministry from May to July 
1874, when the Cabinet was reconstructed 
under the premiership of the late Mr. 
Kerferd, under whom Mr. Anderson held 
the same offices till August 1875, when 
the first Berry Ministry was formed. The 
latter having been defeated, Mr. Anderson 
came back to office under Sir James 
M'Culloch in October 1875 as Com- 
missioner of Trade and Customs, and held 
that post till the Ministry was again 
displaced by Mr. (now Sir Graham) 
Berry in May 1877. From March to 
August 1880 Mr. Anderson was a member 
of Mr. Service's first cabinet, but held 
no portfolio. When the Service-Berry 
coalition was formed in March 1883 Mr. 
Anderson became Minister of Justice, 
and retained the post until his death on 
Oct. 26th of the same year. 

Anderson, Hon, William, J.P., son of 
James Anderson and Hannah his wife, 
was born at Montrose, Scotland, on 
Jan. 3rd, 1828, and was taken to Launces- 
ton, Tasmania, in Oct. 1841, arriving on 
April 1st of the following year. The 
family removed to Port Fairy m Victoria, 
in 1844 ; and in 1849 he took over his 
father's business as a builder, which he 
managed until 1854, when he joined his 
father in purchasing Rosemount Farm, his 
present home. He became a member of 
the first Belfast Road Board, was elected 
president of the Belfast Shire Council, 
made a justice of the peace in 1864, and 
sat in the Assembly for Villiers and 
Heytesbury from 1880 till April 1892, 
when he was defeated. In 1854 he was 
elected an elder of the Presbyterian 
church, and was for two years president 
of the Protection of Aborigines Society. 
He succeeded the late Chief Justice 
Stawell as president of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society of Victoria. In 1887 he 
was awarded the Minister of Agriculture's 
prize for the best managed farm in 
southern Victoria. He was appointed 
Minister of Public Works in the Gillies 
Government on Sept. 2nd, 1890, and re- 
signed with the rest of his colleagues in 
the following November. 

Anderson, Colonel William Aoland 
Douglas, C.M.G., son of Lieut.-Colonel 
Joseph Anderson fo.r.), was born in 
1829, was an ensign in his father's 

Digitized by LiOOgle 



And] 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN fclOGRAPHY. 



[AaJ 



regiment, the 50th, bat sold his commis- 
sion after a few years' service, and was 
appointed a Commissioner of Goldfields 
in Victoria. He was at one time member 
for Evelyn in the old Legislative Council, 
and succeeded Major-General Dean Pitt 
in the chief command of the Victorian 
Volunteer force in 1862. He was created 
C.M.G. in 1 878, and died on Jan. 23rd, 1882. 
Andrew, Professor Henry Kartyn, M.A., 
son of Rev. M. Andrew, was born at 
Bridgenorth, on Jan. 3rd, 1846, and 
educated at several English and Con- 
tinental schools, and after his arrival 
in Victoria in 1857, at the Church of 
England grammar school, Melbourne, 
under the Rev. Dr. Bromby. He entered 
the Melbourne University in 1861, 
and graduated B.A. in 1864, with the 
scholarship in mathematics and natural 
philosophy, and first-class honours in 
natural science. He was appointed in 
June of that year Lecturer on Civil 
Engineering, being the first graduate of 
Melbourne to be appointed to office in 
the University, and resigned the position 
in June 1868 on his departure for 
England. He also resigned the second 
mastership of Wesley College, which he 
had accepted in 1866 ; and on his arrival 
in England in Oct. 1868 he entered 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where in 
1870 he was second foundation scholar 
and a Wright's prizeman. He graduated 
B.A. as 27th wrangler in Jan. 1872, 
accepted the professorship of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy at the 
Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, 
took his WLA. degree in 1875, returned to 
Wesley College, Melbourne, in the same 
year as second master under Professor 
Irving, whom he succeeded as head 
master at Christmas 1875. In 1882 he 
left Wesley College to succeed Mr. Pirani 
as Lecturer on Natural Philosophy in 
Melbourne University, where he became 
first professor on the establishment of the 
chair on that subject, and continued in 
this position until his death at Suez on 
Sept. 18th, 1888, whilst on leave. Professor 
Andrew was author of a paper on " Brain 
Waves," joint author with the late Mr. F. 
J. Pirani, M.A., C.E., of an edition of the 
first three books of Euclid, graduated M.A. 
at Melbourne University in 1867, and 
acted as joint secretary of the University 
Senate. He was three times elected a 
member of the University Council between 



1867 and 1886. Professor Andrew was 
ensign in the St. John's company of the 
Cambridge University Volunteer Corps, 
and captain of the Melbourne University 
company ; and both as a musician and a 
contributor to the press he did valuable 
work. His widow has adopted the 
dramatic profession, under toe name 
of Miss Constance Edwards. 

Andrew, Rev. John Chapman, MJL, 
J.P., was born on March 7th, 1822, at 
Whitby, in Yorkshire, his father, the Rev. 
James Andrew, being then rector of the 
parish. He was educated first at Whitby, 
and then at St. Peter's school, York, from 
which latter, having taken an exhibition, 
he proceeded to University College, Ox- 
ford. Having graduated • B.A. in 1840, 
taking second-class honours in both clas- 
sics and mathematics, Mr. Andrew was 
appointed one of the masters to the new 
school at Rossal, in Lancashire. In 1845 
he was elected Fellow of Lincoln College, 
Oxford; and, having proceeded to the 
degree of M.A. in 1847, was ordained 
deacon in the same year, and priest in 
1848, being vicar of St. Michael's, Oxford, 
1848-9. At Lincoln College Mr. Andrew 
acted as mathematical lecturer, Greek 
lecturer, and tutor successively; and in 
1867 went out to Wellington, New Zea- 
land, where he had a sheep station on 
the Waitangi for some years. He was 
a member of the Provincial Council of 
Wellington from 1868 until the abolition 
of the provincial system in 1875. In 1870 
Mr. Andrew was returned as one of the 
two members for Wairarapa in the General 
Assembly, as also in 1876. In the latter 
year he migrated to Nelson, and in 1880 
was appointed principal of Nelson College. 
He has always been actively interested in 
educational matters in New Zealand, and 
from 1868 to 1876 was a member of the 
Wellington Education Board. In 1878 
he was appointed to the Senate of the 
New Zealand University, and is now the 
Vice-Chancellor. He was appointed J. P. 
by Sir Edward Stafford's Government. 

Andrews, Henry James, J.P., sometime 
Under Secretary and Government Statist, 
South Australia, was at one time a teller 
in the Bank of Australasia. He entered 
the Civil Service of South Australia in 
1852 as assistant in the Assay Office, and 
in the next year became cashier and 
accountant. In 1860 he was appointed 
Secretary to the Central Road Board; in 



io 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[An* 



1874 Secretary to the Commissioner for 
Public Works; in 1875 Secretary to the 
Commissioner of Crown Lands; and in 
Feb. 1882 Under Secretary and Govern- 
ment Statist. He died on April 25th, 
1890. 

Andrews, Hon. Richard Bullock, some- 
time Puisne Judge South Australia, was 
admitted to the South Australian bar in 
1855, and was member for Yatala in the 
Assembly from 1857 to I860, and for 
Blurt from 1863 to 1869. Mr. Andrews 
was Attorney-General in the Torrens 
Ministry for a few weeks in Sept 1857, 
and in the still more short-lived Dutton 
Administration in July 1863. He filled 
the same post in Mr. (now Sir) Henry 
Avers' Government from July 1863 to 
July 1864, and in the second Dutton 
and third Avers Ministries from March 
to Oct. 1865. He was also Attorney- 
General in the fourth and fifth Ayers 
Ministries from May 1867 to Sept. 1868, 
and from Oct. to Nov. 1868. In March 
1865 he was appointed Q.C., Crown 
Solicitor and Public Prosecutor in 1870, 
and Puisne Judge in 1881. He died at 
Hobart on June 28th, 1885. 

Andrews, Walter Boyd Tate, J.P., late 
Registrar-General South Australia, elder 
brother of Henry James Andrews (q.v.) y 
entered the South Australian Civil Ser- 
vice in 1848; was appointed Deputy 
Registrar-General of the Colony in 1856, 
and Registrar-General in 1865. He re- 
tired in Sept 1889. 

Angas, George Fife, J.P., was the 
seventh son of Caleb Angas, of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, a coachbuilder, merchant and 
shipowner in a largo way of business 
in that town, where he was born on 
May 1st, 1789. The family was of 
Scotch origin, and the first of its repre- 
sentatives to settle on Tyneside was one 
Alexander Angus, about the year 1584. 
This Alexander, from whom Caleb was 
fifth in lineal descent, ultimately located 
himself at Raw House, near Hexham, in 
Northumberland, where his descendants 
were farmers for several generations. It 
was John Angus, of Scotland, Hexham, 
the grandfather of the subject of this 
notice, who first changed the spelling of 
the family name from Angus to Angas. 
Caleb Angas wished his son on leaving 
school to embrace the legal profession; 
but he preferred entering his father's 
business, and was duly apprenticed to 



the coachbuilding, working his way 
through the various grades of the craft, 
and ultimately supplementing his local 
experience by serving as a journeyman 
in a London factory, which he left in 
1809 to assume the oversight of his 
father's establishment Shortly after 
his return to Newcastle he was admitted 
a member of the Baptist Church, a re- 
ligious body to whose tenets he ever 
afterwards remained attached. Mr. 
Angas married, on April 8th, 1812, 
Rosetta, daughter of Mr. French, of 
Hutton. His father's firm was largely 
interested in the trade of British Hon- 
duras, where they had an agency, and 
from whence they were large importers 
of mahogany and dyewoods. Mr. Angas, 
at an early period, took a deep interest 
in the welfare of the Indian aborigines, 
who, in defiance of the law, were held 
in slavery, and deprived of all means of 
improvement and civilisation. Mainly 
through his persevering efforts their 
freedom was assured, and means of 
instruction provided by the establish- 
ment of missions. Mr. Angas also took 
a deep interest in educational matters at 
home, and was one of the founders of 
the Newcastle Sunday 8chool Union, a 
history of the successful operations of 
which body was many years later (1869) 
published at his expense. In 1823 Mr. 
Angas became greatly impressed with 
the importance to British interests of 
cutting a canal through the Isthmus of 
Darien, on the lines recently adopted by 
the Nicaragua Canal Company. In the 
result, however, the scheme dropped 
through, as far as any practical action 
on Mr. Angas's part was concerned. A 
project for the establishment of a society 
for promoting Christianity and civilisa- 
tion through the medium of commercial, 
scientific and professional agency was 
also mooted in 1825 by Mr. Angas, who 
thought that trade and evangelisation 
should go hand in hand; but this scheme, 
too, had to be dropped from want of 
encouragement on the part of the mer- 
cantile community. About this time 
the foreign trade of the firm rendered 
it necessary to open an office in London, 
and Mr. Angas, who had been for some 
time in partnership with his father and 
brothers, removed to the south, in order 
to superintend the working of the new 
departure. His capacity- and resources 



II 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



**S] 

were strained to the uttermost by the 
commercial panic of 1826, and at the 
end of that year he retired from con- 
nection with the ooachbuilding establish- 
ment at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and carried 
on a distinct mercantile and shipping 
business, under the style of " G. F. Angas 
ft Co.," of London, and " Angas ft Co.," 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne. He was strongly 
interested in the reform agitation, and 
when the passage of the bill of 1832 was 
assured he was pressed to stand for his 
native town, and subsequently for the 
borough of Sunderland. Both these 
invitations he, however, declined. In 
1833 Mr. Angas took an active part in 
founding the National Provincial Bank 
of England, of which his cousin, Mr. 
Joplin, was the originator. Of this 
eminently successful concern Mr. Angas 
was for three years a director, resigning 
his seat on the board in 1836, when, 
having taken up his residence at Dawlish, 
in Devonshire, ne desired to restrict his 
commercial responsibilities in London as 
far as possible to his own business. In 
the meantime Mr. Angas had prospered 
in his various concerns, and became a 
wealthy man. In the year 1829 Mr. 
Robert Gouger formed the idea of 
founding the colony of South Australia, 
on the principles of "Edward Gibbon 
Wakefield, but the project did not get 
beyond the appointment of a provisional 
committee. Two years later Mr. Gouger 
recurred to his previous design, and 
formulated a scheme for starting a 
*' South Australian Land Company." Of 
the provisional committee of this com- 
pany, Mr. Angas, who had all along been 
an ardent advocate of emigration and 
colonisation, became a member, and 
subscribed for a sufficient number of 
shares to qualify himself as a director. 
His first steps were to enter a protest 
against paupers being sent out, to ex- 
press the hope that the appointment of 
a governor would be left in the hands 
of the Company until the population 
reached 10,000, and secured a Legislative 
Assembly, and that " Bible truth should 
be given unfettered, and without State 
aid." In the event of his associates not 
approving of these views, he begged that 
his name might be struck out of the list 
of promoters. As the colonisation scheme 
shaped itself more clearly in his mind, 
the platform of Mr. Angas was enlarged, 



[Aag 



and he stood out for the following dis- 
tinctive points: 1. The exclusion of 
convicts; 2. The concentration of the 
settlers; 3. The taking out of persons] 
of capital and intelligence, and especially 
men of piety; 4. The emigration of 
young couples of good character ; 6. Free 
trade, free government, and freedom in 
matters of religion. Though the prospects 
at first appeared favourable, the minister 
of the day, Lord Goderich, ultimately 
declined to adopt the draft charter 
submitted to him, or to suggest an 
alternative scheme ; with the result that 
the second attempt to found the colony 
fell to the ground, and Mr. Angas made 
up his mind not to take part in any 
future attempts to settle South Aus- 
tralia. Events were, however, too strong 
for him, for in 1834, spurred on by the 
indefatigable Mr. Gouger, a number of 
influential public and commercial men 
formed themselves into "The Sooth 
Australian Association," with Mr. W. W. 
Whitmore, M.P., as chairman, and Mr. 
George Grote, M.P., as treasurer. The 
new combination succeeded in securing 
the passing of an Act constituting the 
colony of South Australia, and conferring 
the power of disposing of the lands of 
the territory on a Board of Commissioners 
to be appointed under it Mr. Angas, 
at the request of Mr. Gouger, consented 
to join the Board if the Government 
approved; and in May 1835 the names 
of himself and his colleagues were 
gazetted, Mr. (afterwards Sir) Rowland 
Hill becoming secretary to the Com- 
missioners. Amongst other things the 
Act stipulated that £35,000 worth of land 
must be disposed of, and a loan of 
£20,000 raised, with the view of guar- 
anteeing the Home Government against 
rrible outlay, before the colony could 
occupied, or the Commissioners ex- 
ercise their powers. Mr. Angas insisted 
that the only way in which these con- 
ditions could be satisfied would be by 
forming a joint stock company, to buy 
the stipulated quantity of land and 
take over the whole of the pecuniary 
responsibility. To this the majority of 
the Commissioners could not at first be 
induced to assent ; but, all other methods 
proving fruitless, they, after a prolonged 
period of indecision and delay, allowed 
Mr. Angas to have his way. He, with 
two others, agreed to find the necessary 



12 



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A»g] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



purchase-money, on condition that the 
price of the land was reduced to 12*. 
per acre from 2Q»., at which it had 
been fixed. This was agreed to, the 
Company was formed, and the £35,000 
worth of land was then transferred to 
them at cost price, Mr. Angas being 
appointed chairman of the first Board 
of Directors. This was the origin of 
the South Australian Company, which 
started in Oct. 1835 with a capital of 
£200,000. Mr. Angas now found that 
the Government considered the duties 
of a commissioner and of a director of 
the Company incompatible. As, how- 
ever, his colleagues on both boards were 
desirous of retaining his services, Lord 
Glenelg was interviewed upon the matter, 
bat ultimately decided, with great re- 
luctance, that if Mr. Angas remained a 
director of the Company he could not 
continue a member of the Board of 
Commissioners. He thought, however, 
that there could be no objection to 
Mr. Angas remaining on the Board of 
Commissioners till his successor was 
appointed, or for a limited period, say of 
three months. This decision Mr. Angas 
accepted, and then resigned in Dec. 1836. 
In the meantime the success of the Com- 
pany's operations was almost wholly due 
to the individual energy of Mr. Angas, 
under whose auspices the first shiploads 
of emigrants were despatched in Feb. 
1836, the colony being proclaimed by 
Captain Hmdmarsh, the first Governor, 
in December following. At Mr. Angas's 
suggestion, and almost entirely on the 
lines he sketched out, a banking de- 
partment was instituted, and proved of 
immense use in affording financial 
facilities to the early settlers. In 1841 
the department (again at Mr. Angas's 
instigation) was formed into a separate 
concern, with the title of the " South 
Australian Banking Company," which 
latter was in 1867 again transmogrified 
into the " Bank of South Australia." In 
1837 Mr. Angas became one of the 
founders of the Union Bank of Aus- 
tralia, and was the first chairman of the 
Board of Directors, all of whom were 
appointed on his personal selection. 
Amongst the stipulations in the deed, 
of settlement of the Union Bank was 
one restricting them from opening a 
branch in South Australia without the 
assent of the South Australian Company. 



[**K 

In the same and the next year Mr. Angas 
laid the foundation of German emigra- 
tion to South Australia by advancing a 
large sum of money to enable several 
hundreds of Prussian Lutherans to seek 
refuge in the new colony from the 
persecution with which they were 
threatened, in consequence of their 
opposition to the Government scheme 
for uniting the Reformed and Lutheran 
Churches. In 1838 Mr. Angas cautioned 
the British Government against the 
danger of having New Zealand exposed 
to the risk of a French annexation; 
and, as the result of his expostulations, 
Captain Hobson, R.N., was sent out to 
treat with the natives for the acceptance 
of the Queen's sovereignty only just in 
time to avert the action on the part 
of the French Government which Mr. 
Angas had foreseen. For the next few 
years Mr. Angas was plunged in financial 
embarrassments, owing, in a large degree, 
to the unauthorised action of his con- 
fidential agent, Mr. Flaxman, who had 
gone out with the first batch of German 
emigrants, in buying considerable tracts 
of Land in South Australia, and then 
drawing on his employer for large sums 
to meet the purchase-money. Just at 
the pressing moment the German 
emigrants, to whom he looked for 
partial relief, failed to pay up the 
instalments of the money advanced them 
as stipulated, and thus added greatly to 
their benefactor's difficulties. Amidst 
his own distresses he was, however, able 
to lend a helping hand to South Aus- 
tralia when her affairs became involved, 
through the dishonour of Governor 
Gawler's drafts on the Home Govern- 
ment; it being greatly owing to his 
exposition of her resources and prospects 
before the select committee which was 
appointed, that the Imperial authorities 
were induced to come to the assistance 
of the nascent colony. Mr. Angas was, 
in the meantime, indefatigable in his 
efforts to popularise South Australia as 
an emigration field; delivering lectures 
on the subject in various parts of the 
country, and starting two weekly news- 
papers, The South Australian Colonist 
and The South Australian Weekly News, 
at a heavy financial loss, in order to 
disseminate reliable data. Mr. Angas's 
two eldest sons had already proceeded 
to South Australia, and as his prospects 



13 



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Ang] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



H 



darkened in England they appeared to 
be brightening at the antipodes. Having 
resigned his seat on the Board of the 
South Australian Company in 1848, he 
determined to take up his residence on 
his Australian property, and, fortunately, 
was able to dispose of his English con- 
cerns on advantageous terms. He sailed 
for Adelaide by the ship Ascendant on 
Oct. 3rd, 1850, with his wife and youngest 
son, William Henry, who died in 1879, 
He was cordially welcomed on his arrival 
as the virtual father and founder of South 
Australia, and seemed never able to divest 
himself of the idea that the colony was 
still in as much need as in the days of 
its initiation of his paternal care and 
control. There was thus a dictatorial 
tone in his speeches and addresses, 
which prevented his becoming a popular, 
though he was always a respected, pub- 
licist. Even in this direction he had his 
consolations, for the new constitution 
rendering the Legislative Council par- 
tially representative having gone out 
in the same ship as that by which he 
travelled, he was at once returned to 
the new body for Barossa, and, in his 
parliamentary capacity, had the privilege 
of assisting in giving the final death- 
stroke to the system of State aid to 
religion, to which he had all along 
been so strenuously opposed. In con- 
nection with the New Constitution Act 
an amusing story is told. It had been 
an ambition of Mr. Angas's to be the 
personal bearer of the official copy of 
the Act to the colony ; but it was found 
to be contrary to precedent, and red- 
tape triumphed, the important document 
being sent from the Colonial Office in 
charge of a clerk, who gave the package 
to a steward, who, being very busy, 
thrust it into the nearest place of safety. 
On arrival in Adelaide the proper authori- 
ties came on board to demand their 
Constitution, and receive it with due 
honour. The captain, however, protested 
that he had seen nothing of it, and there 
was a great hue and cry for the lost 
Constitution, until one day shortly after, 
in turning out the captain's soiled linen 
for the laundress, it was found, to the 
ffreat amusement of every one, at the 
bottom of the bag, the place in which 
the steward had hurriedly placed it for 
security. In 1855, when he was again 
re-elected, Mr. Angas assisted in framing 



the present Constitution Aot, and d 
participated in crowning the edifice 
public freedom in the colony, wh 
foundations he had laid in fear I 
trembling, and amidst much of d<* 
and difficulty. In his worldly affi 
his prosperity was great and growii 
the property purchased by Mr. Flaxn 
turning out to have been admin 
selected, and rendering its propria 
wealthy beyond any dreams of aval 
in which he might have indulged. 1 
Angas was a liberal contributor] 
charitable and religious objects of} 
Protestant character. The Ron 
Catholic Church was the object of J 
strongest abhorrence, and it was doa 
less a severe blow to him to witness! 
growth and progress under a rtgiwu 
religious equality, which he bad fond 
believed would secure the nndisput 
predominance of Protestant Nonce 
formity. Even in his eighty-first ye 
he flooded the colony with an issue 
anti-papal literature, which certair 
did not lack controversial vigour a 
pugnacity. Whatever may have been 1 
faults of egotism and intolerance, th 
were the outcome of one of those stro 
and sturdy individualities which ha 
made England what it is; and Son 
Australia certainly owes it to Mr. Ang 
that she took her place in the rai 
of civilised communities many ya 
earlier than would otherwise have be 
the case. During the discussions on t 
present Constitution Act Mr. Ang 
whilst opposing manhood suffrage a 
vote by ballot, was a staunch suppor 
of an elective as against a nomii 
Upper House, and this was the princi 
ultimately adopted. In 1857 he \ 
elected a member of the new Conn 
and was absent for two years in Engls 
(Dec 1857 to Sept. 1859) without 
signing his seat. In 1865 he was 
elected on his seat becoming vacant 
effusion of time, bat he retired fi 
parliament in the following year, i 
died on Jan. 15th, 1879. Mrs. Angas d 
on Jan. 14th, 1867. 

Angas, George French, F.L.8., eldest 
of the late George Fife Angas (?.t?.) i 
Bosetta [French], his wife, was born 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, and devoted hint 
to artistic pursuits. In Sept. 1843 
left London on an art tour throi 
Australia and New Zealand, return 



14 



Digitized by 



Googk 



w 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Apl 



i Much 1846 with a large collection 
[ native costumes and implements, 
mdes many portraits of natives which 
l had taken, as well as sketches of the 
laces he had visited. These he had the 
Moor of showing to Her Majesty and 
te Prince Consort, who became patrons 
f the illustrated volumes he subse- 
■ently published on South Australia 
id New Zealand. He subsequently 
(tamed to South Australia, where he 
as resident when his father went out 
1 1H60. Returning to England, tie died 
i London in Oct 1886. *• South Australia 
Instated" and "New Zealand Hlus- 
ated," two illustrated folio works, were 
sued at intervals in 1847. 

Aigaa, Hon. John Howard, M.L.C., 
«ond son of George Fife Angas (q-v.) 
Id Rosetta [French], his wife, was bom 
tXewcastle-on-Tyne, on Oct. 5th, 1823. 
rben but twenty years of age (April 1848) 
eleft England for South Australia to as- 
unethe management of his father's affairs 
t that colony, and especially to develop 
it landed property, a mission he aocom- 
lishedwith eminent success. In 1854, 
*r years after his father's arrival in the 
itar,he revisited England, and married, 
1 1853, Miss 8usanna Collins, of Bowden, 
ev Manchester. The next year he re* 
toned to South Australia, and became 
tarns as a breeder of first-class sheep, 
Ktle and horses. In Dec 1871 he was 
kcted to the Legislative Assembly for 
as district of Barossa, and sat till May 
W5, when he resigned. In 1882 Mr. 
togas gave up squatting on a large 
nle, but still takes an active interest in 
*» stud farms at Hill River and Collin- 
pwe. He has been a member of the 
Ifidative Council for a number of 
*n past. Mr. Angas, who started the 
teaman's Club, has founded an en- 
tering scholarship and three engineer- 
's exhibitions in connection with the 
totality of Adelaide, and has jpven 
Iter liberal donations to public objects. 
^year or two ago he informed the com- 
■taee of the Adelaide Home for In- 
: ^»Wes of his willingness to contribute 
&C0 for the erection of a wing to the 
»fldio£ t and suggested that the Govern- 
*«t should be asked to contribute a 
kt tun towards the establishment of a 
toiotenance fund. 

AiftW, Litut-OoL Edward Fox, was 
*n on Dec 14th, 1836, and received his 



first commission in the army in Dec. 1854, 
as ensign in the 28th Regiment of Foot. 
He served in the Crimean campaign in 
the following year, and for his services 
at the siege of Sebastopol received a 
medal with clasps and a Turkish medal. 
He was appointed captain 1st Foot in 
1864, and retired, after filling various- 
important military positions in India, in 
1878, with the honorary rank of lieut.- 
colonel. Colonel Angelo was com- 
mandant of the Tasmanian local forces 
from 1880 to 1882, and in the latter 
year became Inspecting Field Officer in 
Western Australia. Having resigned that 
position, he was appointed Government 
Resident of the Northern Division of 
that Colony in 1886, and Resident Magis- 
trate at Bunbury in 1889. Since 1890 
he has been Government Resident and 
superintendent of the prison establish- 
ment at Rot-nest Island, W.A. 

Annett, Thomas Henderson, entered the 
Queensland Civil Service in May 1878, 
and was appointed principal Assistant 
Engineer of Railways for the Southern 
and Central Divisions in 1889, in which 
year he succeeded Mr. Hannam as Chief 
Engineer for the Northern and Carpen- 
taria and Cook Railways. 

Anstey, Hon. Henry Frampton, K.S.G., 
was son of Thos. Anstey, of Anstey Burton, 
Tas., and was elected to the Legislative 
Council of Tasmania in 1850, and to the 
first House of Assembly in 1856, on both 
occasions for the district of Oatlands. He 
was Secretary for Lands and Works in the 
first Tasmanian Ministry from Nov. 1856 
to Feb. 1857. Having been received into 
the Roman Catholic Church in 1842, he 
was created a Knight of St. Gregory by 
Pius IX., and by special privilege was 
buried in the Church of Santa Maria del 
Popolo at Rome, where he resided for 
two years prior to his death on July 8th, 
1862, at the age of forty. He was 
Roman correspondent of the London 
Tablet during his stay in the Eternal 
City, and was brother of Mr. T. Chisholm 
Anstey, the well-known and eccentric 
Indian publicist and member of the 
House of Commons. 

Aplin, Hon. William, M.L.C., J.P., was 
born at Combe St. Nicholas, Somerset, 
England, in April 1840, and came to 
Brisbane, Qd., in 1862. Settling at Towns- 
ville, he founded the mercantile firm of 
Aplin, Brown & Co., and subsequently 



IS 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[An 



went into " squatting." He was called to 
the Legislative Council in Oct. 1880. 

Areher, Alexander, son of William 
Archer, of Laurvig, Norway, by Julia, 
daughter of David Walker, was born in 
Norway in 1828. He was educated at 
Perth, Scotland; and left for Victoria 
in 1852, where he was appointed agent 
for the Bank of New South Wales at the 
"Ovens" goldfield (now Beech worth). 
He became manager at Eyneton, Victoria, 
in 1854, at Brisbane, Queensland, in 1864, 
and Inspector in 1867. In 1871 he mar- 
ried Mary Louisa, eldest daughter of Sir 
Robert Ramsay Mackenzie, of Coul, Ross- 
shire. 10th Bart., by Louisa Alexandrina, 
daughter of Richard Jones, of Sydnev, 
N.8.W. After thirty-six years' service in 
the Bank, he left for England by the 
R.M.S. Quetta, in Feb. 1890, accompanied 
by his wife, and on the 28th of the 
month both were lost in the wreck of that 
ship at the entrance to Torres Straits. 

Areher, Archibald, M.L.A., J.P., some- 
time Colonial Treasurer of Queensland, 
son of William Archer, of Laurvig, Norway, 
to which country he went with nis father 
when five years old, was born at Fife, 
in Scotland, on March 18th, 1820, and 
educated in Norway. After spending 
five years in an engineering establish- 
ment in Scotland, Mr. Archer emigrated 
to Australia, where he arrived in 1842, 
but only stayed five months, subse- 
quently spending thirteen years in the 
8outh Sea and Sandwich Islands. In the 
latter he was engaged on coffee and sugar 

?lantations. Returning to Queensland in 
860, he took up his residence at Grace- 
mere station, and in 1867 was returned to 
the Legislative Assembly for the Rock- 
hampton district, which he still repre- 
sents, though he has been out of Parlia- 
ment and has sat for other constituencies 
in the interim. Mr. Archer, who assisted 
in passing the Land Act of 1868, was 
Colonial Treasurer and Secretary for 
Public Instruction in the first Mcllwraith 
Government from Jan. 1882 to Nov. 1883. 
Mr. Archer has recently figured as a 
strong advocate of the subdivision of 
Queensland. In 1892 Mr. Archer visited 
England in company with Mr. John Fer- 
guson as a deputation on behalf of the 
Central Queensland Separation League, i 
Areher, Ber. Canen George Frederick, j 
M.A., won the Tasmanian scholarship in 
1867, and proceeded to Christ College, 



Cambridge, where he graduated B JL in 
1872 and M.A. in 1884. He was ordained 
deacon in 1872, and priest in 1878, being 
curate of Christ Church, Frome Selwood, 
from 1874 to 1876, when he was appointed 
rector of All Saints', Hobart Town, and 
canon of the cathedral. Canon Archer is 
a member of the Council of Education. 

Areher, Thomas, C.M.G.,J.P M ex- Agent- 
General for Queensland, son of William 
Archer by Julia, daughter of David 
Walker, of Perth, Scotland, was born at 
Glasgow on Feb. 27th, 1823. At the 
age of seventeen he emigrated to New 
South Wales, arriving in Sydney on Dec 
31st, 1837. He engaged in pastoral pur- 
suits, add, with two of his elder brothers, 
Messrs. John and David Archer, decided 
to try his fortunes in Queensland, then 
the Moreton Bay district of New South 
Wales. In August 1841 the three brothers 
started from Castlereagh River, N.8.W., 
with about five thousand sheep, passing 
near where now stands Goondiwindia, 
the line which sixteen years later became 
the boundary between New 8outh Wales 
and Queensland. They then crossed the 
Condamine about a dozen miles below 
Canning Downs, which had shortly be- 
fore been discovered and occupied by 
the brothers Patrick, Walter, and George 
Leslie, and where the flourishing town of 
Warwick was afterwards founded; tra- 
velled across Darling Downs, then with- 
out road or track, to Eton Vale, which 
had been lately occupied by Mr. (now 8ir 
Arthur) Hodgson. Continuing on their 
way, past where now stand Drayton and 
Toowoomba townships, they crossed the 
Main Range by " Hodgson's Gap," and 
turned northward, through unoccupied 
country, by Wingate's Lagoon and Mount 
Brisbane, soon after taken up by the 
brothers Frederick and Francis Biggs. 
Thence they pushed on to Durandur, on 
Stanley Creek, the eastern head of the 
Brisbane, near Glasshouse Mountains, a 
country that had been explored by David 
Archer. Here they remained some four or 
five years, and were soon joined by their 
eldest brother Charles. They afterwards 
explored and occupied two runs close 
under the Main Range, called Emu Creek 
and Cooyar, where they remained about 
four years. Hearing that Fitzroy Downs 
and Mount Abundance had been dis- 
covered by Sir Thomas Mitchell, Surveyor- 
General of New 8outh Wales, who came 



16 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Are] 

upon it from the south, Mr. Archer started 
in 1848 across the Main Range to Jimbour, 
then occupied by Sir Joshua Peter Bell. 
From Jimbour he set off, accompanied b y 
Mr. Arthur Chauvelle and a black boy, to 
find a way to Fitzroy Downs ; and altera 
fortnight's scrambling through scrubs and 
over mountains, one of which he named 
Mount Horrible, they emerged upon Fitz- 
roy Downs, and saw Mount Abundance 
in the distance, and then returned half- 
htarved to Darling Downs, having for a 
week existed on blackducks and tea. 
Fitzroy Downs being too distant to be 
taken up by small squatters, Mr. Archer 
set off on another exploration trip to the 
Upper Burnett River, where he cnscovered 
two runs, which were afterwards named 
Eidsvold and Coonambula. From here 
they opened a road to Wetherun Station, 
then held by Messrs. Humphries and 
Herbert, and were the first — or among 
the first — who took a load of wool to 
Maryborough, and shipped it, in that now 
flourishing port, for Sydney, in a forty- 
ton schooner. After about a year on the 
Burnett, Mr. Archer set off in 1849 for 
California ; and, after three years there, 
returned to England via Panama. He was 
absent from the colony about four years, 
and in 1853, shortly before he returned, 
his brothers Charles and William ex- 
plored what was afterwards Gracemere 
Station, and discovered and named the 
Fitzroy River. The portion of the Dee 
Range, from which they obtained their 
first view of Gracemere, was not far from 
the now world-renowned Mount Morgan, 
but no portion of it ever fell to their lot 1 
Gracemere was occupied and stocked hi 
1854-5. A sailing-boat, fflida, was built 
at Maryborough, and in her one of 
Mr. Archer's younger brothers, Colin, 
with one man, sailed with a cargo of 
supplies, via Gladstone and Keppel Bay, 
op the Fitzroy — then unsurveyed, and to 
white men unknown — the cargo being 
landed on a wharf made of slabs and 
saplings, on the spot where now stands 
the Government wharf at Rockhampton. 
Mr. Archer's brothers also gave Norwegian 
names — Berserker and Sleipner — to hills 
on the north side of the Fitzroy, Norway 
having been their home in their boyhood. 
About a year after Gracemere was occu- 
pied, Charles Archer, in company with Mr. 
Wiseman, police magistrate, after much 
exploration and discussion, fixed upon 



[Am 



the site for a township, Mr. Wiseman 
naming it Rockhampton, that name be- 
ing adopted on account of the rocky bar 
above the town, which blocks navigation 
for large vessels. Mr. Archer, having 
revisited England, returned to the Colony 
in 1871, remaining until 1878, when he 
finally took up his residence in England. 
He was appointed Acting Agent-General 
for Queensland in London in July 1881, 
and Agent-General in Nov. 1881. From 
this post he retired in May 1884, 
but was reappointed' on Sir Thomas 
Mcll wraith's return to power in June 1888, 
but again resigned on Dec. 10th, 1890. 
Mr. Archer was created C.M.G. in 1884. 
He was married in 1853, at Perth, N.B., 
to Grace Lindsay, daughter of James 
Morison, of Muirton, Perth. His eldest 
son, Mr. William Archer, is the well- 
known author and dramatic critic. 

Armytage, George, son of George Army- 
tage, who died in Australia in 1853, 
having emigrated at the age of eighty- 
seven, was born at Ticknall, Derbyshire, 
England, in 1795, and was educated at 
schools in Yorkshire. He subsequently 
studied engineering in London until his 
twentieth year, when, on Feb. 28th, 1815, 
he sailed for Australia in the ITebe, which 
reached Sydney in August. In the follow- 
ing year he landed in Tasmania, where 
he was allotted a few acres of land at 
Bagdad, which were increased to 500 acres 
in 1817. In 1826 he received a further 
grant of 1000 acres, built upon it the first 
watermill in Tasmania, and, in spite of 
troubles with blacks and bushrangers, 
became successful. In 1835 Port Phillip 
commenced to attract settlers; and in 1836 
his eldest son Thomas visited the district, 
and camped on the Werribee. In 1847 
Mr. Armytage proceeded to Victoria, and 
settled upon his son George Armytage's 
station at Ingleby, where his eldest son 
had died of typhus fever on Sept. 12th, 
1842. In 1851 he settled at Geelong, 
and built " The Hermitage." In 1818 he 
married Miss Elizabeth Peters. He died 
of erysipelas in 1862, his widow surviving 
him till 1873. 

Arney, Sir George Alfred, seventh 
son of William Arney, of The Close, 
Salisbury, by Maria Charlotte, daughter 
of Thomas Greene White, of Kew Green, 
Middlesex, was born in 1806, and edu- 
cated at Winchester and Brasenose 
College, Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1829 



17 



Am] 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



fAtk 



and M.A. in 1830. He was called to the 
bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1834, and was 
engaged upon the Western Circuit. In 
1833 he married Harriett, daughter of 
Captain Thomas Parr, R.N., who died 
without issue in 1844. In 1858 Mr. Arney 
went out to New Zealand, and was ap- 
pointed Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court, in which position he remained 
until 1875. From March 21st to June 14th, 
1873, Sir George Arney, who was knighted 
in 1862, administered the government 
of the colony between the departure of 
8ir George Bowen and the arrival of Sir 
James Fer^nsson. He was also a member 
of the Legislative Council for some years, 
and member of the Executive Council. 
He returned to England on his resigna- 
tion in 1876, and died April 7th, 1883. 

Arnold, Thomas, M.A., is the second 
son of the late Dr. Arnold, of Rugby, 
and was born at Laleham, Staines, on 
Nov. 30th, 1823. He was educated at 
Winchester, Rugby, and University Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he took his degree 
(first class in classics) in 1848. After 
serving for some time in the Colonial 
Office he emigrated in 1847 to New Zea- 
land, intending to settle there as a 
farmer. Not finding this employment 
congenial or profitable, he proceeded to 
Tasmania, where he'received the appoint- 
ment of Inspector of Schools. While in 
Tasmania he married Julia, daughter of 
William Sorell, Registrar of Deeds, and 
granddaughter of Colonel Sorell, some- 
time Governor of the island. In 1855 
Mr. Arnold, carried away even in the 
Antipodes by the "Oxford Movement," 
followed its leader into the Church of 
Rome. He relinquished his post and 
returned to England, when he received 
the appointment of Professor of English 
Literature in the now defunct Catholic 
University of Dublin, where he remained 
for six years, subsequently following the 
late Cardinal Newman to Edgbaston. 
He is author of numerous works, mostly 
on English literature. 

Arnold, Hon. William Mannings, M.L.A., 
second son of the Rev. Richard Arnold, 
was born at EUough, Suffolk, England, 
in 1820, and arrived in New South Wales 
in 1839, when he settled on the Paterson 
river. In 1866 he was elected to the 
Legislative Assembly for Durham and 
Paterson, and in 1858 was chosen Chair- 
man of Committees. From March 1860 



to Oct. 1863 he was Minister for Public 
Works in the Robertson and Cowper 
Ministries, and shared in the carrying 
of the Land Act of 1861. In the subse- 
quent Cowper Ministry he held the same 
post from Feb. to Oct. 1865, when he was 
for a few days Minister of Lands, and 
subsequently acted as Speaker of the 
Assembly from Nov. 1866 to March 1st, 
1875, when he was drowned In the flood* 
at Stradbroke, his estate on the Paterson 
river. 

Aipinall, Hon. Butler Cole, son of the 
Rev. James Aspinall, rector of Althorp, 
Lancashire, and brother of John Bridge 
Aspinall, Q.C., Recorder of Liverpool, and 
Attorney-General of the County Palatine 
of Durham, was called to the English bar 
in 1853. Having been a contributor to 
the Morning Chronicle and other London 
papers, when he was known to Mr. G. H. 
Lewes, Rossetti, and many other literary 
celebrities, he went to Victoria in 1854 
as law reporter to the Melbourne Argus. 
Subsequently he contributed to the 
Morning Herald, Age, and Melbourne 
Punch. He commenced to practise as a 
barrister on leaving the Argus, and gained 
a great reputation as an advocate by his 
defence of the Eureka rioters. In 1856 
he entered parliament as member of the 
Legislative Assembly for Talbot, estab- 
lished a reputation as a debater, and 
became still more widely celebrated in 
social circles as the recognised wit of the 
colony. He succeeded Mr. R. D. Ireland 
as Attorney-General in the Heales Ad- 
ministration in July 1861, and held office 
until November of that year. He became 
member for Portland, and was Solicitor- 
General in the Macpherson Ministry from 
Jan. to April 1870. In 1868 he went to 
Sydney and defended 0*Farrell, who was 
tried and executed for the attempted 
assassination of the Duke of Edinburgh. 
Mr. Aspinall resigned his seat in Parlia- 
ment in 1870, and the following year 
became insane. He died in England on 
April 4th, 1875. 

Atkins, Robert Travers, a well-known 
journalist and member of the Queensland 
Legislative Assembly, was born at Fern- 
hill, Cork, Ireland, on Nov. 29th, 1841, 
and died at Sandgate, Qd., on May 25th, 
1872. He was a relative of the late 
Thomas Davis, whose biography has re- 
cently been written by Sir Charles Gavan 
Duffy. He was buried at Sandgate, 



18 



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Atk] 



MCttOKARV OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Atk 



where a monument was erected to his them; financial difficulties embarrassed 



memory by the members of the Hibernian 
Society of Queensland, of which he was 
vice-president. 

Atkinson, Major Hon. Sir Harry Albert, 
K.C.M.G., M.L.C., President Legislative 
Council, New Zealand, is a native of 
England, and emigrated to New Zealand, 
where he landed in 1855 with his brother 
Decimus, and settled on some land in 
the Taranaki district, where he lived all 
through the Maori war. The energy of 
the young colonists in these parts soon 
took upon it the burden of the tedious 
war; and a band of volunteers was 
organised, with Mr. Atkinson as captain, 
which proved more effective in the issue 
than the trained regulars, whose freedom 
of action was hampered by military 
traditions. The first action in which 
Mr. Atkinson was engaged was at 
Waireka, on March 28th, 1860, where 
the Colonial troops greatlydistinguished 
themselves. Subsequently he took part 
in the capture of several pas at Kaihihi 
in Oct. 1860, in the battle of Mahoetahi 
on Not. 6th, and the battle of Matari- 
koriko in December. He was present at 
the capture of Kaitake on March 24th, 
1864, at Sentry Hill, at Ahu-Ahu, at 
Allen's Hill, at Manutahi, and at Matai- 
tawa. For these and other services he 
was advanced to the rank of major, and 
received the thanks of the Government. 
Previous to this he had been elected to 
the Parliament of 1863, and on Nov. 24th, 
1864, took office as Minister of Defence 
under 8ir Frederick Weld. This was a 
time of great difficulties, for the conduct 
of the war had forced upon the con- 
sideration of the Ministry the advisability 
of dispensing with the support of the 
Home Government. It was upon this 
point that Major Atkinson came first into 
notice as a politician, for his speech upon 
the second reading of the Militia Act 
Repeal Bill was the proclamation of a 
new era. The English forces were to be 
withdrawn, and henceforth the colony 
was to depend upon herself. This prin- 
ciple was accepted by both Houses, and 
it seemed at first as if the Weld Govern- 
ment, called to establish a new rSgime, 
would carry with it the sense of the 
country. But a series of misfortunes 
befell the Ministry. The removal of the 
seat of government from Auckland to 
Wellington leagued the north against 



19 



them; misunderstandings between the 
Governor and the Ministry were suc- 
ceeded by a quarrel between the Governor 
and Sir Duncan Cameron, the general in 
command of the English forces. In the 
end, despite some changes in the per- 
sonnel of the Government, Sir Frederick 
Weld resigned upon a virtual defeat in 
an attempt to carry stamp duties, and 
Sir Edward Stafford was called to power, 
on Oct 16th, 1865. The Stafford Ministry 
lasted, with some alterations, till June 
28th, 1869 ; and in 1867-8 Major Atkinson 
took an active part in the discussions 
which took place upon the war. From 
1869 to 1873 he was not in Parliament. In 
the latter year he was again returned to 
the General Assembly. In Oct. 1872 the 
third Stafford Administration, which 
lasted only for a month, was succeeded 
by a Ministry, with Mr. G. M. Waterhouse 
as Premier ; but this Cabinet was recon- 
structed twice, the first time under Sir 
William Fox, and the second under Sir 
Julius VogeL Under the latter Major 
Atkinson accepted the portfolios of Secre- 
tary for Crown Lands and Minister for 
Immigration on Sept. 7th and 10th, 
1874, respectively. On July 6th, 1875, 
a third reconstruction took place, and 
Dr. Pollen became Premier, Major Atkin- 
son taking from him the portfolio of 
Colonial Treasurer, which he added to 
his former offices. It was in 1875 that 
the very important Bill abolishing the 
provincial legislatures, which had been 
announced in the previous year by Sir 
Julius Vogel as the policy of the Govern- 
ment, was carried ; and it fell to the task 
of Major Atkinson, as leader of the Lower 
House, to move the second reading of the 
bill, which was carried by 52 votes to 17, 
and subsequently passed through the 
Upper House and became law. On Feb* 
15th, 1876, Sir Julius Vogel resumed his 
place as Premier and Colonial Treasurer ; 
and, in lieu of the latter office, allotted 
to his colleague the portfolio of Com- 
missioner of Customs ; and at the last 
rearrangement of this changeful Ministry, 
upon the departure of Sir Julius Vogel to 
assume the position of Agent-General in 
London, Major Atkinson took his place 
as Premier and Colonial Treasurer. But 
twelve day 8 later there was a readjustment 
of offices, and the Premier became also 
Secretary for Crown Lands and Minister 



An*] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Aye 



for Immigration once more. On Oct. 14th, 
1877, the Atkinson Ministry retired, and 
was succeeded b y the Grey Cabinet, which, 
however, was defeated on Oct. 8th, 1879, 
when Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Hall 
came into office, Major Atkinson becoming 
Colonial Treasurer. On April 21st, 1882, 
Sir John Hall retired from the Premier- 
ship owing to ill-health, and was suc- 
ceeded by Sir Frederick Whitaker, Major 
Atkinson continuing to hold the office 
of Colonial Treasurer, as well as those 
of Commissioner of Stamp Duties and 
Customs and Minister of Marine. On 
Sept. 25th, 1883, he became Premier ; but 
retired on Aug. 18th, 1884, when Sir Julius 
Vogel formed a Ministry. The Vogel 
Cabinet only lasted ten days, and on 
Aug. 28th Major Atkinson again came 
in ; but the party led by Sir George Grey 
once more overthrew the balance, and 
the Ministry resigned on Aug. 30th, 

fiving place to a combination of Sir 
alius vogel and Mr. (now Sir) Robert 
Stout. This lasted until Oct. 11th, 
1887, when Major Atkinson once more 
came into office as Premier and Colonial 
Treasurer. In 1890 Major Atkinson, 
who had been In exceedingly bad health, 
retired from active work, though still 
holding together his oolleaguesas nominal 
Premier. The result of the general election 
in December of that year being adverse, 
Sir Harry Atkinson, who was created 
K.C.M.G. in 1888, advised his own nomi- 
nation to the post of President of the 
Legislative Council in succession to the 
late Sir William Fitzherbert. His ac- 
ceptance of this position, broke up the 
Ministry, and made way for the accession 
to office of Mr. Ballance and his colleagues 
in Jan. 1891. Sir Harry Atkinson died 
on June 28th, 1892. 

Austin, Thomas, a weU-knownVictorian 
squatter, came out with his parents from 
Great Britain to Tasmania about the 
year 1835. The former, however, soon 
returned to the old country, leaving their 
family to test the advantages of colonial 
life. Mr. Thomas Austin, accompanied 
by his brother, James (now of Glaston- 
bury Abbey, Somerset), left Tasmania 
in 1839, for the then little known settle- 
ment of Port Phillip, taking with them 
a number of sheep which they ultimately 
depastured on country to the wes t ward 
of Geelong, on the east bank of the 
$arwon JBiver, near what is now the 



town of Winchelsea. To this property 
they gave the name of Barwon Park — a 
name now historic in the annals of stock 
raising and wool growing, Mr. Austin 
being the first to introduce Lincoln 
sheep into Australia, besides which he 
acclimatised various kinds of game on his 
extensive property, which still remains 
in the possession of the family. Mr. 
Austin married, on August 14th, 1845, 
Elizabeth Phillip Harding, daughter of 
Robert Harding, of Middle Chinnock, 
Somerset, and granddaughter of James 
Harding, of Hurly Grove, in that 
county, the munificent founder of the 
Hospital for Incurables at Heidelberg, 
near Melbourne, and a lady whose acts 
of charity have rendered her name a 
household word throughout the colony 
of Victoria. Mr. Thomas Austin died on 
Dec. 15th, 1871. 

Ayers, Hon. Sir Henry, K.C.M.G., 
M.L.C., son of Mr. Ayers of Portsmouth 
Dockyard, was born at Portsea, England, 
on May 1st, 1821, and emigrated to South 
Australia in 1840, where he engaged in 
legal pursuits until 1845, when' he took 
the management of the Burra Burn 
Mines, as Secretary to the Company 
formed to work them. In March 1*57 
he was elected a member of the Legisla- 
tive Council, and has ever since retained 
a seat in that body. He was a membei 
of the Dutton Ministry, without office 
for a few days in July 1863, and tb« 
formed an Administration, of which bt 
was Chief Secretary and Premier. Thv 
Government lasted till August 1864, Ui 
Ayers retaining the Chief Secretaryshi] 
under his two successors in the Premier 
ship, and in his own subsequent Admiaj 
stration till Oct. 1865. He was Prenus 
and Chief Secretary on four subsequent oe 
casions— vii^ from May 1867 to Sept. 1 864 
Oct. to Nov. 1868, Jan. to March 183 
and March 1872 to July 1873. Mr. Ayi 
was also Chief Secretary in the Coll 
Government from June 1876 to Oct. 18| 
In Feb. 1870 he was created C.M.G n a 
K.C.M.G. in Dec. 1872, owing to I 
fact of his being Premier of South Ai 
tralia at the tune when the overlsi 
telegraph Hne was opened for traffic J 
June 1881 Sir Henry was elected Prs 
dent of the Legislative Council, and h 
since been re-elected to the posit* 
which he still holds. 



20 



o 



Bm] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bad 



B 



Baekhouse, Jumi, son of James Back- 
house, of Darlington, Durham, England, 
and Mary his wife, daughter of N. 
Dear-man, of Pindar Oaks, Darfield, 
Yorkshire, was born at Darlington 
on July 8th, 1794. The Backhouse 
family were well known throughout 
the North of England as bankers, but 
James Backhouse was early attracted 
to the study of botany, and in 1815 he 
purchased the nursery grounds of Messrs. 
Telford at York, in which business he 
found an occupation oongenial to his 
tastes. He early became a minister of 
the Society of Friends, of which body 
his family were prominent members. 
In 1827 he married Deborah, daughter 
of Richard Lowe of Worcester. For 
some years he was impressed with the 
belief that it was his duty to visit the 
Australian colonies, and eventually, in the 
year 1880, he determined to leave his 
business for that purpose, and he was 
accredited by the Society of Friends on a 
religions mission to the M Colonies and 
Settlements of New Holland, Van Die- 
men's Land, and South Africa." Mr. Back- 
house was accompanied by Mr. George W. 
Walker (q. v.) The two friends arrived 
in Hobart in February 1832, and began the 
work which was to oocupy them more 
than eight years. They spent three 
years in Van Diemen's Lancrand two 
years in New South Wales, travelling in 
all places where settlers were to be found, 
and systematically visiting every chain- 
gang and convict station, including the 
penal settlements of Macquarie Harbour, 
Norfolk Island, and Moreton Bay (now 
Brisbane). The Governors of the Colonies 
offered them every facility and en- 
couragement in their benevolent efforts 
for the welfare of the prisoners, and their 
reports had no small influence in pro- 
moting reforms of the penal/system, and 
in bettering the condition of the convicts. 
Leaving Hobart on their way to the Cape, 
they visited (1837) Melbourne, Adelaide, 
King George's Sound, and Swan River, — 
settlements then in their infancy. After 
a few months' stay at Mauritius, they 
reached Cape Town in 183a They spent 
nearly two years in Cape Colony, travel- 
ling m their ox-wagon to the most remote 
parts, visiting mission stations, and 



specially devoting their efforts to benefit- 
ing the coloured people and the poorest 
classes of the population. Mr. Back- 
house returned to England in 1841, and 
published an account of his travels in 
two works of much interest — " Narrative 
of a Visit to the Australian Colonies" 
(London, 1843) ; and " Narrative of a Visit 
to the Mauritius and South Africa" 
(London, 1844). These volumes contain 
a mass of interesting information con- 
cerning the condition of the Colonies, and 
are full of valuable observations with 
regard to the natural history, and especi- 
ally the flora of Tasmania and Australia, 
Mr. Backhouse being an enthusiastic and 
accomplished botanist. From the date 
of his return to England in 1841, to his 
death, Mr. Backhouse devoted his atten- 
tion to business at the well-known Nursery 
Gardens at York, and introduced many 
new ferns and other plants into English 
gardens. Besides the works above men- 
tioned, he was joint author of " The life 
and Labours of George W. Walker " 
(London, 1862). He died at York on Jan. 
20th, 1869. 

Badgtry, Henry Septimus, was born 
at Sutton Forest, N.S.W., on Dec. 
9th, 1840, and married, in 1869, Julia, 
daughter of G. M. Pitt, of Sydney. He 
was for some lime member for East Mait- 
land in the Legislative Assembly of New 
South Wales, and was afterwards twice 
elected for Monaro. Having joined the 
Dibbs Ministry as Secretary for Public 
Works, on Oct. 7th, 1886, he was de- 
feated at Camden, and resigned office on 
the 31st of the same month. 

Bad asm, Bar. Charles, D.D., the son of 
Charles Badham, M.A., F.R.C.8., F.B.S., 
Begins Professor of Physics in Glasgow 
University, by his marriage with Mar- 
garet, daughter of John Campbell, a 
cousin of Thomas Campbell the poet, 
was born at Ludlow, in Shropshire, on 
July 18th, 1813, and educated under the 
celebrated Pestalozzi, and afterwards at 
Eton. He matriculated at Wadham 
College, Oxford, in 1831, and graduated 
B.A. in 1837, taking his M.A. degree in 
1839. After spending seven years in 
Germany and Italy, he was incorporated 
M.A. of 8t Peter's College, Cambridge, 
ordained deacon in 1847, priest in 

21 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bak 



1848; appointed Head Master of King 
Edward's School, Southampton, in 1861, 
D.D. of Cambridge in 1862, Head Master 
of the Birmingham and Edgbaston Pro- 
prietary School in 1864; received from 
the University of Leyden the degree of 
Doctor Literarum Honoris Causa in 1860; 
was appointed Examiner in Classics to 
the University of London in 1863, and 
in 1867 First Professor of Classics and 
Logic in the University of Sydney. Dr t 
Badham was one of the greatest Greek 
scholars of his time, and had a wide 
acquaintance with modern languages; 
but he failed, from faults of temper and 
lack of method, from gaining the recog- 
nition in England to which his talents 
would have otherwise entitled him. He 
is said to have known all Greek poetry 
by heart, and is famed for his scholarly 
editions of several Greek dramas, and 
of the "Philibus," the " Euthydemus," 
and "Laches" of Plato. He died in 
Sydney on Feb. 26th, 1884. 

Bagtf, Captain Charles Hervey, was 
born in Ireland, and entering the army, 
reached the rank of captain, serving with 
distinction in the East. He emigrated to 
South Australia during Colonel Gawler's 
term of office, and engaged in pastoral 
pursuits at Eapunda. He was a member 
of the first entirely nominee Legislative 
Council, was member for Light in the 
mixed Council which replaced it, and also 
sat in the present Upper House under 
responsible government. In the first- 
named he distinguished himself by his 
opposition to Colonel Robe's proposals 
for endowing the religious bodies and 
imposing a royalty on minerals. He is 
mainly known as one of the discoverers 
and original owners of the Kapunda 
Copper Mines. He was also the founder 
of the town of Eapunda. He died in 
Adelaide on July 28th, 1880, at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-two. 

Bagot, John Tuthill, second son of 
Charles Bagot, of Eilcoursie House, King's 
County, by Anna, eldest daughter of 
John Tuthill, of Kingsland, co. Limerick, 
was born in 1819, and admitted to the 
Irish bar. He married in 1848 Eliza, 
daughter of John Meyler. He emigrated 
to South Australia, and was elected to 
the semi-elective Legislative Council of 
1856-6, for the district of Light. From 
1857 to 1864 he represented that dis- 



Sept. 26th, 1866, Mr. Bagot was elected 
to the new Legislative Council, and con- 
tinued to hold the seat until June 16th, 
1870, when he resigned. Mr. Bagot was 
Solicitor-General in Mr. Baker's Ministry 
from August 21st to Sept. 1st, 1857; 
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Im- 
migration in Mr. Reynolds' Ministry from 
May 9th, 1860, to May 20th, 1861 ; At- 
torney-General in Mr. Hart's Ministry 
from Sept. 24th to Oct. 13th, 1868 ; and 
Chief Secretary in Mr. Strangways' 
Government from Nov. 3rd, 1868, to Hay 
12th, 1870. Mr. Bagot died on August 
13th, 1870. 

Bailey, Frederick Manton, F.L.S n Colo- 
nial Botanist, Queensland, second son 
of the late John Bailey, first Colonial 
Botanist of South Australia, was born in 
London ; emigrated to South Australia in 
1839, arrived in Queensland in 1861, and 
was appointed to his present position of 
Colonial Botanist in 1881. He is the 
author of " Handbook to the Queensland 
Ferns,'' "The Fern World of Australia," 
" A Synopsis of the Queensland Flora," 
and several catalogues and papers upon 
the plants, ferns, and woods of the 
colony. In 1889, in connection with Mr. 
P. B. Gordon, Chief Inspector of Stock, 
Mr. Bailey published an illustrated work, 
" Plants reported Poisonous and Injurious 
to Stock," a work of value to pastoralists. 

Baillie, Sir George, Bart., eldest son of 
the late Thomas Baillie, of Toorak, Mel- 
bourne, fourth son of Sir William Baillie, 
1st Bart., of Polkemmet, Linlithgow- 
shire, by his marriage with Elizabeth, 
daughter of Captain James Ballingall, 
K.N., of Melbourne, was born in Victoria 
on Oct. 20th, 1856. Sir Georee Baillie, 
who was educated at the Sootch College, 
Melbourne, and at Cains College, Cam- 
bridge (B.A. 1881), succeeded his uncle, 
Sir William Baillie, in 1890, the latter 
dying without issue. Like his father, Sir 
George is largely interested in squatting 
pursuits in Australia. 

Baker, Hon. Esekiel Alexander, was 
born in Middlesex, England, in 1823, and 
emigrated to New South Wales in 1853 
as mineralogist to a mining company. 
In 1870 he was elected to the Legislative 
Assembly for the Southern Goldfields, 
and was also a member of the Gold- 
fields Committee. When Mr. Garrett, 
the Minister of Lands in the Robertson 



trict in the Legislative Assembly. On | Ministry, resigned his office, in Feb, 



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1877, Mr. Baker was appointed to snoceed 
him, bat the Government only held office 
till March. He was appointed Secretary 
for Mines in the next Robertson Admini- 
stration, in August of the same year, 
exchanging that post for the portfolio 
of Lands in November, and going out 
of office with his oolleagues in December. 
Mr. Baker was again Minister of Mines 
in the Parkes Government from Dec. 1878 
to August 1881, when he was expelled 
from the Assembly on a charge of corrupt 
conduct. 

Baker, Hon. John, M.L.C., J. P., 
F.R.G.S., sometime Premier of South 
Australia, was the eldest son of Richard 
Chafiey Baker, of Lopen, Somersetshire, 
and Mary, his wife, daughter of John 
Anstioe, of South Petherton, Somerset- 
shire. He was born at Ilminster, Somerset, 
England, in Dec 1812. He emigrated to 
Tasmania in early life, and married on 
June 7th, 1838, Isabella, second daughter 
of George Allan, of Allan Vale, Tasmania. 
In the same year he visited South Aus- 
tralia, where he permanently settled about 
a year later. Soon after his arrival he 
concluded an arrangement with the South 
Australian Company for the importation 
of ten thousand sheep from Tasmania; 
and from this time entered largely into 
pastoral pursuits, and was very suc- 
cessful. Mr. Baker was also concerned 
in forming a company to import draught 
horses from England, and bred and 
trained many successful performers on 
the turf. He was a director of the Bank 
of Australasia and of the 8outh Aus- 
tralian Mining Association, and was the 
first chairman of the Chamber of Com- 
merce on its establishment in 1860. He 
was also a lieut-colonel in the South 
Australian Infantry force, and repre- 
sented Mount Barker in the mixed Legis- 
lative Council from 1861 to 1866. Whilst 
a member of this body he opposed the 
abolition of State aid to religion, and 
rapported the proposal for a nominee 
Upper House— in each case unsuccess- 
fully. When responsible government was 
inaugurated, in 1867, he was elected to the 
new Legislative Council, and retained his 
seat till his death. He was Premier and 
Chief Secretary for eleven days — vis., from 
August 21st to Sept. 1st, 1867. The next 
year he was commissioned by his fellow- 
colonists to present an address to Her 
Majesty the Queen on the occasion of the 

*3 



marriage of the Princess Royal, and this 
he did at a levfo at St. James's Palace 
in March 1869. Shortly afterwards he 
returned to South Australia, and died at 
Morialta on May 19th, 1872. 

Baker, Hon. Biohard Chaffcy, C.M.O., 
M.L.C., M.A., eldest son of the late John 
Baker, of Morialta, South Australia, and 
Isabella (Allan) his wife, was born at 
North Adelaide in 1841, and educated at 
Eton, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated B.A. (Mathematical 
Tripos) in 1864, and M.A. in 1870. Mr. 
Baker, who is a member of the legal firm 
of Baker k Barlow, of Adelaide, became a 
student at Lincoln's Inn in Jan. 1861, 
and was called to the bar in June 1864. 
He entered the Legislative Assembly of 
South Australia as member for Baroesa 
in 1868, and represented that con- 
stituency till 1871. He was Attorney- 
General in the Ministry of the late 
Captain Hart from May 1870 to July 
1871, when he resigned. He also held 
office in Mr. Colton's Cabinet as Minister 
of Justice and Education from June 1884 
to June 1886. In the latter year Mr. 
Baker was sent to England as the repre- 
sentative of the Australian colonies to 
negotiate with the Imperial Government, 
in connection with the renewal of the 
expiring mail contracts. He succeeded 
in obtaining some important concessions, 
and was created C.M.G. in 1886, in recog- 
nition of his services. Mr. Baker, who 
has been a member of the Legislative 
Council since 1877, was elected to act 
as one of the representatives of 8outh 
Australia at the Federation Convention 
in Sydney in March 1891, and distin- 
guished himself by his championship of 
the state rights of the smaller colonies. 
He was married at Glenelg, S.A., to 
Katherine Edith, daughter of Richard 
Bowen Colley. 

Baker, Boy. 'Shirley W., late Premier 
of Tonga, was sent to Tonga in the year 
1860 by the Australian Wesleyan Con- 
ference, and remained a missionary for 
about twenty years, being head of the 
mission for the latter half of that period, 
a position which he resigned to become 
adviser to King George of Tonga and 
Premier of the Tongan Government. 
During his residence m the islands he 
did much to obtain liberty for the people, 
who previously had been simply serfs of 
the chiefs. Mr. Baker had also fore- 
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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



stalled thedoctrine of Henry George many 
yean before "Progress and Poverty" was 
written, by nationalising the lands of 
Tonga and enabling each taxpayer to 
claim land sufficient to assist him in 
paying his taxes and providing for his 
family. He also gave the Tongans their 
flag, and secured for them in 1875 a 
constitution which is still the law of the 
land, also a judiciary system embracing 
polioe oourts and a police force. He 
compiled a code of laws, and had roads 
made through all the islands. Instead 
of the meeting of chiefs to manage the 
affairs of the kingdom, he gave them a 
Legislative Assembly, consisting of an 
equal number of hereditary chiefs and 
representatives of the people elected by 
ballot, each taxpayer aWe to read and 
write having a vote. He also made 
education free and compulsory. The 
public buildings which were put up under 
his supervision were highly creditable, 
and the King's private church is reckoned 
one of the finest pieces of architecture 
in the South Seas. He also succeeded in 
getting Tonga acknowledged as an inde- 
pendent kingdom by England, Germany, 
and America. During the latter part of 
Mr. Baker's administration as Premier 
of Tonga, trouble arose between the 
Government and the Wesleyan Church, 
owing chiefly to the fact that the absorp- 
tion of money for the purposes of govern- 
ing the islands caused a great falling off 
in the annual collections among the 
islands for Foreign Missions. After in- 
effectual attempts to induoe the Austral- 
asian Wesleyan Conference tooonfer local 
government upon the Tongan Church, 
Mr. Baker established an independent 
Methodist body under the title of the 
"Free Church of Tonga," which drew 
away the majority of natives from the 
orthodox Wesleyan Church. In these 
islands religion enters into every relation 
of life, and the rivalries, political and 
religious, grew so intense that a dis- 
contented faction made an attempt to 
assassinate Mr. Baker whilst he was out 
driving. His son and daughter, who 
occupied seats in the buggy with him, 
were severely wounded, but Mr. Baker 
escaped. The offenders were brought 
to trial, some of them executed, and a 
considerable number banished for treason 
against the Government. About this 
time the administration of Tonga, Samoa, 



[Bri 

and other Pacific islands became a subject 
of secret international agreements, and 
through influences exercised in England 
Sir John Thurston visited Tonga in a 
man-of-war in 1890 and forcibly de- 
ported Mr. Baker to Fiji, issuing an 
order against his return to Tonga for a 
period of two years. A purely native 
Government, assisted by two European 
officials in non-political matters, has sinoe 
ruled the islands. Mr. Baker removed to 
Auckland, N.Z., where he now resides. 

Balfe, John DoneUan, son of James 
Balfe and Sara Sutherland his wife, 
daughter of the last Lord Duffus, was 
born at Sallybrook, Drumcondra, Ireland, 
in the year 1816. He was educated at 
Clongoeswood College, near Dublin, con- 
ducted by Jesuits, where he received a 
good classical education. After leaving: 
college he joined the Life Guards, and 
was stationed at Windsor for two years. 
He was one of those detailed to escort 
the Queen on her marriage from Windsor 
Castle to Buckingham Palace. Mr. Balfe 
took an active part in the political affairs 
of Ireland, and became a prominent 
member of the Repeal Association under 
O'Connell. He was one of the declaimers 
at Conciliation Hall, and warmly ad- 
vocated the redress of Irish grievances. 
He was also identified with the Irish 
confederation, but withdrew from the 
party on finding their schemes were wild 
and visionary, and could not be attained 
without a general rising of the peasantry. 
He was author of a number of letters on 
the Landlord and Tenant question pub- 
lished in the Dublin Evening Post and 
signed " An Irish Farmer," and also con- 
tributed to a Liverpool journal under the 
name of "Peter Carroll, Stonemason.** 
In 1850 he married Mary, daughter of 
Terence O'Reilly of Ballybeg, and shortly 
afterwards emigrated to Tasmania. Mr. 
Balfe brought letters of introduction 
from the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to 
Governor Denison, and shortly after his 
arrival was appointed Assistant Comp- 
troller General of Convicts. After three 
years he resigned his office, and went to 
reside on his location at Lisadem, near 
Port Cygnet, Huon River. He brought 
himself into notice as the writer of 
letters signed "Bill Shingle," which 
called attention to the wants of the Hnon 
district, and also as the author of a series 
of letters signed "Dion," in opposition 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Id 



to the aims of the Anti-Transportation 
League. On the introduction of re- 
sponsible government in 1856, he was 
elected a member of the House of 
Assembly for the Franklin district. He 
retained his seat in the Assembly, with 
the exception of one session, until 
his death, a period of twentyvfour 
yean, representing successively Franklin, 
South Launceston, and West Hobart. 
Mr. Balfe's speeches were marked by 
considerable power of humorous satire, 
and his ability and force as a debater 
made him for many years a prominent 
figure in Tasmanian politics. He was at 
various periods editor of several Tas- 
manian newspapers. He died at Hobart 
on December 13th, 1880. An account of 
his trial for assaulting Mr. T. G. Gregson 
was published in Tasmania in 1863. 

Baiftrar, Hon. James, M.L.C., son of 
John Balfour, a merchant of Leith, 
was born in 1830 in Edinburgh, and 
educated at the Edinburgh Academy 
and the University. After some com- 
mercial experience in London, from 1849 
to 1862, he went to Melbourne as the 
representative of Messrs. Matheson, of 
Lombard Street, to the firm of James 
Henty & Co. In 1854 he opened a branch 
house of the latter firm at Geelong. He 
visited England in 1857-8, resigned his 
position in Geelong in 1863, and in 1866 
entered the Assembly as member for East 
Bourke. He was for three years one of 
the Commissioners of Education prior to 
the organisation of the department under 
a responsible minister. In 1868 he made 
another visit to England, prior to which 
he resigned his seat in the Assembly, and 
returned to Australia and entered the 
Legislative Council in 1874, being re- 
elected for the south-eastern province 
on Aug. 17th, 1880. He made another 
trip home in 1878, and on his return 
established the firm of Balfour, Elliott, 
& Co., which was made into a limited 
company in 1887. Mr. Balfour is an old 
member of the Melbourne Chamber of 
Commerce, of which he has been President 
and Vice-President. He acted on the 
Irrigation and Water Supply, and on the 
Banking Laws Commissions ; is Chairman 
of the Australian Deposit and Mortgage 
Bank, Limited, and of the Equitable 
Assurance Company of the United States, 
and VIce-Chairman of the Trustees, Ex- 
ecutors, and Agency Company, Limited, 



and is a member of the Council of Ormond 
College. In 1859 he married Frances 
Charlotte, eldest daughter of the late 
Hon. James Henty, M.L.C. Mr. Balfour 
was a member of the Gillies Government 
without portfolio from May 1890 till its 
resignation in November of that year. 

BaUanoe, Hon. John, M.H JL, Premier of 
New Zealand, was born at Glenavy, in the 
county of Antrim, Ireland, on March 27th, 
1839, his father, Samuel Ballance, being a 
tenant farmer on Lord Hertford's estate. 
He received his preliminary education at 
the National School, but at the age of 
fourteen left his father's farm to be 
apprenticed to an ironmonger. This line 
of life took him later on to Birmingham, 
where he remained eight years, profiting 
in every way by the intellectual pro- 
gressive life of the great manufacturing 
centre. While following his business he 
found time to attend the evening classes 
in the Midland Institute for the purpose 
of completing his education. Earnestly 
bent on self-culture, he took part in de- 
bating societies, and contributed largely 
to the press. At the age of twenty-seven 
he determined to emigrate, and, sailing 
for New Zealand, arrived at Wellington in 
August 1866. He at once proceeded to 
Wanganui with the intention of engaging 
in sheep-farming, an occupation which he 
had been led to believe was an easy way 
of making money without much capital. 
On this point he was soon undeceived, 
and he then opened a jeweller's shop of 
the better class, but losing money in this 
enterprise, he promptly abandoned it and 
started a newspaper under the name of 
the Wanganui Herald, Of this paper 
Mr. Ballance was both proprietor and 
editor, and up to the present time he has 
continued to be its guiding spirit. As is 
usual with newly established newspapers 
in young communities, the Wanganui 
Herald had many initial difficulties to 
overcome; but in the end its founder's 
energies were rewarded, and his " daily " 
became recognised throughout the colony 
as one of the best organs of public 
opinion. Mr. Ballance had soon achieved 
a reputation as an able and incisive 
writer; but it was not till he had 
surprised a Wanganui meeting by an 
unlooked-for speech that his qualities as 
a public speaker became appreciated. He 
contested the Egmont seat in 1873, in 
the interests of the Stafford Ministry, his 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[* 



opponents being the late W. S. Moorhouse 
and Sir Harry Atkinson* Although con- 
sidered by his friends practically safe, he 
retired in favour of the latter candidate 
on his pledging himself to support Sir 
Edward Stafford. He was elected for 
Wanganui in 1875 on the Abolition (of 
provinces) ticket, having taken for many 
vears a prominent part in local politics 
in opposition to the provincial system, 
then m existence. He marked his first 
session by introducing a bill to enable 
municipalities to raise loans by vote of 
the ratepayers on security of a special 
rate without the necessity of permissory 
legislation in each case. This important 
measure passed the House, but was 
rejected in the Council by a narrow 
majority ; and in the following session it 
was embodied in the Municipal Corpora- 
tions Bill by Sir Julius Vogel, who freely 
acknowledged his indebtedness to the 
author of the scheme. The measure 
finally became law, and was found to 
work admirably. In the session of 1877 
Mr. Ballanoe moved an amendment to the 
Native Land Court Bill, against free 
trade in native lands, and the bill was 
ultimately withdrawn by the Government. 
Throughout that session he supported 
the newly formed Grey Ministry, refusing, 
however, to accept a portfolio whilst the 
Cabinet was being formed. Shortly after 
the termination of the session, the Ministry 
again pressing office upon him, and Sir 
George Grey himself soliciting his assist- 
ance, Mr. Ballanoe accepted the post of 
Minister of Education in Jan. 1878, 
which he exchanged for that of Colonial 
Treasurer in July of the same year; 
but in June 1879 he resigned rather 
than comply with what he regarded as 
the arbitrary methods of the Premier. 
At the general election in the same year 
he stood for Wanganui, and defeated 
Sir William Fox, Messrs. Ballanoe and 
Bryce, the late leader of the Opposition, 
being the two successful candidates. 
During the successive sessions of 1879, 
1880, and 1881 he took a very active 
part in opposition to the Hall and 
Whitaker Ministries. At the general 
election in Dec. 1881 he stood for 
Wanganui, and was defeated by W. H. 
Watt, but by a majority of only four. At 
the general election of 1884 he was 
elected by a majority of two to one over 
Messrs, Watt and George Hutchinson, 



«6 



and at the general election of 1887 by i 
similar majority over Mr. G. Carson. H 
was returned again for Wanganui at tb 
general election of 1890, but by a great* 
reduced majority. In Sept. 1884 Mi 
Ballanoe joined the Stout- Vogel adml 
nistration as Native Minister and Minists 
for Defence and Lands, and retained offio 
till the retirement of that Ministry h 
Oct. 1887. In the following year he wa 
formally chosen as leader of tb 
Opposition ; and he became Premiei 
Colonial Treasurer, and Commissioner o 
Customs on the resignation of Sir Harr 
Atkinson's Government in Jan. 1891 
Outside of politics Mr. Ballance has don 
the colony good service. In 1868, whe 
the Maori insurgents under Titokowar 
were ravaging the district, Mr. Ballano 
helped to raise the Wanganui Cavalr] 
and took his place in the ranks, but wa 
immediately elected Cornet of the oorp 
which afterwards did good service in th| 
field. He was, however, removed fros 
his military position for having contri 
buted to his paper some criticisms cm 
the campaign which gave umbrage to thi 
Government. Mr. Ballance was the autho 
of the scheme for returning to the Iocs 
bodies one-third of the land revenuj 
derived from deferred payments, havini 
introduced it into the Land Bill of 1871 
when it was before the Waste Land 
Committee ; and the principle has sine 
been extended to the perpetual leas 
system. Soon after first taking offic* 
in 1878, he announced that the Govern 
ment would introduce a measure confei 
ring the residential franchise, virtually 
manhood suffrage, this being the fira 
announcement of the kind ever mad 
in any of the colonies. As Colonic 
Treasurer in 1878 he introduced a law 
tax, and carried it into law. It was, how 
ever, repealed by the Atkinson Ministr 
in the following year. In the Stout 
Vogel Ministry Mr. Ballance introduce* 
and put in practice the village home 
stead system, under which a thousand 
families were placed on the land ii 
eighteen months. He also inaugurate* 
the policy by which a large military foro 
to overawe the natives was got rid of, an< 
the Maori people brought under th< 
ordinary civil law, a policy which prove* 
completely successful. As Defend 
Minister he fortified the principal porta 
and organised a colonial military forci 



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Down as the Permanent Militia. As 
fative Minister he succeeded in bringing 
bout a better understanding between 
he two races than had existed for years, 
specially in the so-called "King 
Country." In the second session of 1891, 
aving formed a strong Government, he 
Qtrodnoed and carried the various policy 
Wis, the principles of which the country 
tad affirmed at the previous general 
Section. He is a strong advocate of a 
doeer alliance with the mother country, 
lolding that there is already a system 
if imperial federation which may be 
leveloped — that an Imperial Council of 
kdvice in London should be the nucleus 
tf an Imperial Parliament — and that the 
olony should share in proportion to 
population and wealth in the defence of 
the empire. He is opposed to New 
Zealand being part of an Australasian 
Federation on the broad ground that the 
conditions are dissimilar, and that auto- 
lomy would ultimately be destroyed. In 
May 1870 Mr. Ballance married Ellen, 
laughter of the late David Anderson, of 
Wellington. 

Bancroft, Joseph, M.D., M.B.C.S., L.8.A., 
President of the Medical Board, Queens* 
land, was admitted M.D. of St. Andrews 
University, M.R.C.S. England, and L.8.A. 
London in 1869. He practises in Brisbane, 
and is president of the Medical Board and 
a member of the Central Board of Health. 
He has been a trustee of the Queensland 
Museum since 1876. 

Barker, Bight Eev. Frederic, D.D., 
second Bishop of Sydney, was the son 
of the late Rev. John Barker, Incumbent 
of Baslow, in Derbyshire. He was born 
in 1808, and educated at Grantham School 
and Jesus College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1829. He was ordained 
in 1831, and was subsequently incumbent 
of Upton, in Cheshire, Edgehill, near 
Liverpool, and of his native parish of 
Baslow. Afterthe death of Dr.Broughton, 
the first Bishop of Sydney, he was selected 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury to 
succeed him in his episcopate, and as 
Metropolitan of the Province of Australia. 
His consecration took place in Nov. 1854, 
and he arrived in Sydney in May 1855. 
For some time previously the project of 
introducing Synodical Church Govern- 
ment had been before the Church, and 
after the passing of the Grants for Public 
Worship Prohibition Act, the organisa- 



tion so much desired by the clergy and 
laity was at length established, the 
first synod of the diocese of Sydney 
assembling on Dec 5th, 1866, and 
Bishop Barker, by the constitutions of 
the Church, becoming its President. The 
diocese of Sydney made great progress 
under his care, and he thrice visited 
England in the promotion of its interests. 
When State aid was abolished statutory 
provision was made for the retention of 
Bishop Barker's stipend of £2,000 per 
annum. Under his primacy no less than 
seven new sees were established in Aus- 
tralia, viz., Perth [Western Australia] in 
1856; Brisbane [Queensland] in 1859; 
Goulburn [New South Wales] in 1863; 
Grafton and Armidale [New South Wales] 
in 1866 ; Bathurst [New South Wales] in 
1869; Ballarat [Victoria] in 1875; and 
North Queensland in 1878. His first wife 
died in Sydney in 1876, and he married, 
secondly, Mary Jane, elder daughter of 
Edward Woods of London, and having 
had a paralytic seizure, he paid a fourth 
visit to Europe in 1881 to recuperate his 
health, but died after an illness of four 
weeks at San Remo on April 6tb, 1882. 
He was buried at Baslow. 

Barker, John, sometime Clerk of the 
Parliaments, Victoria, is the eldest son 
of the late John Barker and Mary Anne, 
his wife, and was born at Aylesbury, 
Buckinghamshire. He emigrated to Port 
Phillip (now Victoria) in 1840, after 
entering himself for the bar at Lincoln's 
Inn, and engaged in pastoral pursuits 
with his brother Edward, afterwards a 
well-known physician in Melbourne. Re- 
visiting England, he was called to 
the bar in 1843; and in 1844 married 
Susanna, daughter of Richard Hodgkin- 
son, of Morton Grange, Nottingham. He 
returned to Port Phillip in Nov. 1844, 
accompanied by his brother William (who 
subsequently practised as a surgeon at 
Emerald Hill, Melbourne). In the next 
year he was appointed a magistrate, and 
in August 1849 was one of the Commis- 
sioners under the Disputed Boundaries 
Act, having the Hamilton district as- 
signed to him. Mr. Barker, who was 
admitted to the Victorian bar in Nov. 
1851, was in October of that year, on the 
separation of Port Phillip from New South 
Wales and its formation into the colony 
of Victoria, appointed Clerk of the Legis- 
lative Council then constituted, and sue* 

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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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cessfully performed the difficult task of 
inaugurating its procedure. When re- 
sponsible government came into operation 
in 1856, Mr. Barker was offered the choice 
of the clerkship of the new Upper or 
Lower Chamber. He accepted the latter, 
and remained Clerk of the Assembly 
until April 1882, when he was appointed 
Clerk of the Legislative Council and 
Clerk of Parliaments, a post which he 
resigned in 1891. He died on Nov. 15th 
of that year. 

BarUy, Sir Henry, E.C.B., G.C.M.G., 
sometime Governor of Victoria, is of Scot- 
tish extraction, being the only son of the 
late JEneas Barkly, of Monteagle, Boss- 
shire, an eminent West India merchant 
in London, where his son was born in 
1815. He was educated at Bruce Castle 
School, Tottenham, and went into busi- 
ness. From April 1845 to Feb. 1849 he 
was M.P. for Leominster, as a supporter 
of Sir Robert Peel. In Dec. 1848 he was 
appointed Governor and commander-in- 
chief of British Guiana (where be owned 
estates), and where as Governor he advo- 
cated the introduction of coolies and 
Chinese as labourers. He was Governor 
of Jamaica from 1853 to 1856, being 
created E.C.B. in the former year. In 
Dec. 1856 he was appointed Governor of 
Victoria in succession to Sir Charles 
Hotham, and held that position till Sept. 
1863. During his government of Victoria 
constitutional questions of some delicacy 
cropped up in connection with the initia- 
tory stages of responsible government 
in that colony, but on the whole his 
rtgime was popular and respected. His 
first wife, who was the daughter of 
J. F. Timins, of Hatfield House, died in 
1857, a few months after his arrival in 
Victoria, where in 1860 he married the 
only daughter of Sir Thomas Simson 
Pratt, E.C.B. In 1863 he was appointed 
Governor of Mauritius, and was Gover- 
nor and High Commissioner at the Cape 
from 1870 to 1876. Meanwhile he was 
created G.C.M.G. in 1874. Sir Henry 
Barkly is in the enjoyment of a pension, 
and resides in London. 

Barlet, Sir FrederickPalgrave.K.C.M.G., 
F.B.G.S., was born in 1827, and served 
in the Ordnance Department from 1844 to 
1855, when he retired, and was appointed 
Colonial Secretary for Western Australia, 
with a seat in the Executive and Legis- 
lative Councils. He resigned this post 



in 1875, and was Lieut-Governor of 
British Honduras from 1877 till 1882. 
Sir Frederick, who was created C.M.G. 
in 1877, and K.C.M.G. on his retirement 
from the Colonial service, married in 
1851, Jane, daughter of Edward John 
Oseland, of Coleraine, Ireland, who sur- 
vived him. He died on August 8th, 1884. 

Barling, Joseph, is a native of England, 
and was educated at Poole, Dorsetshire. 
He emigrated to Australia, and entered 
the New South Wales public service as a 
clerk in the Railway Department in July 
1860, and subsequently held the appoint- 
ments of chief clerk and accountant in 
the Harbours and Rivers Department, 
acting accountant in the Railway De- 
partment, and chief clerk in the Public 
Works Department. In 1888 he was 
promoted to his present position as 
Under Secretary for Public Works. 

Barlow, Bight Bar. Christopher George, 
Bishop of North Queensland, was or- 
dained deacon by the ex-Bishop of North 
Queensland in 1881 and priest in 1882. 
He was curate of Mackav, Queensland, 
from 1881 to 1882, of St. Paul's, Charters 
Towers, from 1882 to 1884, and incumbent 
of the latter from 1884 to 1885, when he 
undertook duty as missionary chaplain 
until 1886, when he was appointed vicar 
of St. James's, Townsville. In 1891 he 
was appointed Bishop of North Queens- 
land in succession to Bishop Stanton, who 
had accepted the bishopric of Newcastle, 
N.8.W., in the previous year. 

Barrow, John Henry, M.P., was born 
in England in 1817, and was for a number 
of years on the literary staff of the 
Bradford Observer and other leading 
provincial journals. In 1852 he emigrated 
to South Australia, and became connected 
with the commercial, and subsequently 
the literary, department of the South 
Australian Register and Observer. He 
succeeded Dr. Garran as principal leader- 
writer for these papers, and at the same 
time occupied the pulpit of the Clayton 
Church, Norwood. In 1858 he resigned 
both employments, and started the Ad- 
vertiser and Chronicle newspapers, enter- 
ing the Legislative Assembly in the same 
year as member for East Torrens. Of the 
two journals mentioned he was editor and 
part proprietor with the late Mr. Thomas 
King down to the time of his death. In 
March 1861 he was returned to the Legis- 
lative Council, and occupied a seat in 

3 



Bar] 



DICTIONARY Of AUStRaLASIAM BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bar 



that House till 1869, when it became 
vacant by effluxion of time. In 1870 he 
was re-elected, but resigned in the next 
year, and was returned to the Assembly 
for Start, which he represented till his 
death, which took place at Adelaide on 
August 22nd, 1874. Mr. Barrow was 
Treasurer in the Ayers Ministry from 
March 1872 to July 1873. 

Barry, Bight Bev. Alfred, D.D., D.C.L., 
formerly Bishop of 8ydney, Metro- 
politan of New South Wales, and Primate 
of Australia, is the son of Sir Charles 
Barry, B.A., the celebrated architect, 
by his marriage with Sarah, daughter 
of Samuel Bowsell. He was born in 
London on Jan. 15th, 1826, and educated 
at King's College, London, and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B~A. as 4th Wrangler, 2nd Smith prize- 
man, and seventh in 1st class of Classical 
Tripos in 1848, M.A. in 1851, B.D. in 
1858, and D.D. in 1865. He was elected 
a fellow of Trinity College in 1849, 
ordained deacon in 1850, and priest in 
1851. From 1850 to 1854 he was sub- 
warden of Trinity College, Glenalmond ; 
from 1854 to 1862 head master of Leeds 
Grammar School; from 1862 to 1868 
principal of Cheltenham College; and 
from 1868 to 1883 principal of King's 
College, London. In the latter year he was 
appointed Bishop of Sydney, in succession 
to Dr. Barker. In the meantime he was 
Canon Residentiary of Worcester from 
1871 to 1881 ; Chaplain to the Queen from 
1879 to 1883 ; and Canon of Westminster 
from 1881 to 1883. Bishop Barry was con- 
secrated on Jan. 1st, and installed in April 
1884, revisited England in 1887, and again 
returned to Sydney, but resigned his see, 
for urgent family reasons, in May 1889, 
when he became Assistant Bishop to 
Bishop Thorold of Rochester. In 1890 
this appointment having lapsed, on the 
translation of Bishop Thorold to the see 
of Winchester, he became Canon of 
Windsor. Bishop Barry, as well as 
being an eloquent preacher and admir- 
able lecturer, is a well-known author, 
and has published, inter alia, the fol- 
lowing works : — " Introduction to the Old 
Testament " and " Notes on the Gospels," 
M Cheltenham College Sermons," "Notes 
on the Catechism," " Life of Sir Charles 
Barry, RJU" M University Sermons,'' "First 
Words in Australia" (1884)," The Teacher's 
Prayer Book," "The Parables of the Old 



Testament," and "Christianity and Social- 
ism " (1891), as well as various volumes 
of Sermons, including the Boyle Lectures 
for 1876 and for 1877-8. 

Barry, Hon. Sir Bedmond, K.C.M.G., 
M.A., LL.D., First Chancellor of Mel- 
bourne University, was the third son of 
the late Major-General Henry Green Barry, 
of Ballyclough, co. Cork, by his marriage 
with Phoebe, daughter of John Armstrong 
Drought, of Lettybrook, King's County, 
was born in 1813, and after being at a 
military school at Hall's Place, Bexley, 
Kent, returned to Ireland, where he 
entered at Trinity College, Dublin, and 
graduated B.A. in 1838. In the same year 
he was called to the Irish bar, and emi- 
grated to Australia in the following year, 
landing at Sydney, where he only re- 
mained a few weeks before proceeding 
to Melbourne, the capital of what was 
then known as the Port Phillip District 
of New South Wales. Here he entered 
on the practice of his profession with 
much success until 1842, when he was 
appointed Commissioner of the Court of 
Bequests, then the second judicial office 
in the future colony of Victoria. Mr. 
Barry became Solicitor-General in 1851, 
when separation from New 8outh Wales 
was achieved, with a seat in the Legisla- 
tive and Executive Councils. In January 
of the following year he was made a 
judge of the Supreme Court. In 1855 
Sir Bedmond was appointed First Chan- 
cellor of the University of Melbourne, 
and in the following year President of 
the Trustees of the Public Library, both 
of which positions he held till his death. 
Of each of these institutions he was 
regarded as the Father, the success of 
the National Gallery being mainly attri- 
butable, as in the case of the Library, to 
his energy in developing the collection. 
Sir Bedmond, who was Acting Chief 
Justice in the absence of Sir William 
a Beckett, and who administered the 
government of the colony in the simul- 
taneous absence of the Governor and 
Chief Justice in the winter of 1876 
to 1877, was knighted in 1860, and 
created K.C.M.G. in 1877. He was ap- 
pointed a Commissioner for Victoria at 
the International Exhibition held in Lon- 
in 1862, and received the degree of LL.D. 
from his Alma Mater in 1876 ; the Uni- 
versity of Melbourne subsequently in- 
vesting him with the degrees of M. A. and 



29 



o 



Bar] 



DlCtlOMARV 6P AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bat 



LL.B. In 1876 Sir Redmond visited 
America as one of the Victorian Com- 
mission to the Centennial Exhibition at 
Philadelphia. He died in Melbourne on 
Nov. 23rd, 1880. 

Barton, Eon. Edmund, M.L.A., Q.C., 
M. A., Attorney-General New South Wales, 
is a native of New South Wales, and 
was born at the Glebe, Sydney, on Jan. 
18th, 1849. He was educated at the Syd- 
ney Grammar School, and matriculated 
at the university at the age of sixteen, 
receiving a special prize from the Senate 
for proficiency in classics. During the 
second and third years of his university 
course he held successively the Lithgow 
and Cooper scholarships, and graduated 
in 1868 with first class classical honours, 
and the university prize of £25. In 1870 
he took his M.A. degree at Sydney Uni- 
versity, and is a member of the Senate of 
that body. He was called to the colonial 
bar in 1871. He contested the seat in 
the Assembly given to the university in 
1877 against Mr. (now Sir William) 
Windeyer, but was defeated by six votes. 
Practising his profession, he was a Crown 
Prosecutor till 1879, when Mr. Windeyer 
retired, and he again contested the seat 
for the university, beating Dr. Benwick 
by a large majority. Subsequently Mr. 
Barton represented Wellington in the 
Legislative Assembly, and was Speaker of 
the Lower House from Jan. 1883 to Jan. 
1887. In the following February he was 
nominated to the Legislative Council, 
and from Jan. to March 1889 held a 
seat in the Dibbs Ministry as Attorney- 
General and representative of the Govern- 
ment in the Upper House. Mr. Barton, 
who is a Q.C., announced his adhesion 
to protectionist views in 1889. He was 
one of the representatives of New South 
Wales at the Federation Convention held 
in Sydney in March 1891. Mr. Barton 
is a strong supporter of the Common- 
wealth Bill, which he assisted Sir Samuel 
Griffith in drafting, and regards Pro- 
tection in New South Wales as occupy- 
ing a secondary place to intercolonial 
federation. In 1891 Mr. Barton resigned 
his seat in the Legislative Council, and 
was returned to the Assembly for East 
Sydney. On the formation of the Dibbs 



Barton, George Burnett, second son of 
William Barton of Sydney, New South 
Wales, and brother of the above, entered 
as a student at the Middle Temple in 
April 1857, and was called to the bar in 
Nov. 1860. He subsequently practised 
his profession at Dunedin, New Zealand, 
and was editor of the New Zealand Jurist, 
and author of "Practical Statistics of 
New Zealand." He subsequently took up 
his residence in Sydney, and published 
" Literature in New South Wales " (1866), 
44 Poets and Prose Writers of New South 
Wales' 1 (1868). He was engaged by 
the Government of New South Wales to 
compile the official history of that colony ; 
but after seeing one volume through the 
press, and preparing a portion of the 
second, the engagement was cancelled, and 
the completion of the work entrusted to 
Mr. A. Britton (q.v.). 

Basedow, Martin Peter Friedrieh, M.P., 
J.P., is a native of Hanover, Germany. 
He is identified with the ZeitM*g y a 
German newspaper published in South 
Australia, and has represented Barossa 
in the Assembly since 1876. He was 
Minister of Education in the Morgan 
Ministry from March to June 1881. 

Bates, Eon. 'William, was born at 
Uxbridge, in Middlesex, and emigrated 
to South Australia in 1850. In 1852 the 
gold discoveries tempted him to Victoria, 
where he went into business at Sandhurst, 
and after four years' successful trading, 
removed to Melbourne, where he had a 
prosperous career as a general merchant. 
In 1868 he was returned to the Assembly 
for Collingwood as a supporter of the 
Darling Grant, defeating no less a candi- 
date than the Hon. James Service. He 
was Minister of Public Works in the 
M'Culloch Government from April 1870 
to June 1871, but did not re-enter 
Parliament after 1874. Mr. Bates was 
a prominent member of the Congrega* 
tionalist body, and was Treasurer of the 
Jubilee Fund which was raised a few 
years ago to celebrate the jubilee of the 
establishment of the first church of the 
denomination in Victoria. That movement 
was so successful that close upon £48,000 
was raised, and the denomination was able 



Ministry in Oct. 1801, Mr. Barton accepted ; to pay off the debts on all its churches 
the office of Attorney-General, and was ' in the colony. Mr. Bates died at Fitzroy, 
acting Premier during the absence of Mr. , Melbourne, on Jan. 12th, 1891, at the 
Dibbs in England from May to Sept. 1892. \ age of sixty-five. ^ 

jO Digitized by GoOgle 



**] 



DlCTtONAfcV OP AUSTRALASIAN MOGRAPHV. 



[Be* 



Bath, James, J. P., Secretary of Edu- 
cation Sooth Australia, was appointed 
Secretary to the Board of Education in 
August 1867 and Secretary to the Educa- 
tion Department in August 1883. 

Bathgate, Alexander, son of John 
Bathgate (q.v.), is a barrister and solici- 
tor of Dunedin, N.Z., and the author of 
** Colonial Experiences ; or, Sketches of 
People and Places in the Province of 
Otago, N.Z." (Glasgow, 1874) ; - Waita- 
runa: a Story of New Zealand Life" 
(London, 1881); ••Far South Fancies" 
(Griffith & Farran, 1890). Mr. Bathgate 
has contributed many verses to the 
colonial press. 

Bathgate, Eon. John, M.L.C. New Zea- 
land, was born in Edinburgh in 1809, and 
educated at Edinburgh High School and 
Edinburgh University. He was admitted 
as a writer and practised his profession 
in Peebles, holding the office of Pro- 
curator Fiscal for the county for many 
years. He went to Dunedin, N.Z., in 
1863, as General Manager of the Bank of 
Otago. He was elected a member of the 
Provincial Council of Otago in 1869, and 
for a time held office in the executive as 
Provincial Solicitor. He was appointed 
major of Volunteers in 1866, and prac- 
tised as a barrister and solicitor in 
Dunedin from the year 1869. In 1871 he 
was elected to the House of Representa- 
tives for Dunedin city, and on Oct. 11th, 

1872, joined the short-lived Waterhouse 
Ministry as Commissioner of Customs, 
which office he exchanged on the 29th 
for those of Minister of Justice and 
Commissioner of Stamps. On March 3rd, 

1873, when Mr. Waterhouse retired in 
favour of Sir Julius Vogel, Mr. Bathgate 
retained his portfolios. During his term 
of office he carried a district county bill 
and an insolvency bill ; and on Feb. 20th, 
1*74, he retired from the House, and was 
later appointed to a district judgeship in 
Otago. Having obtained a year's leave 
of absence, he went to England, where he 
embraced every opportunity of bringing 
the colony before the public by lecturing 
and otherwise. Shortly after his return 
to the colony the office of District Judge 
at Dunedin was abolished, and in 1885 
he was called to a seat in the Legislative 
Council. He died Sept. 21st, 1886. Mr. 
Bathgate was the author of " New Zea- 
land: its Resources and Prospects" 
(London and Edinburgh), 1881. 



Baylee, Hon, William, second son of 
William Bayles of Hunderthwaite, York- 
shire, was born in 1820, and emigrated 
to Tasmania in 1846. Removing to Mel- 
bourne in 1852, he went into business as 
a merchant and shipowner, and was 
Mayor of Melbourne in 1865, in which 
year he retired from active business. In 
1864 he was elected to the assembly for 
Villiers and Heytesbury, and was Com- 
missioner of Trade and Customs in the 
shortlived Sladen Ministry from May to 
July 1868. He has for some years past 
taken no part in public life. He married, 
in 1854, Isabel, third daughter of Arthur 
Buist, of Macquarie River, Tasmania. 

Bayley, Eon. Lyttleton Eolyoake, 
second son of Sir John Edward George 
Bayley, Bart., and brother of Sir John 
Robert Laurie Emilias Laurie, Bart., was 
born on May 6th, 1827, and educated at 
Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. 
He was called to the bar at the Middle 
Temple in May 1850, and married, in 
May 1852, Isabella, daughter of Anthony 
Mactier.of Durris House, Kincardineshire, 
who died in April 1860. He emigrated 
to Australia, and was Attorney-General 
of New South Wales in the second Cowper 
Government from March to Oct. 1859, in 
succession to Mr. (afterwards Judge) 
Lutwyche. His appointment gave great 
offence to the legal fraternity, as he had 
been but a short time in the colony ; and 
Mr. Deniehy moved a resolution censuring 
his nomination. It was not, however, 
carried. In 1866 Mr. Bayley was ap- 
pointed Advocate-General at Bombay, 
and Puisne Judge in 1869. This position 
he still holds. 

Beach, William, the well-known New 
South Wales oarsman, was born in Surrey, 
England, and was beaten by Trickett, 
the then champion sculler of the world, 
on the Parramatta river on July 28th, 
1883. The weather was rough on this 
occasion, but under more favourable con- 
ditions Beach beat Trickett in three 
successive matches. On Jan. 26th, 1884, 
Trickett again beat Beach on the Parra- 
matta; but as a foul occurred the race 
was rowed over again, with the same 
result, Beach being unwell. On April 12th 
following the positions were again re- 
versed, with great apparent ease by Beach, 
who defeated Hanlan, the Canadian 
sculler, on August 16th of the same year 
over the Parramatta champion course in 



31 



o 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



pa 



21 minutes 17 seconds. In the next 
year Beaoh defeated Clifford, repeated 
his defeat of Hanlan, and also vanquished 
Neil Matterson, a young sculler of his own 
colony. On March 27th, 1886, Beach 
sailed for England, and arrived at 
Plymouth on May 17th. He at once 
accepted a challenge from Hanlan, but 
nothing coming of it, he challenged the 
world. Beach then won the first prize 
of £1200 in the International Sweepstake 
on the Thames, defeating Bubear, Lee, 
Teemer, and others. On Sept. 18th he 
rowed Gaudaur on the Thames for £1000 
and the championship of the world, and 
won the day after a tough struggle. 
On Sept. 25th he defeated Wallace Boss 
for a similar stake, and soon afterwards 
left for Australia, arriving in Sydney on 
Dec. 3rd, 1886. Hanlan followed him to 
Australia, and they met on the Nepean, 
when Beach's superiority was again 
asserted. He then wished to relinquish 
the championship, and on Peter Kemp 
challenging him resigned it to him, 
declining to row him. He subsequently 
kept a public house in Sydney. 

Bealey, Samuel, M.A., was born in 
Lancashire in 1821, and was educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
took his degree in 1852. In the same year 
he went out to the Canterbury settlement 
in New Zealand* then newly founded, and 
set upas a station-holder in conjunction 
with nis brother John. When Canterbury 
was constituted a province Mr. Bealey was 
one of the members for Christchurch in 
the Provincial Council, and in 1863 was 
elected Superintendent. The harbour 
works at Port Lyttelton were con- 
structed under his official rlgine, and he 
was a warm advocate for the erection of 
the breakwater which contributes so 
much to the safety of the harbour. At 
the close of his term of office he returned 
to England. 

Beaney, Hon. James George, M.L.C., 
M.D., F.R.C.8.E„ L.K.Q.C.P.I., M.R.IJL, 
was born at Canterbury, in Kent, where 
he was educated, and studied surgery 
with Mr. W. J. Cooper. He was after- 
wards a student at Edinburgh University, 
at Paris, and at Guy's Hospital. He 
commenced his medical career as regi- 
mental surgeon in the Mediterranean, 
and with the Turkish contingent in the 
Crimean war. After the campaign he 



made several trips to America, and 
ultimately went to Melbourne, where in 
1858 he became assistant to Dr. John 
Maund, at whose death he succeeded to 
his practice. In 1860 he was appointed 
surgeon to the Melbourne Hospital, sur- 
geon to the Royal Victorian Artillery, 
and was elected a member of the Boyal 
Society of Victoria. He was again elected 
surgeon to the hospital and banquetted at 
the town hall in 1875, and was subse- 
quently re-elected despite the strenuous 
opposition of a large section of the 
medical profession. In 1878 Dr. Beaney 
visited England with a semi-official 
commission from the Berry Government 
to report on medical matters. In 1883, 
after a severe contest, he was elected 
to the Legislative Council for the North 
Yarra Province, and was re-elected for a 
period of six years, in 1885, when he 
defeated the Hon. James Munro, the 
late Premier of Victoria. Dr. Beaney 
was the author of several medical work*, 
including "Contributions to Conserva- 
tive Surgery." He was munificent in his 
donations to public institutions in hi* 
native place, and offered various medical 
prizes. He died in Melbourne on June 
30th, 1891, bequeathing by his will 
£10,000 to his native place. 

Belehtr, Sot. Eobert Henry, M.A„ en- 
tered the London University in 1864, and 
graduated B.A. in honours 1867, MJL 
1868, becoming Fellow of King's College 
in 1885. He was ordained priest in 1871 
by the Bishop of London. After serving in 
various curacies he was assistant master 
in King's College School, 1871-4 ; classical 
master and chaplain, 1874-86. In 1886 
he was appointed rector of the Otago 
High School, in Dnnedin, N.Z., which 
position he now holds. He is the author 
of " Degrees and •Degrees 1 "f Hardwicke), 
an exposure of traffic in academical titles 
(republished with additions in 1888) ; of 
41 Latin Prose Compositions," Part I., 1874. 
Part II., 1879; "Keys to both w (Macmillan, 
1883); of "The Bonny Kate": a 8tory 
of the Sixteenth Century (Hayes, 1876) : 
editor of "Livy, Book IL, with Notes w 
(Rivington,1882): " Manuel desKxamens" 
(Hachette, 1884) : and is the author of 
" A New Latin Grammar," in two parts 
(Hachette, 1891). He is the Commissary 
and Examining Chaplain for the diocese 
of Dunedin, and was President of the 
Otago Institute in 1890. 



3* 



o 



Bel] 



DICTIONAfcY OP AUSTRALASIAN felOGRAPHY. 



[Bel 



Bell, Hon. Sir Francii Dillon, K.C.M.G., 
C.BL, sometime Agent-General for New 
Zealand, second and eldest surviving 
son of Edward Bell, of Homsey (who 
died in 1864), by Fanny, daughter of 
Rev. J. Matthews, of Cirencester (she 
died in 1870), comes of a family, which, 
through Robert Barclay, of Urie, the 
Quaker apologist, claims descent from 
the blood royal of England. He was 
bom on Oct 8th, 1822, and educated 
in France. In 1839 he entered the 
service of the New Zealand Company, 
and for a time was assistant secretary, 
and afterwards secretary, in London. 
He emigrated to New Zealand shortly 
after the settlement of Wellington and 
New Plymouth, and was agent of the 
Company till 1850 at Nelson, Auckland, 
New Plymouth, and elsewhere. In 1848 
he was called to the Legislative Council 
of New Minister, but resigned in 1860. 
In 1846 he was made J.P., and in 1851, 
upon the surrender of the charter of the 
New Zealand Company, he became Com- 
missioner of Crown Lands. In 1853 he 
entered the Provincial Council of Wel- 
lington, where he remained for three 
years; and in 1854 he was called to 
the Legislative Council and held office 
without portfolio from June 30th to July 
11th, under the system of semi-respon- 
sible government which then obtained. 
Mr. Bell was Colonial Treasurer in the 
first responsible ministry (formed by Mr. 
Sewell and himself), from May 7th to 
May 20th, 1856. In the same year he 
was appointed Commissioner of Land 
Claims, which office he held till 1862. 
He was Colonial Treasurer (August 6th 
to 21st, 1862), Minister for Native Affairs 
(August 6th, 1862, to Oct. 30th, 1863), and 
Commissioner of Customs (August 7th to 
21st, 1862), in the Domett Ministry. Of 
the Fax Ministry he was a member with- 
out portfolio from July 2nd, 1869, to 
August 14th, 1871. It was, however, in his 
capacity of Commissioner of Land Claims, 
from 1856 to 1862, and as Special Com- 
missioner on the west coast of the North 
Island from 1879 to 1881, that he ren- 
dered the most eminent services to the 
colony. In 1862 he went with Mr. Gorst 
to Australia, and succeeded in raising a 
force of military settlers to plant in the 
disturbed Waikato district. In 1864 he 
removed to Otago, and in the following 
year was elected to the Provincial 



33 



Council. In 1866 he was elected once 
more to Parliament for the constituency 
of Mataura. In 1869 he went to Bngland, 
in company with Dr. Featherston, on a 
special commission to raise fresh forces 
for the colony, and to obtain the imperial 
guarantee to a loan of £1,000,000 for 
immigration and public works. In this 
latter difficult task the commissioners 
were entirely successful. He returned to 
Otago in 1871, and re-entering parlia- 
ment was elected Speaker of the House 
of Representatives, which office he held 
for five years. In 1873 he was made a 
Knight Bachelor, and in 1877 was 
nominated to the Legislative Council. 
In 1881 Sir Francis succeeded Sir Julius 
Vogel as Agent-General for New Zealand, 
and held the position till the autumn of 
1891, when he returned to New Zealand. 
It is only just to say that during the 
whole ten years of his rigime he was not 
only a most able and single-minded 
representative of his own colony, but 
was recognised by the agents-general 
of the Australian colonies as their leader 
in all representations to the Colonial 
Office on the complicated subject of 
Australasian relations in the Western 
Pacific, including the annexation of New 
Guinea, the New Hebrides embroglio, 
and the Recedivist influx. At the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition in 1886 
he was Executive Commissioner, and in 
1889 was not only Executive Commis- 
sioner for New Zealand at the Paris 
Exhibition, but was also a member of 
the Mansion House Committee. For his 
services in this connection the French 
Government bestowed upon him the 
Commandership of the Legion of Honour. 
In 1887 he was delegate to the Colonial 
Conference. Sir Francis Bell was created 
K.C.M.G. in 1881, and C.B. in 1886. He 
married on April 2nd, 1849, Margaret, 
daughter of A. Hort. In 1891 he received 
the thanks of the Legislative Council for 
his services. He returned to New Zealand 
in Nov. 1891, but left again for England 
in April 1892, where Lady Bell died on 
June 12th, 1892. 

Bell, Eon. James, M.L.C., emigrated to 
Victoria in 1857, commenced business at 
Dunolly, and was one of the first repre- 
sentatives of the district, in the Legis- 
lative Council, when in 1881 the Reform 
Act included it in the North-West 
Province. In 1886 he opened a business in 

*QPf 



o 



Bel] 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Pe 



Melbourne. He accepted office without 
portfolio in the Gillies-Deakin Govern- 
ment on April 20th, 1886, and acted as 
Minister or Defence during Sir James 
Lorimer's absence in England, in 1887. 
He also assisted Mr. Dow in discharging 
the duties of Minister of Water Supply 
during Mr. Deakin's attendance at the 
Colonial Conference in London in that 
year. On the death of Sir James 
Lorimer, in Sept. 1889, he was appointed 
Minister of Defence, and retired with his 
colleagues in Nov. 1890. 

Bell, Hon. Sir Joshua Peter, E.C.M.G., 
M.L.C., sometime President of the Legis- 
lative Council, Queensland, was born in 
the county of Kildare in Ireland in 1826. 
The family having emigrated to New 
South Wales in 1830, he was educated at 
Sydney College and at the King's School, 
Parramatta. In 1847 he, with his father 
and brothers, acquired a large property 
known as Jimbour, near Dalby, in the 
present colony of Queensland. Sir Joshua 
first entered the Queensland Assem- 
bly in 1863, and continued to hold 
a seat till he was nominated to the 
Legislative Council, of which he became 
President in March 1879. Sir Joshua 
was Colonial Treasurer in the first 
ministry formed (under Sir Robert Her- 
bert) after the separation of Queensland 
from New South Wales, succeeding the 
late Mr. Moffatt. This post he continued 
to hold till July 1866, for the last six 
months of the time under the Premier- 
ship of the late Mr. Macalister, in whose 
second ministry he was Secretary for 
Public Lands from August 1866 to August 
1867. Sir Joshua was again Treasurer 
in the Palmer Ministry from March 1871 
till he resigned with his colleagues in 
Jan. 1874. He married in 1862 Margaret 
Miller, daughter of William McTaggart 
D'Orsey, M.D., who survived him. Sir 
Joshua, who administered the govern- 
ment of Queensland during the absence 
on leave of 8ir Arthur Kennedy from 
March to Nov. 1880, died in December of 
the following year, when he was succeeded 
in the Presidency of the Legislative 
Council by Sir Arthur Palmer. He had 
just previously been created K.C.M.G. 

Belmore, Bight Hon. Somerset Eichard 
Lowry Corry, ith Earl of, P.C., G.C.M.G., 
M.A., is the son of the third earl by 
his marriage with Emily Louise, youngest 
daughter of William Sheppard, of Brad- 



bourne, Kent. His lordship, who i 
an Irish Representative Peer, is als 
Viscount Belmore and Baron Belmore 
of Castle -Coole, co. Fermanagh, in th 
peerage of Ireland. He was born ii 
London on April 9th, 1835, and succeeded 
to the title on the death of his father h 
1845. He graduated MJL at Cambridg 
University in 1856, and was elected on 
of the representative peers for Ireland ii 
January of the next year. Having hel 
the post of Under Secretary for th 
Home Department in the Disraeli Govern 
ment from July 1866 to July 1867, h 
was created, in January of the f ollowini 
year, Governor and Commander-in-Chic 
of New South Wales, a post which h 
retained till Feb. 1872, when he n 
signed and returned to England, bein 
created K.C.M.G. in that year an 
G.C.M.G. in 1890. During his term c 
office the Duke of Edinburgh visite 
the colony, and the attack on his life b 
O'Farrell took place at Clontart Lor 
Belmore, whose eldest son and heii 
Armar, Viscount Corry, was born a 
Government House, Sydney, in 1870, is 
first cousin of Lord Kowton, better know 
as Montagu Corry, the well-known seen 
tary to the late Earl of Beaoonsfiel 
and his literary executor. His lordshi 
married, on August 22nd, 1861, Ann 
Elizabeth Honona, second daughter c 
the late Captain John Neilson Gladstone 
R.N. (elder brother of the Right Hoi 
W. E. Gladstone), by his marriage wit 
Elizabeth Honoria, daughter of Si 
Robert Bateson, Bart. 

Belstead, Charles Torrens, son of Henr 
Belstead, captain in the 86th King^ 
Own Light Infantry, was appointed i 
Jan. 1848 to the Imperial Penal Estat 
lishment, Norfolk Island, and serve 
there until transferred to Tasmania I 
1855, where he became Chief Clerk in th 
Penal Establishment at Hobart in 1856 
clerk in the Comptroller-General's offic 
in 1858; acting Comptroller-General I 
Sept. 1868 ; Governor's Secretary for PeW 
Establishments in May 1869, and AgeE 
for Imperial Expenditure and Paymastt 
of Imperial Pensioners in June 1872. H 
is a member of the Council of the Royi 
Society of Tasmania, and a manager fl 
the Hobart Savings Bank. Mr. BeJstesj 
was appointed a member of the Roy* 
Commission to inquire into the Fisberifl 
of the Colony in May 1882. 



34 



o 



Bel] 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Belstead, Francis, J.P. (brother of 
the preceding), was appointed Assistant 
Superintendent in the Convict Depart- 
ment, Norfolk Island, in August 1850 ; 
Clerk of Petty Sessions at Westbury, 
Tasmania, in May 1858; Clerk of the 
Municipal Council in Dec. 1863; Com- 
missioner of Mines and Goldfields, and 
Magistrate and Coroner at Launceston 
in Feb. 1883; and Secretary and Chief 
Commissioner of Mines and Goldfields for 
Tasmania in Feb. 1886. 

Benjamin, Eon. Sir Benjamin, Kt. f 
M.L.C., J. P., eldest son of the late Moses 
Benjamin, J.P„ was born in London in 
1834, and arrived in Victoria in 1843. 
He was elected to the Melbourne City 
Council in 1870, became alderman in 1881, 
and was mayor from 1887 to 1889. In 
the year 1888 he was a commissioner for 
the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition, and 
was knighted in 1889 in recognition of 
his services and hospitalities during the 
Exhibition year. He is President of the 
Melbourne HebrewCongregation, a trustee 
of the Jewish Philanthropic Society and 
the Ladies* Hebrew Benevolent 8ociety, 
and is the representative of the Melbourne 
province in the Legislative Council. He 
is a director of the Colonial Bank of 
Australasia, and of the Union Trustees' 
Executors and Agency Company, and is 
a justice of the peace for Victoria and 
New South Wales. In 1857 Sir Benjamin 
Benjamin married Fanny, daughter of 
Abraham Cohen, of Sydney. 

Bennett, David, was born in Dundee 
in 1830, and apprenticed to Messrs. 
Kimmond, Hutton & Steel, mechanical 
engineers in that city. He decided to 
emigrate, and landed in Melbourne early 
in 1856. Mr. Bennett entered Langland's 
Foundry, where he remained many years. 
Be took an important part in support of 
the Eight Hours Movement, initiated by 
his fellow-countryman, James Galloway, 
in Melbourne (1855), and in promoting 
the Association of Engineers (1858), of 
which for twenty years he acted as secre- 
tary. Mr. Bennett was also one of the 
founders of the Trades Hall; and for 
many years acted as honorary secretary 
to the Trades Hall Council. To this body 
fee was appointed paid secretary in 1888. 
• Bennett, George, M.D., F.B.C.8., F.L.S., 
F.Z.8., was born at Plymouth on Jan. 31st, 
1804. He visited Ceylon in 1819, and on 
;his return studied for the medical pro- 



ven 

fession, becoming M.R.C.S. (England) in 
1828, F.B.C.8. (England) and M.D. of 
Glasgow University in 1859. After pass- 
ing the college he took charge of a circum- 
navigating expedition, the results of which 
he published in papers contributed to the 
leading scientific journals. In 1832 he 
revisited New South Wales to investigate 
the manners, habits and anatomy of the 
Monctremata, and the natural history of 
the colony in general. After visiting 
Java, Singapore and China, he published 
his " Wanderings in New South Wales n 
in 1834, and finally settled in that colony 
in 1836. He was the first secretary to 
the Australian Museum, and, although 
much occupied with his extensive prac- 
tice as a medical man, was able to add 
materially to the knowledge of the natural 
history of New South Wales. He was the 
first to discover the Nautilus in a living 
state, and sent a specimen to Professor 
Owen. In 1860 he published "Gather- 
ings of a Naturalist n 

Bennett, Samuel, was a native of Corn- 
wall, and was born on March 20th, 1815. 
He went to Australia in 1841, having 
been engaged by Messrs. Stevens & 
Stokes, of the Sydney Morning Herald, 
to superintend the typographical depart- 
ment of that paper. Having held this 
post for seventeen years, Mr. Bennett, 
in 1859, purchased the Empire newspaper 
which had been started by Mr. (now Sir) 
Henry Parkes nine years previously. 
Messrs. Hanson & Bennett conducted the 
Empire for several years as a daily and 
weekly journal, Mr. Bennett becoming 
sole proprietor some time before it ceased 
publication. He also started in 1867 
The Evening Newt, and in 1870 The 
Australian Town and Cotmtry Journal, a 
weekly newspaper, both of which achieved 
phenomenal success. Mr. Bennett was 
the author of " The History of Australian 
Discovery and Colonisation," which is re- 
cognised as a standard work of reference. 
He died at his residence, Mundarrah 
Towers, Little Coogee, Sydney, N.S.W., 
on June 2nd, 1878. 

Bennett, William Christopher, M.I.C.E., 
was employed as a pupil on various terri- 
torial and railway surveys and other 
works in Ireland from 1840 to 1845, 
and as assistant engineer in charge of 
drainage works, under the Board of Public 
Works in Ireland, from 1845 to 1852. 
During 1852-3 he was employed in report 



Ben] 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



r* 



ing on the navigation of the Rhone and 
Saone, and making surveys and reports 
on the navigation of the Magdalena, with 
connecting canals, roads or railways, in 
New Grenada. Mr. Bennett was engaged 
on the International (French, American 
and English) Ship Canal Survey at Darien, 
in 1854, having charge of the English 
survey on the Pacific side in the absence 
of Mr. Forde, M.I.C.E., on which occasion 
Mr. Bennett received the thanks of the 
American Government for having, in 
conjunction with Lieut. Foray the and a 
party from H.M.S. Virago, relieved Lieut. 
Strain, United States navy, and his miss- 
ing exploring party, at no small personal 
risk. At the end of 1854 Mr. Bennett 
proceeded, vid New Zealand, to New 
South Wales, and was for about ten 
months attached to the Survey Depart- 
ment as an assistant surveyor. In April 
1856 he was appointed assistant engineer 
to the Commission for the Sewerage and 
Water Supply of Sydney; was engaged 
in the Railway Department, New South 
Wales, from Jan. to Sept. 1857, and was 
then transferred to the Department of 
Roads, which, as assistant engineer, and 
ultimately as engineer, he assisted Cap- 
tain (afterwards Colonel) Martindale, 
C.B., R.E., in organising. Mr. Bennett 
left the colony for Europe in Jan. 1861, 
and on his return he was appointed, in 
Nov. 1862, commissioner and engineer- 
in-chief for roads, New South Wales, 
which office he occupied until a short 
time before his death, having been in 
addition occasionally employed on the 
western goldfields and narrow gauge 
railways, the water supply of Sydney, 
and the drainage of the Hunter River. 
Mr. Bennett died on Sept. 29th, 1889, 
at the age of sixty-five. 

Bent, Hon. Thomas, M.L.A., Speaker of 
Legislative Assembly, Victoria, was born 
at Penrith, near 8ydney, where his father 
was a contractor, on Dec. 17th, 1838, and 
came to Melbourne with his family in 
1 849. Having joined his father in business 
as a market gardener at Brighton, Vict., 
he was elected to the Moorabbin Shire 
Council in 1862, and was President in 
1868. In 1871 he first achieved general 
notoriety by opposing Mr. (now Chief 
Justice) Higinbotbam for the Brighton 
seat in the Legislative Assembly. To the 
amazement of every one, he was success- 
ful, and has ever since represented that 



electorate. Though strongly opposed 1 
the last M'Culloch Government, Mr. Bel 
was not a supporter of the Berry part] 
being indeed a consistent Freetrade 
At the first dissolution in 1880 the Col 
servatives, under Mr. Service, secured 
majority ; and Mr. Bent was included i 
the Cabinet formed by that gentlems 
in March 1880, with the portfolio « 
Public Works. The Reform Bill of tl 
Ministry proved distasteful to the count] 
on the appeal to the constituencies mai 
in June 1880, and Mr. Bent retired wit 
his colleagues in the following Augui 
Mr. Bent was a highly potential memb 
of the O'Loghlen Government as Miniat 
of Railways from July 1881 to Man 
1883. In Oct. 1887, on the retirement 
the late Mr. Lalor, Mr. Bent was 
candidate for the Speakership of t] 
Legislative Assembly, but was defeat 
by Sir M. H. Da vies by one vote. ( 
the meeting of the present parliame 
in May 1892 Mr. Bent was again a ca 
didate, and was unanimously elect 
after the claims of Mr. J. G. Duffy ai 
Sir H. J. Wrixon had been disposed of. 

Boor, Hon. Henry Rogers, M.L.A., w 
the son of Henry Beor, a solicitor 
Swansea, in South Wales. He graduat 
at Oxford, and was called to the bar 
the Middle Temple in 1870. In 1875 
went to Queensland, and was admitt 
to the bar there in the same y& 
Entering the Legislative Assembly 
member for Bowen in 1877, he succeed 
the late Mr. Justice Pringas Attornc 
General in the first Mcllwraith Minis! 
in June 1880. He in the same year vc 
made Q.C. Shortly afterwards his heal 
failed, and he shot himself on board t 
steamer Rotorua, whilst on the passa 
from Sydney to Auckland, in New 7a 
land. The fatal event, the outcome 
nervous depression, took place on Dt 
5th, 1880, and he was buried at sea. 

Berkeley, Hon. Henry Bpenoer Han 
man, third son of Thomas Berkel 
Hardtman Berkeley, of St. Kitte, v 
born on Sept. 3rd, 1851, and called 
the bar at the Inner Temple in Je 
1873. Having been admitted to the 1 
of the Leeward Islands in the followi 
July, he filled various legal and offic 
posts there until 1885, when he v 
appointed Attorney-General of Fiji, a 
in 1889 Chief Justice and Judicial Co 
missioner for the Western Pacific, 



?6 



o 



Bar] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bar 



Bernays, Lewis Adolphui,C.M.G.,F.L.8., 
F.K.G.8., son of the late Dr. Bernays, 
Professor of tbe German Language and 
Literature at King's College, London, was 
born on May 3rd, 1831, and educated at 
King's College. He also studied in the 
laboratory ox his brother, the well-known 
Professor A. E. Bernays, and subsequently 
emigrated to New Zealand, where he 
spent two years ; and then proceeded to 
New South Wales, where he was an officer 
of Parliament from 1853 to 1859; when 
he proceeded to Queensland to become 
Clerk to the Legislative Assembly, a 
post which he has held ever since. Mr. 
bernays, who has written several works 
on economic botany, was for sixteen 
years Vice-President of the Queensland 
Acclimatisation Society, of which he was 
the originator. He was created C.M.G. 
on May 25th, 1892. 

Berry, David, a well-known New South 
Wales colonist, was born at Cupar, Fife, 
Scotland, and was educated at St Andrews 
University. He arrived in New South 
Wales In July 1836, and proceeded to the 
estate of his elder brother, Dr. Alexander 
Berry, at Coolangatta, which he managed 
in conjunction with another brother, 
* John, for eleven years, and after the 
letter's death carried on the concern 
> alone until 1873, when Dr. Alexander 
- Berry died and devised the whole of his 
property to his brother David, who followed 
the system of cultivating and fencing a 
large portion of his land whilst the 
remainder was leased out in farms of 
varying size on peculiar and unusually 
profitable terms. Mr. Berry died, at the 
age of ninety-seven, on Sept. 22nd, 1889, 
and by his will bequeathed £100,000 to 
his alma mater, St. Andrews University, 
and a like sum to found a hospital in the 
Sboalhaven district of New South Wales. 
Berry, Hon. Sir Graham, K.C.M.G., 
Treasurer of Victoria, is the son of the 
late Benjamin Berry, of Twickenham, 
and Clara Graham, his wife. He was 
born at Twickenham on August 28th, 
1822, and emigrated to Victoria in 1852. 
In 1860 Mr. Berry purchased the Colliry- 
wood OUerver, which he conducted 
for a considerable period. The same 
year Mr. Berry was elected to the Vic- 
torian Assembly under somewhat ex- 
ceptional circumstances. A vacancy had 
occurred in East Melbourne through tbe 
death of the sitting member, and Mr. 

37 



B. Cohen and Mr. Patrick O'Brien were 
contesting the vacancy, when suddenly 
a dissolution was granted, thus necessi- 
tating a dual election. In order to save 
expense it was agreed between the can- 
didates that some one outside the colony 
should be nominated for the prior vacancy, 
and that the real contest would take 
place on the second election. This ar- 
rangement did not commend itself to the 
constituency, and at the nomination Mr. 
Berry's name was proposed, when, there 
being no other candidate, he was de- 
clared elected. At the general election 
Mr. Berry 'transferred his attentions 
to Collingwood, where he beat Mr. 
Langton, and was returned as an ad- 
vanced Liberal and Protectionist. In 
1864 he was re-elected for the same con- 
stituency. In the meantime Sir James 
M'Culloch had come into office, with Mr. 
(now Sir) George Verdon as Treasurer. 
The latter gentleman proposed the im- 
position of ad valorem duties, mainly on 
articles producible in the colony; and 
the budget was thus a step in the direc- 
tion of that full policy of protection to 
native industries which was to be so 
astonishingly developed under succeed- 
ing administrations. Of that policy Mr. 
Berry had from his first entry into poli- 
tical life been a firm and consistent 
advocate, leading a small section of the 
House, who made the question their piece 
de rSHstance. He accordingly welcomed 
the proposals of the Ministry as a pro- 
mising instalment, and accorded them a 
cordial support in the great constitutional 
struggle which ensued on the tacking of 
the Customs Bill to the Appropriation 
Bill — a device resorted to in order to 
force the measure through the Upper 
House, by whom, however, it was set 
aside, thus leaving the Government with- 
out means to pay the salaries of the 
public servants and other Governmental 
expenses. In this extremity the Govern- 
ment had recourse to the device of 
borrowing from a bank, and confessing 
judgments, which is fully described in 
the notice of Sir James M'Culloch. This 
device found no favour with Mr. Berry, 
who had previously stumped the country 
on behalf of the Ministerial tack; and 
he lost no time in denouncing any pay- 
ments except by the ordinary constitu- 
tional procedure, on the ground that the 
action taken by the Government was an 

Digitized by G00gk 



Btr] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Ber 



absolute giving way on the part of the 
Assembly, and certain to lead to discom- 
fiture. The country went wholly with 
Sir James M'Culloch, and, at the dis- 
solution, Mr. Berry was badly beaten, 
both at Collingwood and for the Murray 
Boroughs, remaining out of Parliament 
for three years. In 1866 he joined with 
others in purchasing the Geelong Jleaister, 
with which the Advertiser was shortly 
amalgamated, and went to reside in that 
town. Not long afterwards he un success- 
fully contested South Grant against Mr. 
Stutt; but in 1868 was returned for 
Geelong West, having in the meantime 
performed the active duties of editor of 
the Advertiser, and written most of the 
leading articles. Mr. Berry first acceded 
to ministerial office as Treasurer in the 
short-lived Macpherson Government in 
1870. Beyond making his first budget 
speech, Mr. Berry had, however, very little 
opportunity of distinguishing himself, his 
chief being promptly displaced by Sir 
James M'Culloch. In 1871 Mr. Berry 
was again returned for Geelong West, 
and entered the Ministry of Sir Charles 
Gavan Duffy as Treasurer and Minister 
of Customs in June of that year. He, 
however, resigned the latter post in the 
following November, and finally left the 
Ministry in May 1872. In 1874 he was 
again returned for Geelong West. In 
the meantime the Francis and Eerferd 
Ministries intervened, the defeat of Mr. 
Service's budget In the latter Government 
bringing Mr. Berry into power for the 
first time, as Premier and Chief Secretary 
of Victoria, in August 1875. The intro- 
duction of a land tax caused the speedy 
defeat of the new Government. Mr. Berry 
thereupon applied for a dissolution, which 
was refused him by the Acting Governor 
(Sir William Stawell), and Sir James 
M'Culloch once more returned to power. 
Mr. Berry, however, holding that he had 
been unconstitutionally refused an appeal 
to the people, determined to block all 
Government business, with a view of 
forcing on a general election, his con- 
tention being that the majority in the 
Assembly were a decided minority in 
the country. He and his followers now 
received the sobriquet of "stonewallers " ; 
and, whilst they blocked business in the 
House, stumped the country with extra- 
ordinary perseverance and success, Mr. 
Berry's platform deliverances exciting 



great enthusiasm throughout the colony. 
Sir James M'Culloch strove to put down 
Parliamentary obstruction by the im- 
position of a species of closure, which 
became famous under the designation of 
the "Iron Hand." By this means he 
warded off a dissolution until Parliament 
had run the statutory time. At the 
general election which ensued the tables 
were, however, completely turned, only 
a meagre remnant of his following being 
returned, the polls giving Mr. Berry 
an overwhelming majority. Sir James 
M'Culloch having resigned, the popular 
idol was sent for, and at once opened 
negotiations with Mr. Service, who had 
assumed an attitude of independent hos- 
tility to the M'Culloch Government, and 
with several leading members of the 
Opposition who had not been included in 
the previous Administration. They, how- 
ever, all declined his overtures, though 
Mr. Service for a considerable time ob- 
served towards him a friendly neutrality ; 
and Mr. Berry was obliged to be content 
with the materiel of his first Cabinet, 
with the exception of Mr. Munro, who 
refused office. Had the gentlemen to 
whom Mr. Berry primarily applied found 
it compatible with their sentiments to 
respond to the invitation, it is probable 
that most of the acerbity which charac- 
terised the proceedings of the next three 
years would never have been aroused — 
certainly it would never have reached 
the same height. It is beyond our scope 
to detail the particulars of the struggle 
which followed. A land tax, having tor 
its object to restrict the accumulation 
of land in the hands of individuals, was 
carried through Parliament ; but the in- 
clusion of payment of members in the 
ordinary Appropriation Bill, instead of its 
being dealt with by a special bill, brought 
on the storm which had previously eva- 
porated in protests, the Council setting 
it aside, whereupon a deadlock ensued, 
which lasted from May 1877 to April 1878, 
when a compromise was arrived at which 
saved the dignity of both parties. It was 
during this struggle that the dismissals 
of the civil servants took place on what 
has become memorable as Black Wednes- 
day, Mr. Berry declining to consider any 
arrangements for the borrowing of funds 
similar to those which he had condemned 
when adopted by Sir James M'Culloch. 
Though the storm was somewhat allayed, 

38 



Ber] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Ber 



Mr. Berry was so strongly impressed with 
the necessity of reorganising the consti- 
tution, with a view of defining the powers 
of the respective Houses, and of prevent- 
ing deadlocks by providing a legislative 
safety-valve, that he introduced a mea- 
sure containing the novel expedient of 
the pi&i$eUe t combined with a system of 
nominated representatives. This measure 
was naturally repudiated by the Upper 
Chamber, involving as it did their com- 
plete obliteration; and in the winter of 
1878-9 Mr. Berry undertook his famous 
mission to England known as " the Em- 
bassy," in conjunction with Mr. G. H. 
Pearson, with the view of inducing the 
British Government to bring a bill into 
the Imperial Parliament having for its 
object the reform of the Constitution of 
Victoria. The delegates had several in- 
terviews with Sir Michael Hicks Beach, 
the then Colonial Secretary, and obtained 
from him much good advice and a modi- 
fied promise to interfere in case the 
deadlock proved irremediable after a 
further recourse to the country. With 
this small measure of comfort Mr. Berry 
had to be content, and returned to Vic- 
toria, where Sir B. O'Loghlen had been 
Acting Premier during his absence. One 
substantial result of his visit to London 
was the successful floating of a loan of 
£3,000,000 on behalf of the colony, which 
was rendered more remarkable from the 
fact that Mr. Berry insisted on fixing a 
higher minimum than the banks advised, 
and that the political disturbances of the 
preceding year had created feelings of 
distrust as to the stability of Victoria in 
the minds of English capitalists. In 1880 
Mr. Berry reintroduced his Reform Bill, 
and then appealed to the country, in 
accordance with the advice of Sir M. 
Hicks Beach. The Ministry were, how- 
ever, placed in a minority, and Mr. 
Service acceded to power in March 1880. 
He also, being impressed with the ne- 
cessity for a substantial constitutional 
change, introduced a Reform Bill, which 
also proving abortive, he retired from 
office in August of the same year, when 
Mr. Berry once more assumed the Premier- 
ship, and succeeded in coming to a com- 
promise with the Council on the basis of 
a Reform Bill, which considerably reduced 
the franchise and qualification for mem- 
bers of the Upper Chamber. Mr. Berry 
was subsequently defeated by a combina- 



tion of Conservatives with the dissatisfied 
Liberals, and resigned office, when Sir 
Bryan O'Loghlen took the reins, and con- 
tinued as Premier on sufferance until after 
the general election in Feb. 1883, when 
he and most of his small following lost 
their seats, and a House was returned 
in which the Conservatives, led by Mr. 
Service, and the Liberals, led by Mr. Berry, 
were almost equal in strength. To obviate 
a continuance of weak ministries and 
merely factious warfare, the Service- 
Berry coalition was formed, and conferred 
incalculable benefits on Victoria, until the 
voluntary termination of its tenure by 
the resignation of Messrs. Service and 
Berry in Feb. 1886. In the following 
March Mr. Berry quitted Victoria to take 
up the Agent-Generalship of the colony 
in succession to Mr. Murray Smith. He 
was also appointed Executive Commis- 
sioner to the Colonial and Indian Exhi- 
bition, for his services in connection with 
which he was created E.C.M.G. Sir 
Graham Berry was one of the represen- 
tatives of Victoria at the Colonial Con- 
ference held in London in 1887, and took 
a prominent part in its proceedings. For 
his services in connection with the Paris 
Exhibition of 1889 he was appointed a 
Commander of the Legion of Honour by 
the French Government. Sir Graham 
married, in 1869, a daughter of John B. 
Evans, of Victoria. In Feb. 1889 Sir 
Graham Berry was reappointed Agent- 
General for a further term of three years, 
and the Munro Government having de- 
cided not to again renew his appointment, 
he left for Melbourne in Dec. 1891. 
When the Munro Government was re- 
constructed under Mr. Shiels, he was 
offered a portfolio, but declined to join 
the Ministry except in the capacity of 
Premier. At the General Election in 
April 1892 he was returned to the As- 
sembly at the head of the poll for the 
East Bourke Boroughs, and a few days 
later accepted the post of Treasurer in 
the Shiels Ministry. 

Berry, Hon. John, M.L.C., is the eldest 
son of the late John Berry, of Albury, 
New South Wales, who emigrated to that 
colony from Meath, Ireland, and was born 
on Oct. 11th, 1840. He married in Feb. 
1883 Sara Eugenie, daughter of the late 
James Morey, of 8ydney. Mr. Berry was 
first employed in the Survey Department 
of New South Wales in 1866, and in 1877 



39 



o 



Bea] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bin 



entered the same department under the 
Government of Fiji. Two years later he 
was appointed Acting Surveyor-General, 
and in 1882 Commissioner of Crown 
Lands and Works and Crown Surveyor. 
He has been a member of the Executive 
and Legislative Councils of Fiji since 
1883. 

Best, Bobert Wallace, M.L.A., was 
born in Fiteroy, Melbourne, in 1866, and 
practises as a solicitor in Melbourne. He 
stood for Fitzroy at the General Election 
of March 1890, and was returned at the 
head of the poll, displacing Mr. B. D. Beid. 
He was again elected in April 1892, and 
was formerly Mayor of Fitzroy. He 
married a daughter of the late Hon. G. D. 
Langridge. In April 1892, when the 
Shiels 1 Ministry was reconstructed, after 
the General Election had resulted in their 
favour, he was offered a seat in the Cabinet 
without portfolio. 

Beveridge, Peter, was born at Dun- 
fermline, Scotland, and went to Victoria 
ten years later with his father, who 
engaged in pastoral pursuits near the 
township of Beveridge, to which the 
family gave their name. In 1845 Mr. 
Peter Beveridge took up country on the 
lower Murray, settling at Tyntyndyer, 
some ten miles below what is now Swan 
Hill. Here for twenty-three years he 
made a careful study of the habits and 
customs of the then numerous aborigines 
of the Lower Murray and Biverine dis- 
tricts. The result of his observations 
was embodied in a work entitled " The 
Aborigines of Victoria and Biverine," 
published posthumously in 1889. Mr. 
Beveridge, who latterly resided at French 
Island, died at Woodburn, near Kilmore, 
on Oct. 4th, 1885. 

Bews, Hon. David, M.P., sometime 
Ministerof Education for South Australia, 
was born near Kirkwall, in the Orkney 
Islands, in 1850, and went to South Aus- 
tralia with his parents the following year. 
In 1853, during the gold rush in Victoria, 
his family removed to that colony, but 
only to return one year later. Mr. Bews' 
father then engaged in farming opera- 
tions near Port Elliot, and afterwards 
near Adelaide. Mr. Bews continued as a 
farmer till he attained his majority, when 
he secured a position as clerk with the 
Kadina & Wallaroo Railway Company. 
He subsequently became goods manager ; 
but seven years later (in 1879), when the 



40 



Government took over the line, he left the 
service, and entered the ranks of journal- 
ism by taking charge of the Wallaroo 
Times. He was three times mayor of the 
Wallaroo Corporation, besides which he 
was a member of the late Yorke's Penin- 
sula Local Road Board, and the School 
Board of Advice. In 1885 Mr. Bews first 
entered the House of Assembly as mem- 
ber for Wallaroo, and was re-elected on 
March 19th, 1887, and at the General 
Election in 1890. In August of that 
year he accepted the office of Minister 
of Education in Mr. Playford's Govern- 
ment. Mr. Bews, who had been appointed 
one of the South Australian delegates at 
the Postal Convention, died in Melbourne 
whilst en route to Sydney on Feb. 24th, 
1891. 

Bickerton, Alexander William, F.C.8., 
was born at Alton, Hants, in 1842, and 
educated at the Grammar School of the 
town. After a preliminary engineering 
course, he gained an exhibition at the 
Royal School of Mines, London, where 
he distinguished himself in physical 
science, gaining a Senior Queen's Scholar- 
ship. After leaving the School of Mines, 
he joined the staff of the Hartley Institu- 
tion, Southampton, and was subsequently 
appointed Lecturer on Science at Win- 
chester College, and was Public Analyst 
in Hampshire. In 1873 Mr. Bickerton 
accepted the post of Professor of Che- 
mistry and Physics at Canterbury College, 
N.Z. He has held this position ever since, 
has written many papers on scientific 
subjects, and is the author of an astro- 
nomical theory which he terms ** Partial 
Impact." 

Bindon, Hon. Samuel Henry, was horn 
in Ireland in 1812, and educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he graduated in 
1835. He was called to the Irish bar, and 
after practising for some years in Dublin, 
went out to Victoria in 1855 ; in May of 
which year he was admitted to the bar of 
that colony. He sat in the Legislative 
Assembly from 1864 to 1869, and was 
Minister of Justice in the M*CuUoch 
Government from July 1866 to May 1868. 
In 1869 he was appointed a County Court 
Judge, and held that position, with the 
exception of a 'short interval in 1878, 
when he was one of the victims of the 
Black Wednesday dismissals, till his death 
on August 1st, 1879. 

Digitized by GOOgle 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[BUt 



Bird, Hon. Bolton Stafford, Colonial 
Treasurer of Tasmania, was born near 
Xewcastle-on-Tyne in 1840. He has 
been in the Australasian oolonies since 
1853, and in Tasmania since 1879. About 
twelve years of his life were spent as a 
minister of the Congregational Church. 
Soon after his arrival in Tasmania he 
resigned the charge of the Davey Street 
Congregational Church, Hobart, of which 
he was the minister, and betook himself 
to fruit-growing in the Huon district. 
He has taken an active part in the recent 
establishment of the fruit export trade 
to England. He has represented the 
Franklin district in the House of Assem- 
bly since 1882. In March 1887 he joined 
the FyBh Ministry as Colonial Treasurer. 
He was a member of the Commissions 
on Education and on Lunatic Asylums 
in 1883, and is a member of the Council 
of the University of Tasmania. Mr. 
Bird was one of the representatives of the 
colony at the third and fourth sessions of 
the Federal Council of Australasia, and at 
the Federation Conference at Melbourne 
in 1890, and the Sydney Federation 
Convention in 1891. 

Biraie, Bichard, second son of the late 
Bir Bichard Birnie, Chief Metropolitan 
Police Magistrate at Bow Street, was 
born in London in 1808. He was edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1830, and 
MJL in 1837. He entered at the Inner 
Temple on Jan. 9th, 1828, and was called 
to the bar on May 7th, 1833. After 
practising in the Central Criminal Court 
Mr. Birnie was appointed by the Duke of 
Newcastle Advocate-General of Western 
Australia, in which colony he arrived in 
Jan. 1854. After holding this post for 
nearly six years he acted as judge for 
about a year. Arriving in 1859 in Mel- 
bourne, he was called to the Victorian 
bar on Oct. 13th in the same year. He 
was on several occasions employed as 
crown prosecutor in Victoria, but has 
been mainly known as a contributor of 
essays to the Australasian. His father, 
8ir Bichard Birnie, was originally a 
saddler, but is chiefly known by his 
success in detecting and hunting down 
the *• Cato Street " conspirators. 

Blaek, Alexander, ex'-Surveyor-General 
of Victoria, was born in Banffshire, edu- 
cated in Aberdeen as a land surveyor, and 
emigrated to Victoria in 1852, where he 



arrived in December, and proceeded to 
the Castlemaine goldfield. He returned 
to Melbourne in 1853, and practised his 
profession. On April 18th, 1864, he was 
appointed Government Assistant-Sur- 
veyor, and Geodetic Surveyor in 1860, 
and in this capacity surveyed the bound- 
ary line between Victoria and New South 
Wales. Mr. Black became District Sur- 
veyor in 1871, Assistant Surveyor-General 
in 1878, and succeeded to his late 
position of Surveyor-General of Victoria 
on the retirement of Mr. Skene in 1886. 
Mr. Black was a member of the Board of 
Land and Works, a Commissioner of Land 
Tax, and Chairman of Parks and Gardens 
Committees until he retired in 1892. 

Black, Manries Hume, M.L.A., is a 
grand-nephew of the celebrated Joseph 
Hume, Member for Montrose in the 
British House of Commons. He was 
born in London on Dec 15th, 1835, and 
married in 1861 a niece of the great 
statesman, George Canning. Having 
emigrated to Victoria in 1852, Mr. Black 
left the goldnelds of that colony to try 
his luck in pastoral pursuits in South 
Australia, subsequently going to Biverina, 
and in 1864 to Queensland, where he still 
resides. He is the inventor of a steam 
sheep-washing process, and went into 
sugar planting in the Mackay district of 
Queensland in 1871. In 1881 he Was 
returned to the Legislative Assembly for 
that electorate, for which he still sits. 
Having taken a prominent part in the 
agitation for the separation of Northern 
Queensland from the rest of the colony, 
and its formation into a distinct colony, he 
was in 1887 commissioned to go to Eng- 
land with Mr. Lissner to press the matter 
upon the attention of the Home Govern- 
ment, Mr. Harold Finoh-Hatton and Dr. 
Ahearne having done much to bring 
the matter into the region of practical 
politics by their exertions during the 
previous year. Though not successful 
in inducing Lord Knutsf ord to take steps 
for the separation of Northern Queens- 
land, the advanced phase which the 
question has since assumed is a good 
deal due to the efforts of the delegation 
of 1887. In June 1888, on the formation 
of the second McHwraith Administra- 
tion, Mr. Black became Secretary of 
Public Works, and continued to hold the 
post when five months later the Ministry 
was reconstructed under Mr. Morehead, 



41 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bla 



He resigned with his colleagues in 
August 1890. 

Black, Hon. Nell, M.L.C., J. P., was the 
son of Alexander Black, and was born 
at Cowal, Argyleshire, in 1804. He emi- 
grated to Australia in 1889, and went to 
the Camperdown district, where, as the 
representative partner of Mr. Finlay, of 
Castle Toward, Argyleshire, Mr. Stuart 
Gladstone, of Capenock, and Mr. Stewart, 
of Glenormiston, Perthshire, Scotland, he 
purchased the Glenormiston property. 
The partnership, which was highly remu- 
nerative after 1846, continued until 1868, 
when the property was divided. Mr. 
Black bought Mr. Gladstone's portion, 
now known as Mount Noorat, and resided 
on it until his death May 15th, 1880. Mr. 
Black, who married Miss Grace Green- 
shiels Leadbetter, for many years repre- 
sented the Western Province in the 
Legislative Council, and was also a 
magistrate for the southern bailiwick. 
As a politician he was a staunch Conser- 
vative, and opposed the introduction of 
free education. 

Blaekall, Col. Samuel Weniley, some- 
time Governor of Queensland, was the 
eldest son of Major Robert Blaekall, 
H.E.I.C.S., of Colamber Manor, co. Long- 
ford. He was born on May 1st, 1809, 
in Ireland, and took his degree at 
Trinity College, Dublin. He served in 
the 85th Light Infantry, was then major 
in the Longford Militia, and afterwards 
honorary colonel in the Leitrim Militia. 
CoL Blaekall was M.P. for Longford in 
the House of Commons, from 1847 to 
1851, a D.L. for counties Longford and 
Leitrim, High Sheriff of Longford in 
1833, and for Tyrone in 1861. He was 
Lieutenant-Governor of Dominica from 
1851 to 1857 ; Governor of Sierra Leone 
from 1862 to 1865 ; Governor-in-chief of 
the West African Settlements from 1865 
to 1867; and Governor of Queensland, 
in succession to Sir George Bowen, from 
August 1868 to Jan. 2nd, 1871, when he 
died at Brisbane and was buried in the 
new cemetery there on the following day. 
Colonel Blaekall married first, in 1833, 
Georgina, daughter of Henry Bowles, of 
London; and secondly, in 1848, Kate, 
daughter of the late James Bond, who 
died in 1864. 

Blaekett, Cuthbert Robert, F.C.S., J.P., 
Government Analytical Chemist, is son of 

je late Rev, C. R, Blaekett, Independent 



minister at Southminster, England, where 
he was born Oct. 9th, 1831. Having served 
his time as a pharmaceutical chemist, he 
arrived in Melbourne in Jan. 1853, and 
became a member of the first council of 
the Pharmaceutical Society, and ulti- 
mately its Secretary and President. He 
was also for five years editor of the 
journal published by that society. On 
the passing of the Pharmacy Act in 1877, 
the Government appointed him one of 
the members of the Pharmacy Board, and 
on the retirement of Mr. Bosisto he was 
elected President. He was examiner in 
chemistry to the College of Pharmacy, 
and for some time acted as lecturer on 
chemistry, materia medica, and botany, 
pending the arrival of Professor A. H. 
Jackson, B.8o. In 1879 he was elected 
to the Assembly for Fitzroy in the 
Conservative interest. Mr. Blaekett was 
President of the Royal Technological 
Commission ; and when the Central 
Board of Health was formed he was 
offered the position of president, but 
declined it. In 1882 he was again re- 
turned for Fitzroy, but was defeated 
at the next general election, owing to 
his pronounced free-trade views. Mr. 
Blaekett was appointed Government 
Analytical Chemist on the death of Mr. 
Johnson, in 1887, and is also a Fellow 
of the Chemical Society of London, and 
was co-examiner in chemistry to the 
Melbourne University, until he resigned 
the office. Mr. Blaekett married in 
May 1870 at Stokesley, England, Hiss 
Margaretta Palmer. 

Blaekett, John, M.lnst.C.E., was edu- 
cated at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and was a 
pupil with Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn, en- 
gineers, 1834-41 ; draughtsman and office 
engineer to the Great Western Steamship 
Company, 1841-4 ; head engineer in iron 
shipbuilding and railway work with T. K. 
Guppy, A.I.C.E., 1844-6 ; engineer to the 
Governor and Company of Copper Mines 
in England at Cwm Avon, South Wales, 
1846-8. From 1848 to 1851 he practised 
privately as an engineer in England. In 
1859 Mr. Blaekett was appointed provin- 
cial engineer at Nelson, N.Z., and in 1870 
was advanced to the position of Acting 
Engineer-in-chief for New Zealand, be- 
coming also Marine Engineer in the 
following year. In 1878 he was made 
Engineer-in-charge of the North Island, 
and in 1884 Engineer-in-chief of the 



42 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bla 



colony. Mr. Blackett is now Consulting 
Engineer of the Government of New 
Zealand in London. 

Blackmore, Edwin Gordon, Clerk of the 
Legislative Council and Clerk of Parlia- 
ments, South Australia, was educated at 
King Edward VI. Grammar School, Bath ; 
served with theTaranaki Rifle Volunteers 
in the New Zealand war from 1863 to 
1864, and was present, in reserve, at the 
action of Poatoko, on Oct. 2nd, 1863, and 
at the storming and capture of the rebel 
Maori strongholds at Ahuahu and Kaitake 
in March 1864. For these services Mr. 
Blackmore received the New Zealand 
medaL He was appointed Parliamentary 
Librarian to the Legislature of South 
Australia in Oct. 1864; Clerk Assistant 
and Sergeant-at-arms,Hou8e of Assembly, 
in Dec 1869; Clerk of the House of 
Assembly in May 1886; Clerk of the 
Legislative Council and Clerk of Parlia- 
ments in May 1887. Mr. Blackmore is 
author of " The Decisions of Mr. Speaker 
Denison on Points of Order, Rules of 
Debate, and the General Practice of the 
House of Commons from 1857 to 1872," 
44 The Decisions of Mr. Speaker Brand 
from 1872 to 1884," "The Decisions of 
Mr. Speaker Peel from 1884 to 1886, and 
1887 to 1889," and " Manual of the Prac- 
tice, Procedure, and Usage of the House 
of Assembly of South Australia." 

Blackmore, James Hewnham, J. P., 
brother of the foregoing, was born in 
1836, and was employed in the South 
Australian Chief Secretary's office from 
1854 to 1857, when he was appointed 
Assistant Clerk and Sergeant-at-arms in 
the House of Assembly. Nine years 
later he became Secretary to the Com- 
missioner for Crown Lands, and in 1870 
Under Treasurer, a post which he held till 
his death, which took place in Adelaide 
on April 7th, 1875. 

Hair, David, was born in 1820, and 
came to New South Wales at the insti- 
gation of Dr. Lang, in 1850, where he 
assisted Mr. (now Sir) Henry Parkes in 
establishing the Empire newspaper in 
Sydney. In 1852 Mr. Blair settled in 
Victoria as correspondent for the Sydney 
Morning Herald, and became sub-editor 
of the Melbourne Argus. In 1854 he 
was appointed editor of the Age, and 
advocated the cause of the miners in 
their opposition to the unpopular digging 
licences. Mr, Blair was elected to the 



Assembly for Talbot in 1856, and for 
Crowlands in 1868. In 1867 he was 
appointed Secretary to the Royal Com- 
mission on Education, and acted in the 
same capacity to the Penal Commission 
in 1873. He wrote the first history of 
Australia in 1878, and in 1881 compiled 
the " Cyclopaedia of Australasia, n a work 
which displays a minute and comprehen- 
sive knowledge of persons and events 
connected with the pioneer days of the 
colonies. In 1876 he edited the speeches 
of Sir Henry Parkes, which he prefaced 
with an introduction. 

Blair, William Hewsham, M.Inst.C.E., 
was in the service of the Provincial 
Government of Otago from 1864 to 1865 ; 
became district engineer in the Public 
Works Department of New Zealand in 
1871, Engineer-in-charge of the Middle 
Island in 1878, and Assistant Engineer-in- 
Chief for the colony in 1884. In 1890 Mr. 
Blair was appointed Engineer-in-chief, 
and died on May 4th, 1891. 

Blakeney, William Tneopnilus, Regis- 
trar-General of Queensland, comes of an 
Anglo-Irish family long settled at Abbert 
Castle, Blakeney, co. Galway, and was 
educated at the Collegiate School, Elphin, 
co. Roscommon, and at Stackpool's High 
School at Kingstown. He emigrated to 
Sydney in 1853, and was engaged in 
mercantile pursuits until Feb. 1856, when 
he received an appointment in the sheriffs 
office, which he exchanged in 1860 for a 
similar position in the sheriff's office of 
the then new colony of Queensland. He 
was appointed Under Sheriff of Queens- 
land in 1862, Deputy Registrar-General 
in 1865, and Registrar-General upon the 
retirement of Mr. Jordan in 1883. Mr. 
Blakeney is also a Commissioner of Stamp 
Duties, and Registrar of Friendly Societies, 
Building Societies, and Trades Unions. 
He was Registrar of Patents, Designs and 
Trade Marks from 1883 to 1889, when he 
resigned. 

Bland, Rivett Henry, is the son of Dr. 
Thomas Bland, and was born at Newark, 
Nottinghamshire, on Feb. 2nd, 1811. 
He was educated at the Grammar School, 
Newark, and studied for the medical 
profession at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
London. Leaving England in May 1829, 
for Western Australia, he arrived in 
August, and after a short interval was 
appointed by the then Governor (Sir 
James Stirling) to settle the York djs- 



43 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



pay 



trict, about seventy miles distant from 
Perth. In this locality he remained for 
a number of years as resident magistrate, 
his principal duty being to protect the 
settlers from the blacks, with whose 
language and customs he obtained an 
intimate acquaintance. Towards the end 
of 1848 he accompanied Captain Charles 
Fitzgerald, who had in the meantime 
become Governor of Western Australia, 
in the capacity of private secretary, on 
an expedition to Champion Bay, for the 
purpose of examining a lode of galena, 
discovered on the Murchison River by 
Mr. Augustus C. Gregory. The party 
consisted of the Governor, Mr. Bland, Mr. 
Gregory, three soldiers, and a servant. 
The discovery was verified, but on the 
return journey the Governor was speared 
in the leg by the blacks, and Mr. Bland 
had a narrow escape. Returning to 
England after a visit to the eastern 
colonies, he was in 1852 appointed resi- 
dent Director of the Port Phillip and 
Colonial Gold Mining Company, and 
arrived in Melbourne towards the end 
of that year. In 1856 he arranged with 
the proprietors of some land at Clones 
to commence mining operations on some 
quartz lodes, and erected an extensive 
plant of machinery in conjunction with 
a party of miners, afterwards called the 
Clunes Quartz Mining Company. This 
mine has continued to be worked to the 
present time with varying results. The 
total gold, raised from 1857 to 1884 
was 506,220 ounces, of the value of 
£2,029,078 13*. 7<*„ giving a profit of 
nearly half a million from an outlay 
under £20,000. 

Bland, William, M.R.C.S., the son of 
Br. Robert Bland, an eminent physician 
and writer on medical subjects, was 
born in London on Nov. 5th, 1789, and 
educated at Merchant Taylors' School. 
> Having been admitted M.R.C.8. in 1810, 
he received an appointment in the Royal 
Navy, and sailed for Bombay. During 
the voyage he quarrelled* with the 
purser, and when they reached land 
a duel was fought, in which the purser 
was killed. Lieutenant Randall, one 
of the ship's officers, having insinuated 
unfairness, Mr. Bland fought him with- 
out result, but they were afterwards 
arrested, tried at Calcutta,, and sen- 
tenced to seven years' transportation ; 
Mr, Bland being sent to Sydney, where 



he arrived in 1814, and having received 
a free pardon, practised his profession. 
In the course of divorce proceedings 
which he had instituted against his wife, 
Mr. Bland referred in libellous terms to 
Governor Macquarie, and in consequence 
was criminally indicted before the 
Supreme Court of New South Wales, 
and fined £50, with twelve months in 
Parramatta Gaol, which sentence was 
fully exacted. On his release Mr. Bland 
devoted himself to benevolent projects, 
and took a prominent part as a member 
of the Patriotic Association, in the great 
struggle for political emancipation which 
was then engrossing the attention of the 
colonists, his efforts in the cause of 
local autonomy entitling him to rank 
with Wentworth amongst the greatest 
benefactors of the community, amongst 
whom he originally came under such 
inauspicious circumstances. When the 
elections to the first partially representa- 
tive Legislative Council of New South 
Wales took place in 1843, Mr. Bland was 
returned, along with Wentworth, for the 
city of Sydney. Five years later, how- 
ever, the tide of popular feeling turned 
against him in favour of more extremist 
agitators, headed by Mr. Robert Lowe 
(now Lord Sherbrooke); and when, in 
1848, the elections took place for the 
new Legislative Council, in which Sydney 
had three members given her instead of 
two, Mr. Blan4 was lowest on the poll 
of the four candidates, Messrs. Went- 
worth, Lowe, and Lamb being elected, 
despite the incisive attack made by 
Wentworth on Mr. Lowe's inconsistencies, 
and his impassioned appeal to the con- 
stituency to reject himself rather than 
his friend Mr. Bland, of whom he said, 
44 No man has ever served a country in 
a purer spirit of patriotism, no man ever 
more deeply deserved the gratitude of 
a generous people, than he has." Mr. 
Bland died suddenly in Sydney, on July 
21st, 1868. He was the author of " Sup- 
pression of Spontaneous Combustion in 
Woolships " (second edition, 1845), 
44 Letters to Charles Buller, M.P." (1849), 
and other brochures. 

Blyth, Hon. Sir Arthur, K.C.M.G., C.B., 
late Agent-General for South Australia, 
was the son of William Blyth, late of 
Adelaide, S.A., but previously of Bir- 
mingham, England, by Sarah, daughter of 
Rev. William Wilkins, of Bourton-on-the* 



44 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



\ptf 



Water, in Gloucestershire. He was born 
at Birmingham on March 19th, 1823, and 
educated at King Edward VI. Gram- 
mar School, in that town. Haying 
emigrated to South Australia with his 
father and brothers in 1839, only three 
yean after the formal constitution of 
the colony, he engaged in commercial 
pursuits, from which he retired in 1861. 
An instalment of representative govern- 
ment having been conceded, Sir Arthur, 
in 1855, entered the semi-elective Coun- 
cil as elected member for Yatala. Prior 
to this be had occupied various local 
posts, having been Chairman of the 
Mitcham District Council, Assessor of 
the City Corporation, Captain of the 
first Volunteer Force, formed during the 
Russian War scare; and a member of 
the Central Road Board, and of the 
Chamber of Commerce. The Council 
had been dissolved by Sir Richard 
McDonnell, the then Governor, with a 
view to the adoption of a new constitu- 
tion on more liberal lines than the one 
previously in force. This great work 
was promptly achieved, and Sir Arthur 
Blyth took a prominent part in the 
legislation which enlarged the suffrage, 
instituted the bicameral system, and 
settled the constitution upon what, with 
slight changes, is its present basis. In 
the Legislative Assembly constituted 
under the Bill, Sir Arthur took his seat 
as member for Gumeracha, and repre- 
sented the constituency till 1868. The 
Finniss Ministry, which included the 
author of the Torrens Act, having 
resigned office, the Baker Ministry was 
formed, in which Sir Arthur' Blyth held 
the post of Commissioner of Public 
Works throughout its short-lived exist- 
ence, from August to Sept. 1857. From 
June 1858 to May 1860 Sir Arthur held 
a similar position in the Hanson Ministry. 
In October of the following year Sir 
Arthur accepted the post or Treasurer 
under Mr. Waterhouse's premiership, but 
resigned with his colleagues in July 
1863. In August 1864 Sir Arthur formed 
his first Administration, holding, along 
with the premiership, the rather unusual 
post of Commissioner of Crown Lands 
and Emigration. In March 1865 he was 
thrown out of power, but came back 
as Treasurer under his old colleague, 
8ir Henry Ayers, in Sept. 1865. This 
Ministry was also only formed to die ; but 

4S 



Sir Arthur was not long in opposition, 
becoming Chief Secretary under Mr. 
Boucaut in March 1866. The May of 
1867 saw him again out of office, and he 
remained in opposition until May 1870, 
when he joined Mr. Hart as, for the 
second time, Commissioner of Crown 
Lands and Immigration. In Nov. 1871 
the Government was reconstructed, and 
Sir Arthur became Treasurer and Premier. 
He did not secure a firm tenure, being 
thrown out in the January following. 
He, however, became Premier for the 
third time in July 1873, and was success* 
ful in holding his own till June 1875, 
when Mr. Boucaut's extensive scheme of 
public undertakings caused the electors 
to look askance at the more cautious 
policy of Sir Arthur Blyth's Cabinet. In 
March 1876 he accepted office as Trea- 
surer in the reconstructed Boucaut 
Ministry, and in Feb. 1877 was appointed 
Agent-General in succession to toe late 
Mr. F. S. Dutton. Prior to this Sir 
Arthur had revisited England, remaining 
from 1868 to 1870, in which latter year 
he was re-elected for Gumeracha, and sat 
until 1875, when he transferred bis 
services to North Adelaide. In 1850 
Sir Arthur married Jessie Anne, daughter 
of Edward Forrest, of Birmingham. In 
1877, soon after bis arrival in London, 
he was created a Knight Commander of 
St. Michael and St. George, and in 1886 
received the Civil Companionship of the 
Order of the Bath, in recognition of 
services rendered in connection with the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition, at which 
he represented his colony both as Royal 
and Executive Commissioner. He was 
also presented with the freedom of the 
Salters' Company, one of the most 
ancient and exclusive of the City Guilds. 
In 1887 Sir Arthur was associated with 
Sir John Downer as one of the representa- 
tives of South Australia, at the Colonial 
Conference held in London in that year. 
He died at Bournemouth on Dec. 7th, 
1891. Lady Blvth died a fortnight later. 
Blyth, Heville, J.P., brother of the 
above and son of the late William Blyth, 
of Adelaide, by Sarah, third daughter of 
Rev. William Wilkins, of Bourton-on-tbe- 
Water, Gloucestershire, was born at Bir- 
mingham in 1828. He arrived in South 
Australia with his father in 1839, and 
engaged in commercial pursuits. He was 
member for East Torrens from March 

Digitized by G00gk 



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DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BtOGRAPftV. 



[fion 



13th, I860, to July 9th, 1867, when he 
resigned. He was returned for Encounter 
Bay on April 16th, 1868, bnt retired at the 
dissolution on March 2nd, 1870. He was 
elected for Victoria on Aug. 24th, 1871, 
and at the dissolution in Nov. 1871 un- 
successfully contested Encounter Bay. 
He visited England and the continent of 
Europe from 1873 to 1875. On his brother, 
Hon. (now Sir) Arthur Blyth, accepting 
the office of Agent- General, he was re- 
turned in his stead for North Adelaide, 
on March 14th, 1877. Mr. Blyth was 
re-elected on March 29th, 1878, but re- 
signed and finally retired from Parliament 
on pec. 2nd in the same year. He was 
Treasurer in Mr. Hart's Ministry from 
Sei*. 24th to Oct 13th, t 1868, and 
Minister of Education in Mr. Boucaut's 
Cabinet from Oct 26th, 1877, to Sept 
27th, 1878. Mr. Blyth married at Aiderley 
Edge, Cheshire, in 1852, Miss Julia 
Barnes, who still survives. Mr. Blyth 
took up his residence in England in 1878, 
and was a member of the London Com- 
mission for the Adelaide Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion of 1887. He died at Sutton, Surrey, 
on Feb. 15th, 1890. 

Bolton, Eon. Henry, J.P., is the son of 
a farmer and civil engineer of Galway, 
Ireland, where he was born in 1842. He 
came to Victoria in 1861, and started as 
a brewer at Heathcote, removing to 
Seymour in 1869. He was president of 
the Seymour Shire Council, and having 
unsuccessfully contested Moira in the 
Liberal interest in 1877, was returned to 
the Legislative Assembly for that con- 
stituency in 1880. He was Postmaster- 
General in the O'Loghlen Government 
from July 1881 to March 1883. He 
subsequently retired from public life in 
Victoria, and commenced business in 
Queensland. Mr. Bolton married, in 
1866, Annie, second daughter of James 
Eagan, of the Major's Line Station. 

Bonney, Charles, was born at Sandon, 
near Stafford, on Oct 31st, 1813, and 
educated at the Grammar School, Rugby. 
He went to 8ydney in 1834 as clerk to 
Sir William Westbrooke Burton. In April 
1837 he brought the first lot of cattle 
overland from New South Wales to 
Victoria for Mr. Ebden, and in April of 
+ he following year the first mob of cattle 

m N.S.W. to South Australia, in which 
ny he subsequently settled. From 
; to 1857 he was Commissioner for 



Crown Lands, S.A. From Oct. 1856 to 
August 1857, was a member of the first 
Ministry formed under responsible govern- 
ment. Mr. Bonney was member for East 
Torrens in the Legislative Assembly from 
1857 to 1858, and was a member of the 
Legislative Council in 1865 and 1866. He 
was Manager of Railways from 1869 to 
1871, when he was appointed Inspector 
of "Lands Purchased on Credit. He 
now resides in Sydney. 

Bonwiek, James, F.R.G.S., son of 
James and Mary Ann Bonwiek, was 
born in London on July 8th, 1817, and 
married Miss Esther Beddow, April 17th, 
1 840. In the following year he emigrated 
to Australia, arriving at Hobart on 
Oct. 10th. He spent eight years in 
Tasmania, three in South Australia, twenty 
in Victoria, and travelled extensively 
throughout New South Wales and Queens- 
land. He acted as Inspector of Schools 
for the Ballarat district of Victoria for 
four years, when a severe sunstroke, 
which caused partial paralysis, inca- 
pacitated him from all work f or nearly four 
years. He opened a school at St Kilda, 
near Melbourne, in 1863, and returned to 
England for the benefit of his health in 
1870, but has since several times revisited 
Melbourne. He has been engaged for 
the last four years as Archivist to the 
New 8outh Wales Government, in the 

E reparation of materials for the official 
istory of that colony. Mr. Bonwiek has 
been a most industrious author and com- 
piler. Amongst his numerous works may 
be mentioned " Geography for Australian 
Youth/' 1845; " Boroondara," 1854; 
" Western Victoria," 1857 ; and at various 
dates, "Orion and Sirius," "French 
Colonies," " Early Struggles of Trade in 
New South Wales," " Early Struggles of 
the Australian Press," " Early Struggles 
of the New Zealand Trade and Press," 
"Our Nationalities," "Geography of 
Australia," "Discovery and Settlement 
of Port Phillip," "Buckley, the Wild 
White Man," " John Batman, the Founder 
of Victoria," "The Last of the Tas- 
manians," " Daily life of the Tasmanians," 
"Curious Facts of Old Colonial Days," 
" Mormons and Silver Mines," " Pyramid 
Facts and Fancies," "Egyptian Belief 
and Modern Thought," "Resources of 
Queensland," "First Twenty Years of 
Australia," "Port Phillip Settlement," 
"Romance of the Wool Trade," "The 



46 



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Googk 



DiCTlONAfeY Of AtJSTfcALASlAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Bushrangers of Van Diemen's Land/' 
u Bible Stories for Yonng Australians," 
M Astronomy for Young Australians," etc. 

Bomytnon, John Langdon, J. P., was 
born in London, Oct 16th, 1848. He 
is a son of George L. Bonython, and 
is descended from an old family— the 
Bonythons of Bonython, and Carclew, in 
Cornwall. At an early age he went with 
his parents to South Australia, and was 
educated in Adelaide. He joined the 
literary staff of The Advertiser, which is 
the popular journal of South Australia. 
Having served as reporter and sub-editor, 
be became some years ago the editor, 
which position he now fills. In 1879 he 
entered the proprietary of The Advertiser 
and associated journals (The Express, an 
evening paper, and The Chronicle, a 
weekly paper) ; and eventually the firm, 
which had been Barrow & King, became 
Burden (Mr. F. B. Burden, J.P.) & Bony- 
thon. When the Adelaide School Board 
was appointed, Mr. Bonython was nomi- 
nated a member. In 1883 he was elected 
chairman, and at the present time holds 
that office. He was a member of a board 
appointed by the Government in 1886 
to consider the question of technical 
education. As recommended by this 
Board a School of Mines and Industries 
was established, and Mr. Bonython was 
made a member of the Council, which 
included some of the best known and 
most representative men in the colony. 
The first chairman, Dr. Cockburn, having 
soon after his appointment to resign 
through becoming Premier, Mr. Bonython 
was unanimously elected to the position, 
which he now occupies. He was one of 
the local commission for the Melbourne 
Centennial Exhibition of 1888. He is 
a justice of the peace, a member of the 
council of the South Australian branch of 
the Geographical Society of Australasia, 
and vice-president of the South Australian 
Cornish Association. Mr. Bonython is 
recognised as a shrewd politician, who 
has probably had as much influence on 
the legislation of the country as men 
actively engaged in politics. To his un- 
tiring energy the success of the journals 
with which he is connected is largely due. 

loethby, His Honour Benjamin, some- 
time Judge of the Supreme Court of South 
Australia, son of the late Benjamin 
Boothby, was born at Doncaster in 
Yorkshire on Feb. 5th, 1803. He was 



[Bod 

called to the bar at Gray's Inn in 1825, 
and became Revising Barrister for the 
West Riding of Yorkshire, and Recorder 
of Pontefract. In Feb. 1853 he was 
appointed Second Judge of the Supreme 
Court of South Australia, and was sworn 
in on Oct. 17th, 1853. 8oon after his 
arrival he manifested a dislike to colonial 
enactments, which he did not attempt to 
conceal. The words " ultra vires and 
*• repugnant n constantly figured in his 
judicial pronouncements, and he pro- 
tested from the bench against the validity 
of the appointments of his colleagues, 
Chief Justice Hanson and Mr. Justice 
Gwynne. Twice the Parliament passed 
addresses for Mr. Justice Boothby'a 
removal from the bench, but in vain. 
He had warm defenders in Parliament, 
and one ministry resigned on account of 
differences of opinion in the Cabinet 
with regard to the action to be taken. 
Some of his decisions against the validity 
of the South Australian statutes were 
confirmed on appeal to the Privy Council, 
and this greatly encouraged him in his 
warfare against things colonial. Several 
validating Acts were passed by the 
Imperial Parliament to give force to the 
South Australian laws or remove doubts 
concerning them. 8till the judge was 
not more practicable. 8uitors suffered 
seriously from delays and obstructions 
in the Supreme Court, and at last business 
in that tribunal was brought into such 
a condition that it was necessary for the 
Executive to take decided action. Several 
years before Mr. Justice Boothby arrived 
in the colony grand juries had been 
abolished, Parliament regarding them as 
useless. Soon, if not immediately, after 
his arrival the judge expressed his strong 
disapproval of this innovation ; but still 
he tried prisoners without grand juries 
for about thirteen years, and then, at 
a particularly heavy criminal sittings, 
declared that the accused persons on the 
calendar could not legally be tried with- 
out a grand jury. They were all kept 
in gaol or had their bail renewed, as the 
case might be, till the next criminal 
sittings, when another judge tried them. 
This was the occasion of the second 
unsuccessful Parliamentary Address to 
the Queen for Mr. Justice Boothby's 
removal. He was not allowed to preside 
at a criminal sitting again ; when his 
turn came round he was prevented, by a 



47 



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Boo] 



DICTIONARY 0* AUSTRALASIAN BIOCRAPttV. 



special commission to the Chief Justice 
directing him to try prisoners. In 1867 
the patience of the Judicial Bench, the 
bar, and the colonists was exhausted. 
Charges were made against Mr. Justice 
Boothby of obstructing the administra- 
tion of justice, and of unseemly conduct 
on the bench, as exhibited in his 
demeanour towards his colleagues and 
towards counsel. These charges were 
dealt with by the Executive Council under 
the authority of an Act of George III., 
the Governor presiding, and the judge 
was "amoved. The Crown Solicitor, 
Mr. Wearing, who was afterwards 
drowned in the wreck of the Gothen- 
burg, in Torres Straits, was appointed 
to succeed him. Out of all this trouble, 
observes Mr. J. P. Stow (whose account 
has been quoted) some benefit accrued to 
the colony: the amoved judge accurately 
ruled that, owing to some omission in 
bringing the new constitution into force, 
the Legislative itself was invalid, and 
the defect was remedied by the Imperial 
Parliament. The repugnancy nuisance 
was effectually disposed of. Nothing 
can now be ruled repugnant unless it is 
so to an Imperial Act specifically apply- 
ing to the colonies. The last Imperial 
Validating Statute was of a most com- 
prehensive character. With the above 
exception no Colonial Act can be ruled 
invalid after receiving the Queen's assent, 
or after proclamation that she has not 
exercised her power of disallowance. 
The greatest inconvenience and alarm 
was caused in the year 1865 by the 
decision of the majority of the judges— 
namely, Justices Boothby and Gwynne— 
that the South Australian Legislature 
had no power to establish Courts of 
Judicature. This invalidated all the 
local courts of the colony, they having 
jurisdiction in civil cases up to £100, and 
the Insolvency Court The Imperial 
Validating Act, however, settled this 
difficulty, greatly to the relief of suitors 
in particular, and the public generally. 
The powers of the Local Court of Appeal 
were enlarged by an Act of the South 
Australian Parliament, passed in 1861. 
This anomalous tribunal, consisting of 
the Executive, of whom nearly all are 
laymen, owes its continued existence to 
the recollection the colonists have of the 
*• repugnancy " and "ultra vires " troubles. 
Tudge Boothby died on June 21st, 1868, 

48 



whilst on the point of leaving for Eng- 
land to initiate an appeal to the Privy 
Council. 

Boothby, Josiah, C.M.G., fifth son of 
the late Benjamin Boothby, sometime 
Judge of the Supreme Court of 8outh 
Australia, was born at Nottingham on 
April 8th, 1837. He went to the colony 
with his father in 1853, and in that year 
became Clerk in the Colonial Secretary's 
Office, Clerk in the Audit Office in 1854, 
Chief Clerk in the Audit Office in 1856, 
Chief Clerk in the Chief Secretary's Office 
in 1859, also Government Statist and 
Superintendent of Census in 1860, Assist- 
ant Secretary and Government Statist in 
1866, and Under Secretary and Govern- 
ment Statist in 1868. He was elected 
Corresponding Member of the Statistical 
Society, London, in 1869 ; was appointed 
Trustee of the Savings Bank, South Aus- 
tralia, in 1869 ; a Commissioner for Inter- 
national Exhibitions in 1872 ; joint editor 
of a work " South Australia : its History, 
Resources, and Productions,*' published by 
authority of Government in 1876, and Ex- 
ecutive Commissioner representing South 
Australia at the Paris Universal Exhibi- 
tion in 1878, in connection with which 
he was created C.M.G., and received the 
Cross of the Legion of Honour. Owing 
to a dispute in connection with the 
expenses of the Paris Exhibition he 
retired from the public service of South 
Australia in 1880. 

Boothby, William Robinson, B.A., J. P., 
Sheriff of South Australia, son of Benjamin 
Boothby, formerly judge of the 8upreme 
Court of South Australia, was born in 
England on Sept. 26th, 1829. He was 
educated at London University, where 
he graduated B.A., and went to South 
Australia with his father in 1853. In 
the following year he was appointed 
Sheriff and Returning Officer of the pro- 
vince of South Australia, and Marshal of 
the Court of Vice- Admiralty in addition in 
1862. Mr. Boothby, who is Comptroller 
of Prison Labour, is a member of the 
Council of the Senate of Adelaide Uni- 
versity. 

Bodito, Joseph, C.M.G., M.L.A., is the 
son of the late William Bosisto, of Cook- 
ham, Berks, and was born on March 21st, 
1827, at Hammersmith. Becoming a 
druggist, he emigrated to Adelaide, SJL, 
in 1848, where he established the business 
of Messrs. Faulding & Co. He proceeded 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Bon] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bon 



to Melbourne in 1851, and began business 
at Richmond. Having discovered the 
remarkable antiseptic properties of the 
eucalyptus, he went largely into 
the manufacture of its products. The 
Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria was 
founded mainly through his instrumen- 
tality in 1857. He was twice mayor of 
Richmond, and chairman of the local 
bench for five years consecutively. From 
1874 to 1889 he was M.L.A. for the city, 
but was defeated in the latter year. 
Having represented Victoria at the 
Calcutta Exhibition in 1883, he was 
appointed President of the Royal Com- 
mission of that colony at the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition, held at South 
Kensington in 1886, for his services at 
which he was created C.M.G. on June 
28th of that year. Mr. Bosisto is a J.P. 
for Victoria, and has been president 
of the Technological Commission, and 
Examiner in Materia Medica and Botany 
at the College of Pharmacy. In April 
1892 Mr. Bosisto was re-elected to the 
Assembly for the Jolimont subdivision 
of his old constituency. 

Boueaut, Hon. James Penn, Puisne 
Judge South Australia, son of the late 
Captain Ray Boueaut, H.E.I.C.S., by 
Winifred, daughter of the late James 
Penn, Superintendent of H.M.'s Dockyard, 
Mylor, Falmouth, was born near that 
place on Oct. 29th, 1831. He came to 
South Australia with his father (who 
died in 1872) in 1846, and was called 
to the bar in 1855. He was returned to 
the Legislative Assembly for the city of 
Adelaide on Dec. 9th, 1861, on the resig- 
nation of Sir R. D. Hanson ; but was 
defeated at the general election in Nov. 
1862.. He was returned for West Ade- 
laide at the general election in March 
1865, and sat till the dissolution in 
March 1868, when he was returned for 
the Burra. He was, however, defeated 
at the general election in March 1870; 
but in August 1871 re-entered the Assem- 
bly as member for the West Torrens 
district, in succession to Mr. Strang- 
ways, who resigned. He was again 
returned for West Torrens at the general 
election in Dec. 1871, and sat till the 
dissolution in 1875, when he became 
member for Encounter Bay ; and having 
been re-elected in April 1878, he finally 
retired on Sept. 25th in the same year, 
on being appointed a judge. Mr. Boueaut 



49 



first took office in Mr. Hart's Ministry, on 
Oct. 23rd, 1865, being appointed Attorney- 
General, a position which he had refused 
when offered him by Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) Henry Ayers, immediately after his 
return for West Adelaide in March. On 
March 28th, 1866, the Ministry was re- 
constructed under the premiership of 
Mr. Boueaut, who continued to hold 
office as Attorney-General until May 3rd, 
1867, when he retired with his colleagues, 
in connection with the Moonta question. 
At this time he refused a Q.C.-ship, and 
subsequently frequently declined office. 
In 1872, however, he joined Mr. Hughes', 
or, as it is generally called, Mr, Ayers' 
Ministry, " to establish the principle that 
the Governor was not entitled absolutely 
to say that the framer of the Government 
should necessarily be its head."' Having 
established this principle, the ministry 
resigned, and Mr. Boueaut was out of 
office till June 3rd, 1875, when he again 
became Premier, and initiated the famous 
" Boueaut policy," which embraced a wide 
scheme of public works. In this, his second 
administration, Mr. Boueaut held the post 
of Commissioner of Crown Lands and 
Immigration, and subsequently the com- 
missionership of Public Works. On March 
25th, 1876, Mr. Boueaut reconstituted his 
ministry, Mr. Way having become Chief 
Justice, and Mr. (afterwards Sir) Win. 
Morgan and Mr. Colton having retired. 
He was turned out of office on June 6th, 
1876, partly, as his friends asserted, by 
backstairs cabals, and partly because be 
refused to borrow large sums of money 
without making provision to pay the 
interest,bis taxation proposals having been 
rejected in two sessions by the Legisla- 
tive Council. Mr. Boueaut again became 
Premier on Oct. 25th, 1877, and held that 
office till he was raised to the judicial 
bench in Oct. 1878. "As a politician," 
a friendly hand writes, " his horror of a 
plutocracy made him democratic ; but his 
love of fair play often tinged that with 
conservatism, as he generally opposed 
extreme views, and did not sacrifice a 
far-seeing purpose for the sake of a 
present advantage, nor would he court 
popularity by the sacrifice of independ- 
ence. He was amongst the most national 
of Australian politicians, and strongly 
dwelt upon the community of interest 
between South Australia and New South 
Wales. He advocated a gradual exten- 



Bon] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Boa 



sion of railways from Adelaide to Went- 
worth, in order to join the Sydney lines 
to the Barrier Ranges, to Innamincka, 
and northwards across the Continent, 
although strongly opposing any imme- 
diate attempt to extend it to Port 
Darwin." Judge Bouoant was Acting 
Chief Justice during the absence in 
England on leave of Chief Justice Way, 
1891-92. He has been soveral times Deputy 
Governor and twice administrator of the 
Government. 

Bourke, General Sir Richard, K.C.B., 
sometime Governor of New South Wales, 
eldest son of John Bourke, of Thornfield, 
co. Limerick, Ireland, by his marriage 
with Anne, daughter of Edmund Ryan, 
of Boscobel, co. Tipperary, was born 
on May 4th, 1778, and educated at 
Westminster School and Oxford Uni- 
versity, where he matriculated at Oriel 
College in 1793, and graduated B.A. at 
Exeter in 1798. Sir Richard, who suc- 
ceeded to his father's property in 1796, 
entered the army in 1798, and served 
with great distinction in Holland in the 
next year's campaign, being severely 
wounded in the face. After being, for 
a short time, Superintendent of the 
Military College at Marlow, he was ap- 
pointed Quartermaster-General in South 
America in 1806, and in the following 
year was present at the storming of 
Monte Video. He served in the Peninsular 
year from 1809 to 1814, was raised to 
the rank of major-general in 1821, and 
acted as Lieut.-Governor of the Cape of 
Good Hope from 1826 to 1828. Sir 
Richard assumed office as Captain-General 
and Governor-in-Chief of New South 
Wales and its dependencies in Dec 1831, 
and held the reins until Dec. 1837, when 
he - left the colony amidst the regrets of 
the people. Sir Richard, who was created 
K.C.B. in 1835, and was made colonel 
of the 64th regiment on his leaving New 
South Wales in 1837, became lieut.- 
general in Jan. 1851, and general in 
November of the same year. He was 
one of the witnesses to the will of the 
Right Hon. Edmund Burke, with whom 
he claimed kinship; and he edited, in 
conjunction with Charles, 5th Earl 
Fitzwilliam, an edition of that great 
statesman's correspondence. Sir Richard, 
who was High Sheriff of co. Limerick in 
1839, married, on March 1st, 1800, 
Elizabeth Jane, youngest daughter of 



John Bourke, of Carshalton, Surrey, 
Receiver-General of the Land Tax for 
Middlesex, by his wife, Mary Battye of 
Yorkshire. This lady died at Parramatta, 
N.S. W„ on May 7th, 1832, and was interred 
there. Sir Richard died on August 12th, 
1855, at his seat at Thornfield, where 
his only surviving son Richard resided. 
A monument was erected to Sir Richard 
Bourke's memory in the Domain, Sydney, 
the inscription on which well summarises 
his services as Governor of New South 
Wales, at a time when the Queen's repre- 
sentatives in Australia were allowed a 
much greater initiative than is the case 
at present. It runs as follows: "This 
statue of Lieutenant-General Sir Richard 
Bourke, K.C.B., is erected by the people 
of New South Wales, to record his able, 
honest, and benevolent administration 
from 1831 to 1837. Selected for the 
government at a period of singular 
difficulty, his judgment, urbanity, and 
firmness justified the choice. Compre- 
hending at once the vast resources 
peculiar to this colony, he applied them, 
for the first time, systematically to its 
benefit. He voluntarily divested himself 
of the prodigious influence arising from 
the assignment of penal labour, and 
enacted just and salutary laws for the 
amelioration of penal discipline. He 
was the first Governor who published 
satisfactory accounts of public receipts 
and expenditure. Without oppression 
or detriment to any interest he raised 
the revenue to a vast amount, and from 
its surplus realised extensive plans of 
immigration. He established religions 
equality on a just and firm basis, and 
sought to provide for all, without distinc- 
tion of sect, a sound and adequate system 
of national education. He constructed 
various public works of permanent utility 
He founded the flourishing settlement ol 
Port Phillip, and threw open the wild* 
of Australia to pastoral enterprise. H< 
established savings banks, and was th< 

Sitron of the first Mechanics' Institute 
e created an equitable tribunal fo 
determining upon claims to grants o 
lands. He was the warm friend of th< 
liberty of the Press. He extended tria 
by jury after its almost total suspensioi 
for many years. By these, and numerou 
other measures for the moral, religious 
and general improvement of all classe* 
he raised the colony to unexampled pros 



So 



o 



feu] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Boi 



perity, and retired amid the reverent and 
affectionate regret of the people, having 
won their confidence by his integrity, 
their gratitude by his services, their 
admiration bv his public talents, and 
their esteem by his private worth." Sir 
Richard, though in the first instance he 
discountenanced the formation of a settle- 
ment at Port Phillip, ultimately induced 
the Home Government to recognise it 
In 1837 he visited the incipient colony, 
and was the author of most of its existing 
nomenclature, giving the present names 
to Hobson's Bay, and the city of 
Melbourne itself, and his own family 
designation to the metropolian county, 
and to one of the principal streets of the 
embryo capital of what was to become 
the great colony of Victoria. 

Bourne, Joseph Orton, Registrar of 
Titles, Queensland, was born at Windsor, 
N.8.W., in 1854, and was the first pupil 
enrolled at the Normal School at Bris- 
bane, where he went with his parents in 
1869. He entered as a cadet in the 
Survey Office in 1861, became a draftsman 
in 1862, joined the Real Property Office 
as head draftsman in 1873, became prin- 
cipal Deputy Registrar of Titles in 1884, 
and received his present appointment as 
Registrar of Titles on Dec. 4th, 1889. He 
is a captain unattached in the Queens- 
land Defence Force. 

Bewail, Hon.Charlas Christopher,M.L.C., 
was born at Milf ord, oo. Mayo, Ireland, 
in 1830, being the eldest son of Charles 
Bowen, one of the founders of Canterbury, 
who was Speaker of the Provincial Council 
from 1865 to 1864. He was educated at 
Rugby and Cambridge, but left the Uni- 
versity without taking a degree, and went 
out to the Canterbury Settlement in one of 
the first four ships, acting, until Dec. 1852, 
as secretary to Mr. Godley. In the Pro- 
vincial Council of Canterbury Mr. Bowen 
was for some years Treasurer. In 1 859 he 
visited England, where he .remained till 
1862 ; and upon his return was, in 1864, 
appointed Resident Magistrate at Christ- 
church, which office he held till 1874. 
From 1872 to 1874 he was Chairman of 
the Canterbury Board of Education. Mr. 
Bowen, on Dec 16th, 1874, was called to 
the Legislative Council to take office 
under Sir Julius Vogel, but immediately 
afterwards resigned his seat and entered 
the Lower House as member for Eaiapoi. 
His offices were those of Minister of 



Justioe and Commissioner of Stamps, 
which he held until the advent of the 
Grey Ministry into power on Oct 14th, 
1877. During his tenure of office, he 
busied himself with the reform of prison 
management, introducing the system of 
"marks" into gaols. He also carried 
through the House in 1877 the Educa- 
tion Act, which established free primary 
schools and compulsory attendance 
throughout the colony. Mr. Bowen re- 
tired from Parliament in 1881, when he 
paid another visit to England. Mr. Bowen 
was called to the Upper House in 1891. 

Bowen,Right Hon,8ir George Ferguson, 
G.C.M.G„ D.C.L., LL.D., successively 
Governor of Queensland, N.Z., and Vic- 
toria, is the eldest son of the late Rev. 
Edward Bowen, rector of Taughboyne, 
county Donegal, and was born in 1821. 
He was educated at the Charterhouse and 
at Trinity College, Oxford, where he ob- 
tained a scholarship in 1840, and gradu- 
ated B.A. as first class in classics in 
1844. In the same year he was elected 
to a fellowship at Brasenose College, and 
became a member of Lincoln's Inn, In 
1847 he was appointed President of the 
University of Corfu, and in 1854 be- 
came Chief Secretary of the Government 
of the Ionian Islands, in which post 
he remained till 1859, when he was ap- 
pointed the first Governor of the new 
colony of Queensland. Taking with him 
Mr. (now Sir Robert) Herbert as Colonial 
Secretary, he successfully organised the 
government of the infant colony, and pre- 
sided over the inauguration of responsible 
institutions, Mr. Herbert becoming the 
first Premier. His term of Office expiring 
in Jan. 1868, he became Governor of New 
Zealand, where he had the difficult task 
of bringing the Maori War to an end. 
His rule gave entire satisfaction to the 
Colonial Office, and when in March 1873 
he was transferred to Victoria, the 
official intimation of his promotion was 
couched in very complimentary terms. 
From Jan. 1875 to Jan. 1876 he was at 
home on his first leave of absence. On his 
return- to 'Melbourne his troubles began. 
Sir William Stawell, who had held the 
reins in the interim, had shown somewhat 
too little flexibility in the exercise of his 
temporary powers, with the result that 
a constitutional struggle of unparalleled 
bitterness had been commenced between 
the supporters of Sir James M'Culloch 



51 



o 



Bow] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bn 



on the one hand and those of the Liberal 
party, under Mr. (now Sir Graham) 
Berry, on the other. At the general 
election in May 1877 the latter swept 
the country, and Mr. Berry formed an 
administration, which in the course of a 
lengthened straggle with the Upper House 
on the question of payment of members, 
and ultimately of the reform of the 
latter body itself, resorted to measures 
which were denounced by its opponents 
as unconstitutional and cruel, the latter 
term being applied to what were known 
as the " Black Wednesday" dismissals 
of civil servants in Dec. 1878. Through- 
out the whole of the struggle Sir George 
Bowen acted on the constitutional prin- 
ciple of accepting the advice of his 
Ministers when not illegal He was thus 
exposed to some personal animadversion 
from the Council and its organs in the 
press. On the whole, however, the Colo- 
nial Office justified his attitude, which 
was also approved by Mr. Gladstone, Mr. 
Childers, the late Earl of Carnarvon, and 
the late Mr. W. E. Forster. Sir George 
Bowen quitted the government of Vic- 
toria in Feb. 1879, on the expiry of 
the usual term of office, and was Gover- 
nor of Mauritius till 1883 and of Hong 
Kong from that year till 1887, when he 
retired on a pension, having declined the 
offer made to him of continuing at Hong 
Kong. In 1886 he was appointed to the 
Privy Council, having been created 
C.M.G. in 1855; K.C.M.G. in 1856; and 
G.C.M.G. in 1860. In 1888 Sir George 
Bowen was appointed Royal Commis- 
sioner at Malta to make arrangements 
respecting the new constitution granted to 
that island. He is the author of " A Hand- 
book for Travellers in Greece," in Murray's 
Series; " Mount Athos, Thessaly, and 
E pirns: a Diary of a Journey from 
Constantinople to Corfu " (1852) ; " Ithaca 
in 1850 n ; and "Imperial Federation " 
(1886). A full account of his public 
services will be found in " Thirty Years 
of Colonial Government," which comprises 
a selection from his despatches and 
letters whilst in the service of the 
Colonial Office, and was edited by Mr. 
Stanley Lane Poole. Sir George Bowen, 
besides being an honorary D.C.L. of 
Oxford and an honorary LL.D. of 
Cambridge, is a member of the governing 
bodies of the Imperial Institute and of 
Charterhouse School. He married in 1856 



the Countess Roma, only surviving 
daughter of Count Roma, G.C.M.G., thei 
President of the Senate of the Ioniai 
Islands. 

Bower, David, was born at Upper MiJ 
near Saddleworth, Yorkshire, on Ap:^ 
11th, 1819. In 1841 he emigrated tj 
Port Phillip (now Victoria), and a£t<J 
a varied experience in New Zealand anl 
New South Wales, finally settled in Soud 
Australia in 1847, where he establishe 
a successful business as a timber ma 
chant at Port Adelaide. In 1865 he w« 
returned to the Assembly as member fl 
the oombined electorate of Wallaroo an 
Port Adelaide, and in 1875 was electa 
for Port Adelaide, which he represents 
for a number of years. Mr. Bower w^ 
Commissioner of Public Works in Uj 
Bray Ministry from April to June 1884. 

Boyes, Edward Taylor, J.P., Collect* 
of Customs, Tasmania, was former] 
Collector and Landing Surveyor at Laui 
ceston, and in March 1883 was appoint* 
Collector and Inspector of Customs, Lam 
ing Surveyor and Registrar of Shippii 
at Hobart. 

Bracken, Thomas, was born Dec 21s 
1843, in Ireland, and arrived in Victor 
at the age of twelve. After experiencit 
the ups and downs of colonial li 
for several years, Mr. Bracken went I 
Otago, N.Z., in 1869, and connected hii 
self shortly afterwards with journalis 
in that province. He was connect* 
with the Otago Guardian in the first ye 
or two of its existence, and subsequent 
founded a weekly paper, called 21 
Saturday Advertiser, which he conduct 
with marked ability. In 1881 he w 
elected to represent Dunedin Central 
the House of Representatives, but lost 1 
seat at the elections of 1884. Mr. Brack 
is best known as the author of sevei 
collections of verses, and the followi 
books are from his pen : " Flowers of t 
Freelands," "raddy Murphy's Budget 
"Pulpit Lectures," "Beyond the Tom 
and other Poems," "The New Zealai 
Tourist," "The Land of the Maori aj 
the Moa," and " Musings in Maori Lam 
(Keirle, Dunedin, 1890). 

Braddon, Sir Edward Hioholas Ceventi 
K.C.M.G., born June 11th, 1829, 
the son of Henry Braddon, of Skisd( 
and member of the junior branch 
the Braddons of Treglith and Ti 
worgye, who temp. Elisabeth sent repi 



52 



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DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bra 



sentatives of Liskeard to the British 
House of Commons. He went to India in 
1847 to join his cousin's mercantile house 
in Calcutta. After varied experience, he 
accepted an appointment in the Govern- 
ment service as Assistant Commissioner 
in Santhalia; served in the Santhal 
rebellion with favourable mention ; after 
the suppression of the 8anthal outbreak, 
raised a regiment of 8anthals, for which 
he was specially thanked by the Lieut- 
Governor of Bengal; and then served 
with Sir George Yule's Volunteer force in 
the Indian mutiny (medal and favourable 
mention). In 1862 he was appointed 
Commissioner of Excise and Stamps, and, 
mbsequently, Inspector-General of Regis- 
tration and Superintendent of Trade Sta- 
tistics in that province. During eighteen 
months he acted also as Secretary to 
the Chief Commissioner in the Revenue 
Departments. In 1870 he was specially 
deputed to inquire into and report upon 
the operation of the salt tax in Oudh and 
the north-west provinces, and, as one 
result of his labours, obtained a consider- 
able relaxation of the law in respect of the 
illicit manufacture of salt, which had 
been exceedingly harsh and oppressive. 
In 1878 he retired on pension, and went to 
Tasmania. In July 1879 he was elected to 
the House of Assembly as member for 
West Devon, and held that seat continu- 
ously (being twice elected against oppo- 
sition and twice unopposed) until Oct. 
29th, 1888, when he was appointed Agent- 
General for the Colony in London. Mr. 
Braddon is a staunch Free Trader, and 
was a prominent Oppositionist until he 
carried his party into power. When 
in March 1887 he was called upon to 
form an Administration, Mr. Braddon 
resigned the Premiership to the Hon. 
P. O. Fysh, a colonist of longer standing, 
and took the leadership of the Assembly 
as Minister of Lands and Works, holding 
also the portfolio of Minister of Educa- 
tion. He was sworn of the Executive 
Council, on March 29th, 1887, and was one 
of the representatives of Tasmania at the 
second session of the Federal Council of 
Australia, held at Hobart in Jan. 1888. 
As Agent-General Mr. Braddon was in- 
strumental in the successful notation of 
the first Three-and-a-half per Cent. 
Tasmanian Loan. He has also devoted 
much attention to the promotion of 
Tasmanian industries, notably the fruit 



and timber trades and mining. He read 
a paper on " Tasmania, its Resources and 
Products," before the Royal Colonial In- 
stitute, session 1888-9. Mr. Braddon, who 
is a brother of Miss Braddon, the well- 
known authoress, was created K.C.M.G. 
on Jan. 1st, 1891. 

Bramiton, John, C.B., B.A., D.C.L., 
Assistant Under-Secretary of State for 
the Colonies, second son of the late T. W. 
Bram8ton, M.P. of Skreens, Essex, was 
born on Nov. 14th, 1832, and educated at 
Winchester, and at Balliol College, Oxford, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1854, be- 
coming Fellow of All Souls' in the same 
university in the following year, and 
D.CX. in 1863. He entered at the Middle 
Temple in Nov. 1854, and was called to 
the bar in June 1 857. He went to Queens- 
land in 1859 as private secretary to Sir 
George Bowen, the first governor, and 
held that post for two years, when he re- 
signed. From 1863 to 1866 he sat in the 
Legislative Council, and was a member 
without portfolio of the first Ministry 
formed by his friend Mr. (now Sir) Robert 
Herbert from July 1863 to Feb. 1866, act- 
ing temporarily as Attorney-General from 
August to Sept. 1865. Subsequently he 
returned to England, and remained for 
two years, acting in 1867 as Assistant 
Boundary Commissioner for Devon and 
Cornwall under the Reform Act of that 
year. Returning to Queensland in 1868, 
he represented Burnett in the Legislative 
Assembly from April 1871 to Dec. 1873, 
and was Attorney-General in the Palmer 
Ministry from May 1870 to Jan. 1874, 
when he resigned to accept the same 
office in Hong Kong, where he also acted 
as judge. In June 1876 Mr. Bramston 
was appointed to his present post as 
Assistant Under Secretary of State in 
the Colonial Office, being employed on a 
mission to Berlin in connection with the 
Angra Pequena negotiations in July 1886, 
in which year he was created C.B. Mr. 
Bramston married, on Dec 12th, 1872, 
Eliza Isabella, daughter of the late Rev. 
Harry Vane Russell. He was appointed 
Registrar of the Order of St. Michael and 
St. George in 1892. 

Bray, Hon. Sir John Cox, M.L.A., Agent- 
General for South Australia, is the son 
of the late T. C. Bray, and was born in 
East Adelaide in 1842. He commenced 
his education at St. Peter's College in 
that city, but completed it in England, 

53 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Bra] 

On his return to Australia, he commenced 
to qualify for practice as a solicitor, and 
on the expiry of his articles first entered 
Parliament in 1871 as the representative 
of East Adelaide, by which district he 
has been returned to the House of 
Assembly ever since. It was not until 
1875 that he filled any ministerial posi- 
tion. When Mr. Justice Bundey, who had 
been Minister of Justice and Education 
in the Blyth Ministry, resigned, Mr. Bray 
was appointed in his place on March 15th, 
1875, out the Government only lasted till 
June 3rd of the same year. In June 1876 
Mr. Colton formed his first Administra- 
tion, and appointed Mr. Bray to the post of 
Attorney-General, which he held till the 
Ministry retired, on Oct. 26th, 1877. For 
the next four years Mr. Bray was the 
generally recognised leader of the Opposi- 
tion, although when Sir William Morgan's 
Ministry resigned in 1881, the Governor 
sent for Mr. Colton. This gentleman, 
however, declined the task of forming a 
ministry, and Mr. Bray was sent for, and 
got together a ministry which was strong 
enough to remain in office for three years. 
In 1884 Mr. Bray made a trip to Eng- 
land, and returned to the colony by way 
of America. On arriving in Adelaide, he 
found the Downer Government in power, 
and on the resignation of Mr. Darling, 
who held office as Commissioner of Public 
Works, he joined Mr. Downer as Chief 
Secretary on Oct. 14th, 1886, resigning 
that position for the post of Treasurer on 
June 8th, 1886. He went out of office 
on the downfall of the Downer Ministry, 
on June 7th, 1887 ; but in May 1888, on 
the death of the late Sir Robert Ross, he 
was elected to fill the position of Speaker 
of the House of Assembly — a post which 
he held with marked ability during 
the remainder of the Parliament. He 
declined, however, to again accept the 
position at the opening of the Parliament 
in 1890, preferring to re-enter the active 
arena of politics. Mr. Bray was created 
K.C.M.G. in 1890, his acceptance of the 
distinction provoking considerable com- 
ment, it having been understood that he 
had on a previous occasion declined it, 
on grounds similar to those which in- 
fluenced Mr. Higinbotham, Mr. Francis, 
and Mr. Deakin, in refusing the title. 
Sir John Bray, however, defended his 
ction on the ground that, having 
ccepted an office under the Crown 



[Bre 



which, according to well-known custom, 
carried with it the honour of knighthood, 
he would have been casting a slur upon 
his predecessors and doing an injustice to 
his successors in repudiating it. Sir John 
Bray, who accepted the post of Chief 
Secretary in the Playford Government in 
August 1890, has taken an active part in 
the proceedings of the South Australian 
Natives Association, and presided over the 
Intercolonial Conference of these bodies, 
which in 1890 declared in favour of 
Australasian Federation. He was elected 
by the South Australian Legislative 
Assembly to be one of the representatives 
of the colony to the Federation Conven- 
tion, held in Sydney in 1891. Sir John 
Bray was, it may be added, one of the 
representatives of his colony at the Inter- 
colonial Conference held In Sydney in 
Nov. 1883, out of which the Federal 
Council of Australasia sprang. He was 
a member of the South Australian Com- 
mission for the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition of 1886, and Vice-President of 
the South Australian Commission to the 
Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888. 
In Jan. 1892 Sir John Bray left Adelaide 
to assume the post of Agent-General in 
succession to the late Sir Arthur Blyth, 
and took over charge of the London 
office on Feb. 29th of that year. 

Brentnall, Hon. Frederick Thomas, 
M.L.C., was born at Ridings, Derbyshire, 
in 1834, and educated at Alfreton. 
He was sent by the British Wesleyan 
Conference to New South Wales in 1 863 
to join the ranks of the Wesleyan 
ministry in that colony. An affection 
of the throat, however, necessitated bis 
resignation about 1883, when he bought 
an interest in the Brisbane Telegraph* 
and joined the literary staff, becoming 
Chairman of the Company upon the re- 
tirement of the Hon. James Cowlishaw 
in Oct. 1885. Mr. Brentnall is a director 
of several companies, including the 
Queensland Deposit Bank and Building 
Society, and the Queensland General 
Insurance Company, Ltd. ; and has been 
a member of the Legislative Council 
since April 17th, 1886. 

Brett, Henry, J.P., an enterprising 
newspaper proprietor and publisher in 
New Zealand, who has issued a large 
number of standard works on colonial 
subjects, was born in the south of England, 
and brought up to the printing trade in 



54 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bri 



the office of his uncle, the proprietor of 
the Hasting* and St. Leonards Gazette. 
He left for New Zealand with the Non- 
conformist special settlers in 1862, in- 
tending to settle upon the land, but on 
arrival at Auckland the vessel was boarded 
by a representative of the Daily Southern 
Cross in search of compositors, and Mr. 
Brett was persuaded to accept an engage- 
ment on that paper. Shortly afterwards 
be joined the reporting staff of the New 
Zealand Herald and maintained his 
connection with that journal till 1870, 
when for the sum of £90 he acquired a 
third interest in the Evening Star, which 
had been recently started by Mr. G. M. 
Reid, and was then in a struggling con- 
dition. By the infusion of additional 
energy, and the employment of carrier 
pigeons to supply the want of telegraphs 
in those dayB — this being one of the most 
successful innovations in journalism in- 
troduced by Mr. Brett — the Star forged 
ahead and extinguished its evening rival. 
In Feb. 1876, Mr. Reid disposed of 
his interest to Mr. Brett, the share of the 
third partner having previously been 
acquired by the firm, Mr. Brett thus 
becoming sole proprietor. He has since 
disposed of a partnership interest to Mr. 
T. W. Leys, who succeeded Mr. Reid in 
the editorship of the paper, which is 
commonly reported to have the largest 
circulation in New Zealand. The second 
publishing venture of the firm was the 
Auckland Almanack and Provincial 
Handbook j started in 1872; and they have 
also established the New Zealand Farmer 
and Bee and Poultry Journal, a 
monthly agricultural magazine, and more 
recently the New Zealand Graphic, Mr. 
Brett, who is a director of the New 
Zealand Press Association and President 
of the Auckland Choral Society, occupied 
a seat in the Auckland City Council from 
1874 to 1878, and in the latter year, 
without a contest, was chosen Mayor. 

Bride, Thomas Francis, LL.D., was 
born at Cork, Ireland, in 1851, and went 
to Victoria at three years of age. He 
graduated at Melbourne University in 
1 873. In the same year he was appointed 
Assistant Librarian of the University, and 
later Assistant Registrar, both of which 
positions he held until August 1881, 
when he was appointed Librarian of the 
Melbourne Public Library. In 1879 Dr. 
Bride took the degree of Doctor of Laws, 



being the third who achieved that dis- 
tinction at the Melbourne University. In 
Feb. 1880 he unsuccessfully contested 
North Melbourne in the Conservative in- 
terest. 

Brierly, Sir Oswald Walters, R.W.S., 
F.R.G.S., marine painter to the Queen 
since 1874, is the son of the late Thomas 
Brierly, and was born at Chester in 1817. 
He was on board H.M.S. Rattlesnake 
during her surveys of the Great Barrier 
Reef of Australia, the Louisiade Archi- 
pelago, and part of New Guinea. He 
visited New Zealand, Tongatabu, Tahiti, 
and many other places in the Meander ; 
and has cruised in different parts of the 
world for eleven years on board various 
of her Majesty's ships, an island of the 
Louisiade and a point in Australia being 
named after him. Sir Oswald Brierly — 
as he became in 1885— was during the 
Russian war present at the operations with 
the fleet in the Baltic, Black Sea, and Sea 
of Azoff; he was also by command on 
board the royal yacht at the great naval 
review at the close of the Russian war to 
make sketches for the Queen. In 1867 be 
went with H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh 
in his voyage round the world in the 
Galatea, and his sketches of the cruise 
were exhibited at South Kensington. In 
1868 he was attached to the suite of the 
Prince and Princess of Wales during their 
trip up the Nile. He has painted many 
important historical marine pictures, the 
principal of which have been engraved. 
He has been awarded the fourth class 
Medjidie, fourth class Osmanieh, and the 
Turkish war medal, and is an Officer of 
the Redeemer of Greece. He was formerly 
a J.P. for New South Wales, and is at 
present Curator of the Painted Hall, 
Greenwich. 

Bright, Charles Edward, C.M.G., J.P., 
belongs to an old Worcestershire family 
possessing estates in the counties of 
Worcester and Hereford, and is the fifth 
son of the late Robert Bright, of Bristol 
and Abbots Leigh, Somerset, by Caroline, 
daughter of Thomas TyndaU, of The 
Fort, Bristol. Mr. Bright is brother to 
Richard Bright, who was elected M.P. for 
East Somerset in 1868, and to Lieut- 
General Sir Robert Onesiphorus Bright, 
K.C.B. He emigrated to Australia, ar- 
riving in Melbourne in Jan. 1854 ; and 
is a partner in the firms of Messrs. 
Antony Gibbs & Co. and Messrs. Gibbs, 

55 



Bri] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bri 



Bright & Co. He was twice Chair- 
man of the Melbourne Harbour Trust, 
and for many years Trustee of the Public 
Library, Museum, and National Gallery 
of Victoria. He was Commissioner to 
the Exhibition of London, 1861-2 ; Dublin, 
1864; Melbourne, 1866-7; London, 1873-4 ; 
Melbourne, 1880; Calcutta, 1883; Ade- 
laide, 1887; and Melbourne, 1888. He 
married, on August 25th, 1868, the Hon. 
Anne Maria Georgiana Manners-8utton, 
daughter of the third Viscount Canter- 
bury (Governor of Victoria 1866-73), by 
Georgiana, youngest daughter of the late 
Charles Thompson, of Witchingham Hall, 
Norfolk ; and was created C.M.G. on May 
24th, 1883. 

Blight, Hon. Henry Edward, M.L.C., 
son of Edward Bright and Mary Ann 
his wife, was born in London on 
June 30th, 1819, and arrived in Adelaide 
in April 1860. He was member for 
Stanley in the Legislative Assembly of 
South Australia from 1866 to 1874, and 
for Wooroora from 1875 to 1885. From 
July 1873 to June 1875 he was Com- 
missioner of Public Works in the Govern- 
ment of the Hon. (now Sir) Arthur 
Blyth, and in May 1885 was elected to 
the Legislative Council, of which he is 
still a member. Mr. Bright married, at 
St. George's, Hanover Square, London, 
W., on March 15th, 1841, Miss Jane 
Prudence King, with whom he recently 
celebrated his golden wedding. 

Brisbane, General Sir Thos. Makdougall, 
Bart.,G.C.B.,G.C.H.,D.C.L.,sometime Gov- 
ernor of New South Wales, was descended 
from the ancient family of the Brisbanes of 
Brisbane, Ayrshire, and was born on 
July 23rd, 1773, at Brisbane House, Largs, 
the seat of his father, Thomas Brisbane, 
his mother being Eleanor, daughter of 
Sir Wm. Bruce. He entered the army 
in 1789 as ensign in the 38th Infantry, 
stationed in Ireland, where he became 
acquainted with the Duke of Wellington, 
then a lieutenant in a cavalry regiment. 
In 1793 Captain Brisbane took part in 
all the affairs of the Flanders campaign 
from St. Amand to Nimeguen, and in 
1796 he served in the West Indies, under 
Sir Ralph Abercromby. In 1810 he was 
appointed Assistant Adjutant-General to 
the staff at Canterbury, which be held 
till he obtained command of a brigade 
under the Duke of Wellington, whom he 
joined at Coimbra in 1812, and under 



whom he served during the remainder of 
the Peninsular war. At the battle of 
the Nive he highly distinguished himself, 
and for his bravery received the thanks 
of Parliament. In 1813, on the recom- 
mendation of the Duke of Wellington, 
Sir Thomas was appointed to a command 
in Canada, and in 1821 was nominated to 
succeed General Macquarie as Governor of 
New South Wales, where he remained four 
years, viz., from Dec. 1821 to Dec. 1826. 
In New South Wales he improved the 
condition of the convicts, substituting 
useful labour for the treadmill and giv- 
ing them tickets of leave for good con- 
duct. He was mainly, however, a man 
of science, and established an observatory 
at Parramatta, where he is said to have 
fixed the positions of and catalogued 7,385 
stars, hitherto scarcely known to astro- 
nomers. For his work "The Brisbane 
Catalogue of Stars" he received the 
Copley medal from the Royal Society, 
and the universities of Cambridge and 
Oxford conferred on him honorary de- 
grees. During his term of office in New 
South Wales, he introduced good breeds 
of horses into the colony at his own 
expense, and encouraged the cultivation 
of the sugar-cane, vines, tobacco, and 
cotton. His government is memorable 
as inaugurating free immigration on a 
large scale. To arrivals who paid their 
passages to the Colony he gave every 
encouragement to settle. He conferred 
on them grants of land, and assigned to 
them as many prisoners as they were able 
to employ. Very speedily, as Mr. Blair 
narrates, the fine lands of the colony were 
covered with flocks and herds, and the 
applications for prisoners became so 
numerous that at one time two thousand 
more were demanded than could be sup- 
plied. Hence began an important change 
in the colony. The costly Government 
farms were one after another broken up, 
and the prisoners assigned to the squat- 
ters. The un remunerative public works 
were abandoned, which all tended to 
good, as when the convicts were thus 
scattered they were more manageable 
and more likely to reform, than when 
gathered in large crowds. In Macquarie's 
time not one prisoner in ten could 
be usefully employed; seven or eight 
years after, there was not a prisoner 
in the colony whose services were not 
eagerly sought and well paid for by the 



56 



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*i ] 

squatters. The area of cleared land was 
thus doubled, and the export of wool 
quintupled. Financially, however, he 
was not an administrative success, and 
this led to his early recall. On his return 
from Australia, Sir Thomas established 
an astronomical and magnetic observatory 
at Makerstown, and published three large 
volumes of observations in the *' Transac- 
tions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh." 
He was created a baronet in 1836 and 
G.C.B. in 1837, and in 1841 was made a 
general in the army. On the death of 
Sir Walter Scott he was also elected 
President of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh. He founded two gold medals as 
rewards for scientific merit in connection 
with the Royal Society and the Society 
of Arts respectively. He died at his 
residence, Brisbane House, Largs, Ayr- 
shire, on Jan. 27th, 1860. The capital of 
the colony of Queensland is named after 
him. 8ir Thomas married, in 1819, Anna 
Maria, daughter of Sir Henry Hay Mak- 
dongall, but left no surviving issue. 
During his peninsular campaigns he took 
regular observations with a pocket sex- 
tant, and, as the Duke of Wellington 
said, "kept the time of the army." As 
showing his ruling bent, it is related of 
him that, whilst sheathing his sword 
after the Battle of Vittoria, he exclaimed, 
looking round from a lofty eminence, 
M What a glorious site for an observatory 1 " 

Britten, Alexander, son of the late 
Alexander Britton, and brother of Henry 
Britten (?.*.), embraced journalism, and 
was sub-editor of the Melbourne Argus, 
and subsequently of the Sydney Morning 
Herald. In 1890 he was engaged by the 
Government of New South Wales to com- 
plete the official " History of New South 
Wales," the first volume of which had 
been edited by Mr. G. B. Barton (?.*.). 

Britton, Henry, journalist, second son of 
A le x ander and Lydia Britton, was born 
on Jan. 24th, 1846, in Derby, England, 
where his father was engaged in tuition, 
was also a contributor to the press, and 
had some repute as a public lecturer. The 
subject of this notice emigrated to Aus- 
tralia with his family in Nov. 1854, and 
reached Melbourne in Feb. 1855. He at 
once proceeded to Castlemaine, Victoria, 
where his father established a newspaper 
called The Miners' Bight, subsequently 
named The Castlemaine Advertiser. He 
learned the business of a journalist in his 



[Bri 



father's office. In 1863 he joined the 
parliamentary reporting staff of the Age 
newspaper, Melbourne. Two years later 
he transferred his services to the Argus, 
Melbourne. In 1870 he acted as special 
correspondent for the Argus in Fiji. 
The series of letters he wrote was repub- 
lished under the title of " Fiji in 1870," 
and the volume bad a large sale. In Dec. 
1871, as special correspondent of the 
Argus, he accompanied the Australian 
Eclipse Expedition to Gape York, northern 
coast of Australia, where observations 
of the total eclipse of the sun were made. 
His account of the proceedings of the ex- 
pedition was afterwards republished in 
Nature, the London scientific journal. In 
1873 he went to Fiji again as special com- 
missioner for the Argus to inquire into 
the working of the South Pacific labour 
trade, in connection with which many 
scandals had arisen. The notorious brig 
Carl had kidnapped a number of South 
Sea Islanders under circumstances of 
great atrocity. The Australian Govern- 
ments agreed to pay the expense of re- 
turning the kidnappees to their several 
homes in the islands. One of the vessels 
commissioned for this purpose by Com- 
modore Stirling was H.M. schooner 
Alacrity. Mr. Britton was allowed a 
passage in this vessel with some fifty or 
sixty of the savages, and he assisted at 
their landing under circumstances of 
considerable danger at their various 
homes in the MarohalVGilbert, and Ellice 
groups of islands, north and south of the 
line. In 1874 he was again called upon 
in the capacity of special correspondent 
of the Argus to go to Fiji in the suite of 
Sir Hercules Robinson, the then Governor 
of New South Wales, who had made a 
request that he might be sent on the 
occasion of the annexation of that country. 
Mr. Britton was present at the official in- 
terviews with Thakombau and the other 
leading chiefs, and he fully described the 
annexation ceremonies, which included 
many incidents of peculiar interest. Mr. 
Britton was also acting at this time as 
special correspondent for the Times. 
In 1877 he was made chief of the Argus 
reporting staff and sub-editor. Falling 
into bad health, and having a desire to 
visit the old country, which he had not 
seen since infancy, he in 1878 made a 
voyage round the world. Returning to 
Melbourne, after a year's absence, he 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bra 



resumed his connection with the Argus, 
to which he contributed a series of social 
sketches under the signature of "Mar- 
ceUus," and also a series of papers ex- 
plaining the modus operandi of the medical 
clairvoyants of Melbourne. Early in 1 883 
he joined the contributing staffs of the 
Age and Leader, At the end of that 
year he published a romance called 
44 Loloma," illustrative of cannibal life 
among the Fijians in the olden time. At 
the general election of 1886, he sought 
parliamentary honours at the hands of 
the electors of Castlemaine, but was not 
successful. In Nov. 1889 the proprietors 
of the Leader offered prizes for the two 
best locally produced Christmas stories 
for publication in their Christmas number; 
there was a very large number of com- 
petitors, and Mr. Britton was awarded 
the first prize for his story ** Jack Travis's 
Merry Christmas: a Tale of Australian 
Adventure." In March 1890 Mr. Britton 
was appointed dramatic editor of the 
Australasian, and he still holds that 
position. 

Bromby, Charles Hamilton, B. A., L.C.L., 
formerly Attorney-General Tasmania, is 
the second son of Right Rev. Charles 
Henry Bromby, sometime Bishop of Tas- 
mania, by Mary Anne, eldest daughter 
of the late William Hulme Bodley, of 
Brighton, 8ussex. He was born at Chel- 
tenham, Gloucestershire, on July 17th, 
1843, and educated at Cheltenham Col- 
lege and St. Edmund's Hall, Oxford, where 
he graduated. He entered as a student 
of the Inner Temple on June 7th, 1864, 
and was called to the bar on Nov. 18th, 
1867. He emigrated to Tasmania, where 
he arrived in Dec. 1874, and was M.H.A. 
for Lannoeston from 1876 to 1877, for 
Longford from 1877 to 1878, and subse- 
quently for Richmond. Mr. Bromby was 
Attorney-General in Mr. Rei bey's Minis- 
try, and a member of the Executive 
Council from July 20th, 1876, to August 
9th, 1877. He was admitted a member 
of the bar of New South Wales in 1881 ; 
but now resides in England, and prac- 
tises as a barrister in London and on 
the North-Eastern Circuit. He edited 
"Spike's Law of Master and Servant," 
3rd edition. 

Bromby, Bight Boy. Charles Henry, 
D.D., formerly Bishop of Tasmania, son 
of the Rev. John Healey Bromby, vicar 
of Holy Trinity, Hull, was born at Hull 



in 1814, and educated at Uppingham 
School and at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, of which he was scholar and 
exhibitioner. He graduated B.A. (Junior 
Optime and third class in classics) in 
1837, and M.A. in 1840, being admitted 
to the honorary degree of D.D. in 1864. 
He was ordained deacon in 1838, and 
priest in 1839, and was curate of Chester- 
field from 1838 to 1839; vicar of St. 
Paul's, Cheltenham, and Principal of the 
Normal College there from 1843 to 1864, 
when be was appointed Bishop of Tas- 
mania by the Queen's letters patent, 
being consecrated in Canterbury Cathe- 
dral by Archbishop Longley on June 29th, 
1864, and enthroned in St. David's 
Cathedral, Hobart, on Jan. 7th, 1866. 
Having resigned his see in 1882, Bishop 
Bromby was appointed in that year 
rector of Shrawardine-with-Montford* 
and Assistant Bishop to the Bishop of 
Lichfield. In 1887 he resigned his 
rectory, and became Warden of St. John's 
Hospital, Lichfield. He married in 1839 
Mary Anne, daughter of Dr. Bodley, of 
Brighton, who died in 1885. He is the 
author of the " Church Student's Manual," 
"History and Grammar of the English 
Language," and editor of " Wordsworth's 
Excursion, Book I." 

Bromby, Boy. Henry Bodlty, B.A., 
formerly Dean of Hobart, Tasmania, is 
the son of the Right Rev. Charles Henry 
Bromby, D.D., formerly Bishop of Tas- 
mania, and was educated at Jesus College, 
Cambridge, of which he was Rustat 
Scholar. He graduated B.A. in 1864, 
and in the same year he »was ordained 
deacon, and priest in 1865. He was 
canon of St. David's Cathedral, Hobart, 
from 1865 to 1868, and 1870 to 1877 ; 
incumbent of St. Johns, Hobart, from 
1868 to 1873 ; incumbent of the cathedral 
parish of Hobart from 1873 to 1884 ; and 
Dean of Hobart from 1877 to 1884, when 
he left the colony for England, and in 
the next year was appointed vicar of 
St. John the Evangelist, Bethnal Green. 

Bromby, Bor. John Edward, MJL, D.D., 
son of Rev. J. H. Bromby, Vicar of Holy 
Trinity Church, Hull, and elder brother of 
the Right Rev. Charles Henry Bromby, 
sometime Bishop of Tasmania, was born 
in 1809, and educated at Uppingham and 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, ' where 
he was for some time scholar; Bell's 
University Scholar in 1829; B.A. (9tb 



58 



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DICTIONARY OF AOSTRALAStAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bro 



Wrangler and second-class in the Clas- 
Bcal Tripos) in 1832; Fellow of St. 
John's College from 1834 to 1836; 
M.A. in 1835; B.D. in 1845; D.D. in 
1860. Dr. Bromby was ordained deacon 
in 1834, priest in 1835, and was Vice- 
principal of Bristol College and Prin- 
cipal of Elisabeth College, Guernsey, 
from 1847 to 1866, and senior Curate of 
Holy Trinity, Hall, from 1865 to 1857. 
He was subsequently appointed head- 
master of the Melbourne Church of 
fcngland Grammar School, and arrived 
fa Melbourne in Feb. 1858. This post 
Dr. Bromby held until 1875, when he 
retired amidst universal regret and respect 
bo the part of his old pupils and the 
public generally. In 1877 he was ap- 
pointed incumbent of St. Paul's, Mel- 
ourne. He married in 1836 a daughter 
f Alderman Lilley of Bristol, and died 
on March 9th, 1888. 

Brook*, Gustavus Vaughan, the well- 
known actor, was the son of Gustavus 
Vaughan Brooke of Dublin, was born on 
April 25th, 1818, at Hardwick Place, 
Dublin, and was educated at a school 
conducted by the brother of Maria 
Bdgeworth. When about fifteen be 
applied to Calcraft of the Theatre Royal, 
Dublin, for an engagement; and owing 
to the sudden indisposition of Edmund 
Kean he was allowed to appear as William 
M on Easter Monday (April 9th) 1833. 
Permanent employment followed. He 
■baequently made his first appearance 
b London as Virginias at the Victoria 
Theatre, and in 1840 he entered into an 
engagement with Macready to appear at 
Drnry Lane, but threw it up through dis- 
afeataotion with bis part His real dibut in 
Lndon took place on Jan. 3rd, 1848, when 
fee appeared as Othello at the Olympic, 
>ad scored a great success with the public 

* veil as with critics of judgment Later 
<« he went to America, and played 
OtbeBo at the Broadway Theatre, New 
York, on Dec. 16th, 1861. His success in 
tfe States led him to take the Astor 
*hce Opera House in New York, which 
fe opened in May 1862. The venture 
*** a disastrous failure, and after a fresh 
toar in the States he reappeared at Drury 
lane, then under the management of 

* T. Smith, the father of the Hon. 
k L. 8mith of Victoria (g.v.). Mr. George 
(opptn visited England in 1854 with the 
**w of engaging "stars" for Australia, 



and amongst others secured G. V. Brooke* 
who from 1865 to 1857 received as much 
as £100 a night for playing in Australia 
and New Zealand. He went into partner- 
ship with Coppin in the Theatre Boyal, 
Melbourne, and the Melbourne Cremorne r 
with results so disastrous that both were 
beggared, and dissolved partnership in 
Feb. 1859, when Brooke returned to Eng- 
land to find his prospects far from bright. 
His reappearance at Drury Lane as Othello 
was a failure, habits of dissipation having 
left their deteriorating traces on his once 
fine presence and splendid voice. Brooke 
married Miss Avonia Jones, an actress 
of no great merit. Disgusted by his 
ill success in London, Brooke decided 
to return to Australia, and took his pas- 
sage in the ill-fated ship London, which 
foundered in the Bay of Biscay on 
Jan. 11th, 1866. Brooke was amongst 
those who perished, his manly and even 
heroic conduct during the long agony 
which preceded the filial sinking of the 
vessel being such as to shed lustre over 
a career which, in its later phases, had 
been clouded by a deplorable absence of 
self-control. 

Brooks, Hon. John Henry, who was 
Commissioner of Crown Lands in Victoria 
under the Heales administration from 
Nov. 1860 to Nov. 1861, will long be 
remembered in connection with the land 
system of that colony. In 1867, as a 
member of the Assembly, he was pro- 
minent in opposition to the Haines Land 
Bill, which proposed giving annual 
licences to the squatters. On his own 
accession to office he, in conjunction with 
his colleagues Mr. J. M. Grant and 
Mr. Ireland,the Attorney-General t brought 
into operation the famous licences to 
occupy the waste lands of the Crown, 
which formed the basis of popular settle- 
ment for cultivation purposes on the 
public lands of Victoria. The scheme 
was formulated by a mere Gazette 
notice, the issue of which was formally 
censured by the Legislative Council. As 
the resultof a dissolution of the Assembly 
Mr. Brooke's policy was approved by the 
country, and formed the subject of express 
eulogy in the Governor's opening speech 
to the new Parliament in August 1861. 
The occupation licences were approved 
by the new Assembly and again con- 
demned by the Council, who denounced 
the introduction of the new departure by 



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a mere departmental regulation as a 
breach of the principles of responsible 
government. The Governor regretted the 
disapprobation of the Council, but when 
they entreated that the legality of the 
licences might be tested in the Supreme 
Court, replied that his advisers were 
"satisfied of their legality." Mr. 
Brooke subsequently left victoria, and is 
now a resident in Japan. 

Broome, Sir Frederick Hapier, K.C.M.G., 
eldest son of the late Rev. Frederick 
Broome, rector of Eenley, Salop, by his 
wife Catherine Eleanor, eldest daughter 
of Lieut-Col. Napier, formerly Superin- 
tendent Indian Department, Canada, was 
born in Canada, on Nov. 18th, 1842, and 
educated at Whitchurch Grammar School, 
Salop. He emigrated to New Zealand in 
1857, and engaged in pastoral pursuits. 
Visiting England in 1864, he married on 
June 21st, 1865, Mary Anne, widow of the 
late Col. Sir George Barker, R.A., K.C.B. 
(£.v.). Returning the same year to his 
New Zealand sheep-station, in the Malvern 
Hills, province of Canterbury, he con- 
tinued colonial life for a time ; but finally 
left New Zealand for London in 1869, 
and for the six following years contri- 
buted largely to the Times newspaper, 
acting as correspondent for that journal 
at the Duke of Edinburgh's marriage at 
St. Petersburg, and on many other occa- 
sions, and furnishing numerous literary 
reviews, art criticisms, and miscellaneous 
articles to the columns of the leading 
journal, then edited by the late Mr. John 
Delane. He published two volumes of 
verse, " Poems from New Zealand" (1868) 
and "The Stranger of Seriphos" (1869), 
and contributed verse to the Cornkill, 
Macmillan's Magavine, and other periodi- 
cals. He was appointed, in 1870, Secretary 
to the St. Paul's Cathedral Completion 
Fund, and in 1873 Secretary to the Royal 
Commission on Unseaworthy Ships, and 
held for some time a commission in the 
Essex yeomanry. He was selected by 
the late Earl of Carnarvon, in 1875, to 
proceed with Lord (then Sir Garnet) 
Wolseley on a special mission to Natal, 
as Colonial Secretary of that colony. 
He hold that post until 1878, when he 
was promoted to the Colonial Secretary- 
ship of Mauritius, where he adminis- 
tered the government in 1879, and was 
Lieutenant-Governor of the island from 
1880 to 1888. On receiving the news of 



the disaster at Isandula, he despatched at 
once to the assistance of Lord Chelms- 
ford nearly the whole of the garrison of 
the colony. For this service he was 
warmly thanked by the Governor and 
High Commissioner of the Cape Colony 
(the late Sir Bartle Frere), and by the 
colony offNatal through its Lieut-Gover- 
nor, Sir Henry Bulwer, his action being 
also fully approved by Her Majesty's 
Government. He was appointed on Dec. 
14th, 1882, Governor of Western Austra- 
lia, and assumed office in June 1883. 
Sir Frederick was created C.M.G. in 1877, 
K.C.M.G. in 1884 ; and visited England in 
1885, when, with the "view of extending 
a knowledge of the resources of what was 
at that time a little known colony, he read 
a paper on '* Western Australia n before 
the Colonial Institute, H.R.H. the Prince 
of Wales taking the chair. Sir Frederick 
Broome's term of government of Western 
Australia was marked by a great exten- 
sion of railways and telegraphs, and 
much general progress. The question 
of a change of the constitution of the 
colony to the form known as responsi- 
ble government having come forward, 
it became Sir Frederick's duty to act as 
intermediary between the Legislative 
Council and the Secretary of State. 
After considerable correspondence the 
details of the new constitution were 
settled, and a bill, approved by Her 
Majesty's Government, finally passed 
the local legislature in 1889. Imperial 
parliamentary sanction being required 
tor the transfer of the Crown lands to 
the Colonial Legislature, the necessary 
bill was at once introduced by Lord 
Knutsford, and passed the House of 
Lords ; but, owing to a strong opposition 
to handing over the immense tract of 
Crown lands to the colonists, which 
suddenly showed itself in the home 
press and in the House of Commons, the 
bill could not be proceeded with in the 
House in 1889, and had to be deferred to 
the following year. To clear up the extra- 
ordinary misapprehensions which existed 
on the matter, Sir Frederick Broome 
addressed a letter to the Tme$ t which 
had a considerable effect. A good deal of 
determined opposition to the biU, however, 
continued; and Sir Frederick and two 
leading members of the Western Aus- 
tralian Legislature came to England, in 
Dec, 1889, at the wish of the colony and 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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with Lord Knutsford's concurrence, to 
give evidence before the select committee 
of the House of Commons, to which, early 
in the session of 1890, the Constitution 
Bill was referred. The whole facts of 
the case were most fully explained to the 
select committee by Sir Frederick Broome 
and the other witnesses, the blue book 
containing the report of the evidence 
being a complete compendium of infor- 
mation respecting Western Australia. 
The commission reported, much to the 
surprise of the London press, in favour of 
the bill and of the transfer of all lands to 
the colony. Opposition was at length 
overcome, or nearly so. The Government 
stood firm, and had the support of the 
front Opposition bench ; and after some 
applications of the closure, Sir Frederick 
Broome had the satisfaction of wit- 
nessing the passage of the bill through 
committee with all restrictions erased, 
the whole of the lands of the vast terri- 
tory — 1,060,000 square miles in extent — 
being freely handed over to the Legis- 
lature of Western Australia, which thus 
obtained its new constitution on the same 
basis as the other colonies of the con- 
tinent, there being no opposition to the 
bill in the House of Lords. On quitting 
Western Australia, in Bee. 1889, for the 
mission to England in connection with 
the Constitution Bill, Sir Frederick and 
Lady Broome received many proofs of 
the esteem and regard of the colonists. 
Sir Frederick's tenure of the government 
of Western Australia came to an end 
with his mission to England, and finally 
ceased in Sept 1890. In July 1891 he 
was appointed Governor of Trinidad. 

Broome, Mary Anne, Lady, the wife of 
Sir Frederick Napier Broome, K.C.M.G., 
the late Governor of Western Australia, 
was the eldest daughter of Hon. Walter 
G. Stewart, Island Secretary of Jamaica. 
She was sent to England to be educated 
when two years old, and returned to 
Jamaica in 1850. 8he married first, in 
1862, Colonel Sir George Barker, B.A., 
K.C.B., an officer distinguished for his 
Crimean and Indian services, who died 
at Simla in 1861. She married secondly, 
June 21st, 1865, Sir (then Mr.) Frederick 
Napier Broome, whom she accompanied 
to New Zealand the same year. Returning 
with her husband to England in 1869, 
Lady Barker, as she was then styler», 
became well known as a succe&iful 

6l 



authoress. She has published "Station 
Life in New Zealand " (1870), followed by 
"Stories About," "Ribbon Stories," "A 
Christmas Cake," " A Year's Housekeeping 
in Natal," " Letters to Guy," descriptive 
of life in Western Australia, and other 
works. She published a useful manual 
in 1874, entitled "First Principles of 
Cookery," and was appointed Lady Super- 
intendent of the National School of 
Cookery at South Kensington, a post 
she relinquished on accompanying her 
husband to Natal in 1875. Her next 
home was in Mauritius, 1878-83, when 
she organised a fund for the relief of the 
sick and wounded in the Zulu war. For 
this service she received a special official 
acknowledgment in a despatch from the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies. A 
movement in favour of the higher educa- 
tion of women was also initiated by her 
in Mauritius. 

Broughton, Vernon Delves, son of the 
late Rev. Thomas Delves Broughton 
(grandson of the 6th baronet of this 
name, of Broughton, Staffordshire) by 
his marriage with Frances, daughter of 
Lewis Corkran, was born in Dec. 1834, 
at Bletchley in Buckinghamshire. He 
was educated at Marlborough School and 
at Magdalen College, Oxford. Having 
entered the Civil Service whilst still an 
undergraduate, he was employed in the 
Treasury from 1855 to 1877, acting in 
the interval as private secretary to Lord 
Iingen, when Secretary to the Treasury, 
and to Lord Sherbrooke when Chancellor 
of the Exchequer. In Nov. 1877 Mr. 
Broughton was appointed Deputy-Master 
of the Mint, and Chief Officer of the 
Melbourne Branch, a position which he 
retained till a short time before his death 
in 1886. Mr. Broughton married in 1861 
Augusta, eldest daughter of George 
Arbuthnot, Auditor of the Civil List. 

Brown, Gilbert Wilson, M. A, Clerk of 
the Executive Council, Victoria, was edu- 
cated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 
of which he was scholar in 1852, and 
graduated B.A. (Mathematical Tripos) in 
1855, and M.A. in 1881. He went to 
Victoria, and took up the position of 
Assistant Master in the Scotch College, 
Melbourne, in April 1857. In Jan. 1858 
he was appointed Head Master of the 
National Grammar School at Geelong, 
and Organising Master and Inspector of 
National Schools in May 1859. In Sept. 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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1862 he was appointed Organising In- 
spector under the Board of Education, 
and Inspector-General of the Education 
Department in Jan. 1873. He was 
Secretary for Public Instruction from 
March 1878 to April 1889, when he was 
appointed to his present position of Clerk 
of the Executive Council. 

Brown, Henry Yorke Lyell, Government 
Geologist, South Australia, was Govern- 
ment Geologist of Western Australia, and 
was appointed to his present position in 
Dec. 1882. 

Brown, Professor John McMillan, M.A., 
was born in 1846, and educated at Irvine 
Academy and at Glasgow University, 
where he graduated M.A. in 1869. 
Having gained the Snell Exhibition in 
English Language, Literature, and His- 
tory, Mr. Brown proceeded to Balliol 
College, Oxford, in 1870; but ill-health 
prevented him from completing his 
course, and in 1874, when Canterbury 
College, Christchurch, was founded in 
affiliation to the University of New 
Zealand, he was selected to fill the 
chair of Classics and English. In 1879 
Mr. Brown resigned the chair of Classics, 
and became Professor of English and 
English History. In the same year he 
was a member of the Royal Commission 
on the state of higher education in New 
Zealand, and was appointed Fellow of 
the University Senate. He was one of 
the founders of the short-lived New 
Zealand Magazine in 1875. In 1886 Mr. 
Brown married Miss Helen Connon, one 
of the first lady graduates in Her 
Majesty's dominions. 

Brown, Hon. Jficholai John, M.H.A., 
J.P., son of Richard Brown, was born at 
Hobart in 1838, was educated at the 
Hutchins School, Hobart, and has 
since been engaged in pastoral pursuits. 
He has been member for the Cumber- 
land District in the Tasmanian House 
of Assembly since Jan. 1875. He was 
Minister of Lands and Works in the first 
Fysh Ministry from August 1877 to Dec. 
1878, and held the same post in the 
Giblin Ministry from Dec. 1882 to August 
1884, and in the Douglas and Agnew 
Ministries from that date till March 1887. 
Mr. Brown was one of the representatives 
of Tasmania at the Sydney Convention 
of 1883, at which the draft of the Federal 
Council Bill was agreed to. In March 1 886 
he was appointed one of the Tasmanian 



62 



representatives in the Federal Council; 
but when the Fysh Ministry came into 
power he was objected to as a political 
opponent, and has not since taken his 
seat. In March 1891 Mr. Brown was one 
of the representatives of Tasmania at the 
Sydney Federation Convention. In July 
1891 he was elected Speaker of the House 
of Assembly in succession to Mr. Beibey. 

Brown, Sir William, Bart., eldest son 
of Sir William Brown, 9th baronet, of 
Coulston, Haddingtonshire, who resided 
in New South Wales, and died in 1882, 
when the present Sir William succeeded 
him as 10th baronet. The latter was 
born in Dec. 1848, and married, in 1871, 
Alice Jane, daughter of J. C. Peters, 
merchant, Hope House, Manby Beach, 
near Sydney. He resides at Tareela, 
Barraba, N.S.W. 

Browne, Thomas Alexander (Rolf 
Boldrewood), the eldest son of the late 
Captain Sylvester John Browne, of the 
East India Company's Service, and of 
Enmore, N.S. W., and Hartlands, Victoria, 
by his marriage with Eliza Angell Alex- 
ander, was born in England on August 
6th, 1826. He arrived in New South 
Wales with his father in April 1830, 
and was educated at Mr. T. W. Cape's 
school in Sydney, and afterwards at 
Sydney College, when Mr. Cape was 
appointed head-master and transferred 
his scholars. Mr. T. A. Browne, when 
about seventeen years of age, started 
with a herd of cattle for the Port Fairy 
district, in Victoria (then only partially 
explored), and became a pioneer squatter 
there, forming the station known as 
Squattlesea Mere. Here he remained 
until 1856. He visited England in 1860, 
returning in 1861. Having sold his 
property in Victoria, he, in 1864, took up a 
sheep station on the Murrumbidgee. The 
droughts of 1866 and 1868 were terribly 
severe, and Mr. Browne's losses were so 
heavy that he was compelled in 1869 to 
give up squatting. In 1870 he was made 
a Police Magistrate and Goldfields Com- 
missioner in New South Wales, and. la 
now Police Magistrate and Warden of 
Goldfields at Gulgong, Dubbo, Armidale 
and Albury, in that colony. Mr. Browne 
contributed to the OornhiU Magadne as 
far back as 1865, and many tales and 
sketches from his pen appeared in the 
colonial press. In 1888 nis •« Bobbery 
under Arms," which originally appealed 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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in the Sydney Mail, was republished in 
London under the pseudonym "Rolf 
Boldrewood," and proved a remarkable 
success. Since then Mr. Browne has re- 
published in England "The Squatter's 
Dream," "A Colonial Reformer," and 
M A Miner's Right," all issued by Messrs. 
Macmillan & Co. in 1890. All have had 
a favourable reception; and the same 
may be said of " A 8ydney-side Saxon " 
and " Nevermore," published in 1891 and 
1892 respectively. Mr. Browne, whose 
father and brother Sylvester were, like 
himself, pioneer squatters, was married 
at Mulgoa, Penrith, N.8.W., on August 
1st, I860, to Miss Margaret Maria Biley. 
Browne, Sir Thomas Gore, K.C.M.G., 
C.B., the son of Robert Browne, of Morton 
House, Bucks, and brother to the late 
Bishop of Winchester, was born in 1807. 
In 1823 he entered the 28th Regiment, 
and for some time acted as aide-de-camp 
to Lord Nugent, Lord High Commissioner 
of the Ionian Islands, of which he was 
also Colonial Secretary. In 1836 he ex- 
changed into the 41st Regiment, which 
he commanded as major during the 
Afghan campaign. He was among those 
who advanced to the rescue of General 
Nott after the massacre at Khyber Pass ; 
and was in charge of his regiment also 
at Hykulzie, Candahar, Ghuznee, and 
Cabal. He was in command of the rear 
during the march through the Khyber 
Pass, and also at the storming of the 
Nik fort at Issaliff. For his services he 
was promoted in 1836 to a lieutenant- 
colonelcy, and was made a C.B. On his 
return to England he exchanged into 
the 21st Fusiliers, which he commanded 
until 1851, when he was made Governor 
of St. Helena. In 1854 he left St. Helena 
to become Governor of New Zealand at 
the critical time when the Home Govern- 
ment had decided to grant the colony 
responsible government. It was during 
Colonel Gore Browne's tenure of office 
that the settlers' difficulties with the 
Maoris came to a head in New Zealand. 
A certain party among the natives had 
met what they considered the encroach- 
ments of the English with the establish- 
ment of a king, and the refusal to sell 
their lands. In the Waitara district a 
native named Teira offered, however, to 
sell a block ; and the Governor, who had 
determined that a strong front was neces- 
sary in dealing with the Maoris, insisted 



upon buying, despite the opposition of 
Wiremu Kingi and the King party. This 
was the origin of the Taranaki war; but 
it was hardly begun when the Home 
Government, finding itself on the verge 
of the precipice, recalled Sir George Grey 
from the Cape to replace Colonel Browne, 
who was removed to Tasmania, taking 
office on Dec. 10th, 1861. On Deo. 30th, 
1868, he resigned the Governorship of 
Tasmania, was created K.C.M.G., and in 
1870 was appointed Governor of the 
Bermudas, retiring on a pension in 1871. 
He married, in 1851, a daughter of 
James Campbell, of Craigie. Sir Thomas 
Gore Browne, who died on April 17th, 
1887, was a memDer of the New Zealand 
Commission in London for the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition of 1886. 

Brownless, Anthony Colling, C.M.G., 
LL.D., M.D., F.R.C.S., Chancellor of the 
University of Melbourne, is the only son 
of the late Anthony Brownless, of Pay- 
netts House, and Bockingfold Manor, 
Goudhurst, Kent. After studying for the 
medical profession at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital in London, and at the University 
of Liege, he was admitted M.R.C.S. of 
London in 1841, and M.D. of St. Andrews 
in 1846. Having practised for some years 
as a physician in London, Dr. Brownless 
arrived in Victoria in Dec. 1862, and was 
soon afterwards elected Physician to the 
Melbourne Benevolent Asylum, and in 
1854 Physician to the Melbourne Hospital 
— a post which he held for twelve years, 
being appointed a Life Governor and Con- 
sulting Physician on his retirement. In 
June 1855 the Melbourne University gave 
him the diploma of M.D., this being the 
first occasion on which the degree was 
conferred by that University, in which 
Dr. Brownless founded the medical school, 
and of which he was annually elected 
Vice-Chancellor for twenty-nine years, 
from 1858 to 1887 ; when he was elected 
Chancellor, in succession to Dr. Moor- 
house. Dr. Brownless holds the honorary 
degree of LL.D. of the Universities of 
St. Andrews and Melbourne, and in 1884 
he was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
College of Surgeons of England. Dr. 
Brownless was made , a Knight of St. 
Gregory the Great by the late Pope in 
1870, and a Knight Commander of the 
Order of Pius, conferring nobility, by 
Leo. XIII. in 1883. Dr. Brownless, who 
was created C.M.G. in May 1888, has 

63 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bry 



been twice married: first, in 1842, to 
Ellen, daughter of the late William 
Hawker, M.D., of Charing, Kent, and 
Liege, Belgium, formerly surgeon in the 
Grenadier Guards, who died in 1846 ; and 
seoondly, in 1852, to Anne Jane, eldest 
daughter of the late Captain William 
Hamilton, of Eden, co. Donegal, Ireland, 
an officer in the Rifle Brigade, who served 
with distinction in the Peninsular War. 

Brownrigg, Major Henry Studholme, 
second son of General John Studholme 
Brownrigg, C.B., by Katberine, second 
daughter of the Bight Hon. Sir H. W. 
Williams Wynn, G.C.H., was born on 
March 18th, 1843, and married on April 
26th, 1881, Alice, daughter of B. L. 
Waters, Dublin. He entered the army 
as ensign in the Rifle Brigade in April 
1861, and became lieutenant in 1865, 
captain in 1873, and major in 1881. 
Major Brownrigg, who passed the final 
examination at the Staff College in 1875, 
distinguished himself in the Afghan 
campaign of 1878 and 1879, being men- 
tioned in despatches and given brevet 
rank as major. He was employed with 
the local forces in Viotoria from Sept. 
1883 to Sept. 1888, when he succeeded 
Colonel Disney as commandant, with the 
local rank of lieutenant-colonel. This 
position he held till Nov. 1889, when he 
returned to England, and has since been 
employed in India. 

Bruoe, Lieut-Col. John, sometime 
Commandant, Western Australia, was 
born in 1808, and entering the army, 
was an officer in the 16th and 18th 
Begiments of Foot. He went to Western 
Australia with his regiment, and was for 
twenty years Staff-officer of Pensioners 
and Commandant of Western Australia. 
He was Acting Governor of the colony 
in Feb. 1862, and from Nov. 1868 to 
Sept. 1869, during the interim between the 
departure of Governor Hampton and the 
arrival of Governor Weld. He died on 
Nov. 5th, 1870, at the age of sixty-two. 

Brunker, Hon. James Kixon, M.L.A., 
late Minister of Lands, New South Wales, 
has represented East Maitland in the 
Legislative Assembly of that colony for a 
number of years ; and was Secretary for 
Lands under Sir Henry Parkes from 
July to August 1888. When the last 
Parkes Government was formed in March 
1889 Mr. Brunker was reappointed to the 
Lands Department, and held a seat in 



6<t 



the Cabinet until Oct 1891, when he 
retired with his colleagues. 

Branton, William, M.I.C.E., a highly 
ingenious inventor, was the third son of 
William Branton, also a well-known in- 
ventor, and was born at Birmingham on 
April 3rd, 1817. In 1847 he was appointed 
Besident Engineer of the West Cornwall 
Railway, Chief Engineer of the Punjab 
Railway in 1865, and District Engineer 
of Railways in Southland, New Zealand, 
in 1871. Mr. Branton, who died at Wel- 
lington, New Zealand, on June 13th, 1881, 
invented an apparatus for washing and 
separating ores from their matrix, known 
as " Brunton'8 Endless Cloth," and also a 
fuse-making machine, the secret of which 
has never been divulged, but which at 
once reduced the selling price of fuse by 
75 per cent Mr. Branton became M.I.C.E. 
in March 1854. 

Bryoe, Hon, John, is one of the oldest 
settlers in New Zealand, having been 
brought to the colony as a child in 1840. 
He came into prominence during the 
Maori war, and was lieutenant in a troop 
of yeomanry cavalry at the time of the 
Hauhau advance upon WanganuL It 
was on this occasion that an incident 
occurred which was made the founda- 
tion of a grave charge against Mr. Bryoe 
by Mr. G. W. Busden (q.v.) in his His- 
tory of New Zealand. While Lieu- 
tenant Bryce, with his cavalry, was 
patrolling to the north of Wanganni, 
a number of Maoris were observed 
looting farm-buildings, and a sortie was 
made upon them by the troops. It was 
asserted by Mr. Busden, from informa- 
tion alleged to have been communicated 
through Bishop Hadfield and Sir Arthur 
Gordon, that Mr. Bryce dashed upon 
native women and children, M cutting them 
down gleefully and with ease." Subse- 
quently, Mr. Bryce went to England, and 
brought an action for libel against 
Mr. Rusden, when the jury awarded him, 
£5000 damages, as it was proved in 
evidence that there were no women 
present, and that the charge against 
Mr. Bryoe was completely baseless. 
The late Baron Huddleston presided at 
the trial, and Sir John Gorst appeared 
for Mr. Busden. In 1871 Mr. Bryce 
entered Parliament as member for Wan- 
ganui, and on Oct. 8th, 1879, he accepted 
office under Sir John Hall as Minister for 
Native Affairs. About this time a tokunga 



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DICTIONARY 6f AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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(priest) named Te Whiti bad began to 
give tbe Government some trouble by bis 
resistance to settlement and claims to 
independent and supernatural power. 
As be bad collected in bis pa a large 
number of natives wbose attitude was 
threatening, Mr. Bryce deemed the time 
had come for energetic action. Not being 
able to persuade bis colleagues to agree 
with him, he retired from the Ministry, 
though continuing to give it a general 
support. Nine months afterwards he 
rejoined the Hall Government to carry 
out the native policy he had formerly 
unsuccessfully urged upon his colleagues. 
On Nov. 5th, 1881, he occupied Parihaka 
with a large force consisting of the 
armed constabulary and volunteers, and 
arrested Te Whiti and Tohu, one of his 
chief followers, as well as a notorious 
murderer named Hiroki, who was after- 
wards executed. The action was much 
criticised at the time. Mr. Bryce con- 
tinued to hold office in the Atkinson and 
Whitaker Ministries till August 16th, 
1884. Tn 1882 he carried through the 
House " The West Coast Peace Preserva- 
tion Bill" by which Te Whiti and Tohu 
were imprisoned during Her Majesty's 
pleasure. He also passed the Amnesty 
BiH, which granted an amnesty to natives 
who had committed crimes during the 
war. By the provisions of this bill the 
notorious Te Kooti obtained a free 
pardon. Mr. Bryce was re-elected for 
Wanganui in 1890, and led the opposi- 
tion to the Ballance Ministry. In 
Sept. 1891, however, he resigned his seat 
in the House, owing to a vote of censure 
having been passed upon certain expres- 
sions used by him in debate reflecting 
on the conduct of the Premier, and which 
he (Mr. Bryce) regarded as in no sense 
unparliamentary or objectionable. 

Buchanan, Hon. David, M.L.C., fifth son 
of William Buchanan, of Edinburgh, 
advocate, was born in that city in 
1832, and educated at the High School 
there. He emigrated to Australia in 
1852, and entered the New South Wales 
Legislative Assembly as member for Mor- 
peth in 1860, and was elected twice for 
Bast Macquarie, which he represented 
from 1863 to 1866. He went to England 
in 1867, and entered at the Middle Temple 
in November of that year, being called 
to the bar in June 1869. He then re- 
turned to New South Wales, and prac- 



tised his profession, being elected to the 
Legislative Assembly for East Sydney in 
1870, and twice returned for the Gold- 
fields. Though outvoted at Mudgee in 
1879, he was ultimately declared duly 
elected. As a politician Mr. Buchanan 
gained prominence by his sturdy cham- 
pionship of fiscal protection. He re- 
visited England in 1886, and published a 
selection from bis orations and speeches. 
Having unsuccessfully contested Balmain 
at the general election in Jan. 1889, he 
was nominated to tbe Legislative Council. 
He died on April 3rd, 1890. 

Buckley, William, known as the " Wild 
White Man," was a native of Macclesfield, 
England, where he was born about 1780. 
He.was originally a bricklayer, but entered 
the Cheshire Militia, and subsequently 
tbe Fourth or King's Own Regiment of 
the Line. For some act of mutiny, or, 
as other authorities state, for receiving 
stolen goods, he was sentenced to trans- 
portation, and was sent to Australia by 
H.M.S. Calcutta, with the convict party 
which landed at Port Phillip (afterwards 
Victoria) under Collins in 1803. Whilst 
engaged in forming what proved an 
abortive settlement, Buckley and two 
convict comrades escaped into the bush, 
a third being shot in the attempt to do 
so. The escapees only mustered a trifling 
supply of rations— a gun, some tin pots 
and a kettle, and were soon worn out 
with fatigue and hunger, and the fear of 
being murdered by the Blacks. From 
Swan Island they took a view of the 
Calcutta, and so tired were they of their 
newly acquired freedom that they sig- 
nalled their late taskmasters, with a view 
of returning to bondage rather than en- 
dure any longer the isolation and terrors 
of their lot. They could not, however, 
make themselves observed, and Buckley's 
two comrades decided to skirt along 
the shore with the view of regaining the 
Calcutta from the spot where they had 
made their escape. They both, however, 
perished, whether by hunger or otherwise 
is not known. Buckley, thus left alone, 
was, Blair states, preserved by a lucky 
accident working on the superstitions of 
the natives. A chief of one of the abori- 
ginal tribes had been buried near Buck- 
toy's temporary hut, a piece of a spear 
being left by his sorrowing subjects to 
mark the grave. Buckley appropriated 
the fragment, and meeting some members 



65 



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DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[fin* 



of the tribe, whilst carrying it in his 
hand, they joyfully hailed him as their 
dead chief returned to life in a new gnise. 
He was well cared for, learnt the language 
of his new associates, and married a black 
woman. He lived with the natives in all 
the freedom of bush life till July 12th, 
1835, when he was discovered by Batman, 
the founder of Melbourne. He acted as 
interpreter and peacemaker between his 
fellow countrymen and his native as- 
sociates. A free pardon being subse- 
quently given him, he went to live in 
Hobart Town, Tasmania, where he mar- 
ried a white woman. When he grew old 
the Governments of Victoria and Tasmania 
gave him a modest allowance of a pound 
a week. He died at Hobart Town on 
Feb. 2nd, 1856. Buckley was a man of 
gigantic stature, and proportionately 
strong. He had nearly forgotten his 
own language when Batman discovered 
him, but he gradually recovered its full 
use after his return to English associa- 
tions. 

Buokland, Bey. John Richard, son of 
the Kev. John Buckland, Rector of 
Templeton, Devonshire, and a nephew 
of Dr. William Buckland, Dean of West- 
minster, was born on August 3rd, 1819. 
He received his early education from his 
father at Laleham, and was then sent to 
Rugby, of which school his uncle, Dr. 
Arnold, was at the time head master. 
At the age of seventeen he went to 
Oxford, where he held a studentship at 
Christ Church. After taking his degree 
he determined to emigrate to the colonies, 
and sailed for New Zealand, but in con- 
sequence of the unsettled state of affaire 
in that colony he removed to Tasmania, 
arriving in Hobart in Feb, 1843. He 
was for a time second master of the 
Queen's School, of which the Rev. J. P. 
Gell was head master. On the closing 
of that school he opened a private school. 
In 1845 he was ordained. In 1846 the 
prospectus of a Church of England 
Grammar School was issued, and on 
August 3rd in that year the school, 
named "The Hutchins School " in memory 
of Archdeacon Hutchins, was opened at 
Hobart, with Mr. Buckland as head 
master. It soon became one of the 
leading schools of the colony, a position 
which it has ever since maintained, a 
large number of the most prominent men 
Of (Tasmania having received their educa- 

66 



tion at the Hutchins School. Mr. Buck- 
land held the post of head master for 
twenty-eight years, until his death, which 
took place at Hobart on Oct 13th, 1874. 
Buckley, Hon. Sir Patrick Alphonsus, 
K.CM .G., M.L.C., Attorney-General, New 
Zealand, is the second son of the late 
C. Buckley, and was born near Castle 
Townsend, in county Cork, in 1841. He re- 
ceived his primary education in the well- 
known Mansion House in the city of Cork, 
and was afterward at college in Paris till 
he entered the University of Louvain in 
Belgium. While in Louvain Count Carlo 
Macdonell, Private Chamberlain to the 
Pope, ia passing through, selected young 
Buckley to conduct the recruits for the 
Irish Papal Brigade from Ostend to 
Vienna. There he gave them over to 
the paDal authorities, who were waiting 
to receive them. After the Piedmontese 
had taken possession of the Papal States, 
Mr. Buckley returned to his college, 
and after completing his studies, went 
home to Ireland. From thence he emi- 
grated to Queensland, where shortly 
after his arrival he completed his legal 
studies under the supervision of the 
present Chief Justice, Sir Charles LiOey. 
Mr. Buckley was also admitted to the 
Victorian Bar. After a short residence 
in Queensland he settled in New Zealand, 
and commenced practice in Wellington 
in partnership with Mr. W. S. Reid, the 
present Solicitor-General; but he is 
now the head of the well-known legal 
firm of Buckley, Stafford and TreadweU. 
Shortly after his arrival in Wellington he 
entered the Provincial Council. He was 
Provincial Solicitor for the last adminis- 
tration under that regime until the 
abolition of the provinces. He was 
called to the Legislative Council of New 
Zealand in 1878, and in Sept 1884 
became Colonial Secretary in the 8tout- 
Vogel administration, and leader of the 
Upper House. He retired with his 
colleagues in Oct. 1887. In Jan. 1891, 
on the return of the liberal party to 
power, Mr. Buckley joined the adminis- 
tration under Mr. Ballance as Attorney- 
General, and resumed the leadership 
in the Legislative Council, where he bad 
to confront a decidedly hostile majority. 
Mr. Buckley has taken a warm interest 
in the volunteer movement, and was for 
six years captain of the present D 
Battery of Wellington (then known as 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BlOCRAPHY. 



[Bui 



No. 1), which was raised by himself. 
Mr. Buckley married Alice, the only 
daughter of the late Hon. Sir William 
Fitsherbert, K.C.M.G. (g.v.). On May 
25th, 1892, he was gazetted E.C.M.G. 

Budge, Alexander.Campbell, J.P., Clerk 
of the Executive Council, New South 
Wales, entered the Civil Service of that 
colony in Nov. 1858, and was appointed 
to his present office in Oct. 1863. 

Bull, John Wrattall, son of the late 
Rev. John Bull, M.A., incumbent of St. 
John's, Walthamstow, England, was born 
at St. Paul's Cray, Kent, on June 23rd, 
1804. He emigrated to South Australia 
in 1838, and engaged successfully in 
pastoral pursuits, but was ruined in the 
crisis caused by the dishonour of Gover- 
nor Gawler's drafts. He went to the 
Victorian gold diggings in 1852, but re- 
turned to Adelaide the next year, when 
he became manager of Mr. Osmond 
Gilles' Glen Osmond property, where he 
established a vineyard, one of the first in 
the colony. In 1842 he invented a loco- 
motive steam-threshing machine, and in 
1882 was voted £250 by the South Aus- 
tralian Parliament for his improvements 
in agricultural machinery. He was the 
author of ** Bull's Experiences of Colonial 
Life." He died on Sept 21st, 1885. 

Buller, Bar. James, was born in Cornwall 
in Dec. 1812, and went out to New Zea- 
land as a missionary in connection with 
the Wesley an Church in 1835. He was for 
three years at Hokianga, and was subse- 
quently engaged on missionary work at 
Kaipara in Auckland, Tamanga, and in 
various other parts of both islands, his 
labours extending over forty years. In 
1860 he was removed to Christchurch, 
but returned to Auckland in 1866, and in 
1870 became superintendent minister at 
the Thames. He was successively Presi- 
dent of the Australasian Wesleyan Metho- 
dist Conference and of the New Zealand 
Wesleyan Methodist Conference, and 
was the author of numerous religious 
brochures, and of two books, embodying 
his varied experiences — vie., " Forty Years 
inNew Zealand" (London, 1878), and " New 
Zealand Past and Present" (London, 1880). 
He died at Christchurch on Nov. 6th, 1884. 

Buller, 8ir Walter Lawry, K.C.M.G., 
D.Sc., F.R.8., the descendant of an 
ancient Cornish family and the eldest 
surviving son of the late Rev. James 
Buller, was born on Oct. 9th, 1838, at 

67 



Newark, Bay of Islands, N.Z., and was 
educated at Wesley College, Auckland. 
Having early acquired a knowledge of 
the Maori language, he was appointed 
Government interpreter at Wellington in 
1855, and started and edited a weekly 
Maori paper called Te Karere o Poneke. 
In 1859 he was made Native Commis- 
sioner for the Southern Provinces, and 
carried through the partition and indivi- 
dualisation of the Kaiapoi Native Reserve. 
In 1861 he acted as honorary secretary to 
the Kohimarama conference of native 
chiefs, convened by Governor Gore 
Browne; and in the same year edited 
the Maori Messenger, a fortnightly paper 
in English and Maori, being afterwards 
also promoter and editor of the Maori 
Intelligencer (both of them Government 
publications). In April 1862 he was 
appointed Resident Magistrate of the 
Manawatu; and in April 1865 Judge 
of the Native Land Court. In the same 
year he was present at the taking of 
Wereroa Pa C Volunteer Staff), for which 
he received the New Zealand War Medal. 
On that occasion, declining the pro- 
tection of a military escort, he carried 
the Governor's despatches at night 
through forty miles of the enemy's 
country, attended only by a Maori 
orderly, for which gallant service he 
was mentioned in despatches. In 1866 he 
became Resident Magistrate and Sheriff 
of Wanganui, which office he held till 
1871, when he went to England as Secre- 
tary to the Agent-General. For a con- 
tinuous period of fifteen years he had 
held various official appointments, chiefly 
in connection with native affairs, and 
had on eight different occasions received 
the special thanks of the Colonial Govern- 
ment. He entered as a student at the 
Inner Temple on Nov. 20th, 1871, and 
was called to the bar on June 6th, 1874. 
In the same year he returned to New 
Zealand, and practised as a barrister and 
solicitor of the Supreme Court with 
remarkable success till 1886, when he 
visited England as Commissioner in con- 
nection with the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition. For his services on this 
occasion he was created K.C.M.G., having 
been made a C.M.G. in 1875 in recogni- 
tion of his researches in New Zealand 
ornithology. In 1876 he was elected 
F.R.S. on the same account. Sir Walter 
remained in England till 1890, and took 

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DICTIONARY Of AUSTRALASIAN BlOGRAPttV. 



[Bur 



an active part in all public movements 
affecting the colonies. He was on the 
Mansion House Committee for the Paris 
Exhibition 1889, and was elected a mem- 
ber of the Executive Council. For his 
services on that occasion he was deco- 
rated •• Officier " in the Legion of Honour. 
As early as 1865 he obtained the silver 
medal of the New Zealand Exhibition 
for an " Essay on the Ornithology of New 
Zealand " ; and subsequently published 
a splendidly illustrated " History of the 
Birds of New Zealand." In 1882 he pre- 
pared for the Government a " Manual of 
the Birds of New Zealand," and in 1888 
brought out a second edition of his larger 
work. Besides enjoying the dignity of 
a British order, Sir Walter is a Knight 
(First Class) Austrian Order of Francis 
Joseph, First Class Order of Frederick 
of Wurtemburg, Order of Merit (First 
Class) of Hesse-Darmstadt, and *• Officier 
de rinstruction Publique " (Gold Palm of 
the Academy). He has been awarded 
the Galileian Medal by the Royal 
University of Florence, and has received 
the honorary degree of Doctor of Science 
from the University of Tubingen. In 
1881 he received the gold medal of the 
New Zealand Exhibition for science and 
literature, and was elected a governor of 
the New Zealand Institute, of which 
he was also one of the founders. He 
married, in 1862, Charlotte, third daughter 
of Gilbert Mair, J.P., of Auckland, N.Z., 
who died on Nov. 1st, 1891. 

Bundey, Hon. William Henry, Puisne 
Judge, South Australia, son of the late 
James Bundey, was born in 1838, and 
admitted to the South Australian bar 
in 1865, becoming Q.C. in 1878. He sat 
in the House of Assembly as member for 
Onkaparinga from 1872 to 1874, and from 
1878 to 1880. He was Minister of Justice 
and Education in Mr. (now Sir) Arthur 
Blyth's Government from July 1874 to 
March 1875, and Attorney-General in 
that of Mr. (afterwards Sir) W. Morgan 
from Sept 1878 to March 1881. In 1882 
he received the Queen's permission to 
bear the title of " Honourable * within 
the colony, and in 1884 was appointed a 
judge of the Supreme Court of South 
Australia. Judge Bundey was for six 
years captain of volunteers, and was 
commodore of the South Australian xacht 
Club from 1874 to 1884. He married in 
1865 Ellen Wardlaw, daughter of the 



Hon. Sir William Milne, late president 
of the Legislative .Council of South 
Australia. 

Bunny, Brioe Frederick, sometime 
Commissioner of Titles, Victoria, was 
the second son of Jere Brice of Newbury, 
Berkshire, and Clara, his wife, daughter 
of Samuel Slocock. He was born at 
Newbury in 1820, and was educated at 
Eton. He entered as a student at Lin- 
coln's Inn in March 1839, and was called 
to the bar in May 1844. He emigrated 
to Victoria in 1852, with the object of 
making a fortune on the goldfields ; but 
by the advice of his friend, Vice-Chancel- 
lor Bacon, took his tools with him in the 
shape of a law library. After some ex- 
perience on the Forest Creek diggings, he 
was admitted to the Victorian bar in 
Oct. 1853, and commenced practice in 
Melbourne. He acquired a good equity 
business, and was appointed a County 
Court Judge in 1873. In October of the 
next year, however, he exchanged this 
post for that of Commissioner of Titles, 
which he held till his death on June 2nd, 
1885. 

Burgesi, William Henry, J.P., was born 
at Hobart, Tas., in 1847, and was edu- 
cated at the High School, Hobart, and 
at Horton College, Boss. He was mem- 
ber for West Hobart from Jan. 1881 to 
August 1891, and from August 1884 to 
March 1887 was Treasurer in the Douglas 
and Agnew Ministries. Mr. Burgess, who 
was the recognised leader of the opposi- 
tion to the Fysh Ministry, is a captain 
unattached in the Tasmanian Defence 
Force, and was Mayor of Hobart in 1879 
and 1880. He was one of the Tasmanian 
delegates to the Federation Convention 
held at 8ydney in 1891. In August 1891, 
owing to the stoppage of the Bank of 
Van Diemen's Land, with the management 
of which he was identified, Mr. Burgess 
resigned his seat in the Executive Coun- 
cil and in Parliament and his position as 
leader of the Opposition. 

Bnrgoyne, Thomas, M.P., represents 
Newcastle in the Legislative Assembly 
of South Australia, and was Commis- 
sioner of Crown Lands and Immigration 
in the Cockburn Government from June 
1889 to August 1890, when he retired 
with his colleagues. 

Burke, Bebert O'Hara, the famous and 
ill-fated explorer, belonged to a younger 



68 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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branch of the Burkes or de Burghs, and 
was the second son of John Hardiman 
Burke of St. Clerans, co. Galway, Ireland, 
by Anne his wife, daughter of Robert 
Ollara of Raheen, co. Galway, and was 
born at 8t Clerans in 1821. He was 
educated in Belgium. He entered the 
Austrian army in 1840, and rose to the 
rank of Captain. In 1848 he joined the 
Royal Irish Constabulary, and in 1853 
emigrated to Tasmania, whence he soon 
went on to Victoria, where he became an 
Inspector of Police. In 1854 (in which 
year his father died) he obtained leave 
to go to England to settle his family 
affairs, and seek a Commission in the 
Crimean War; but the war being over 
before arrangements were concluded, he 
returned to Victoria, and resumed his 
police duties. In 1860 he was appointed 
to the oommand of an exploring ex- 
pedition, organised under the auspices of 
a Committee of the Royal Society of 
Victoria, and despatched for the purpose 
of crossing the Australian continent from 
sea to sea, north and south. Great en- 
thusiasm was aroused by the project, and 
Mr. Ambrose Kyte,a Melbourne resident, 
subscribed £1000 towards the expenses, 
this amount being handsomely supple- 
mented by private and Government con- 
tributions. A novel feature was the em- 
ployment of camels specially exported 
from India for the purpose at a cost of 
£5500, and from which £reat results 
were expected. The expedition, consist- 
ing of thirteen persons besides the leader, 
started from Melbourne on August 20th, 
I860, amidst the cheers of thousands of 
spectators. Dissensions soon arose, and 
several members of the party, including 
T And el to, the second in command, re- 
turned. Burke reached Cooper's Creek, 
which was to be the starting point of the 
expedition, on Nov. 11th ; and after 
waiting long, with six companions, for 
the arrival of the rest of the party who 
had been left behind at Menindie on 
the Darling, made a dash for the Gulf 
of Carpentaria on Dec. 16th, leaving the 
bulk of his stores in charge of an 
assistant named Brahe and three men, 
with directions to await his return for 
three or four months. The enterprise 
proved successful. Though not actually 
coming within sight of the sea, Burke 
and his associate, Wills, reached the tidal 
waters of the Flinders river, and earned 



the distinction of being the first white 
men to traverse the Australian continent. 
On their return to Cooper's Creek, how- 
ever, on April 21st, 1861, exhausted with 
hardships, and after one of their number, 
Gray, had succumbed to fatigue and star- 
vation, King found that Brahe, interpret- 
ing his instructions too literally, had 
abandoned his post that very day, leaving 
only a small stock of provisions behind 
him. Contrary to the advice of Wills, 
who urged the advisability of following 
in Brahe's tracks, Burke determined to 
strike for some of the South Australian 
stations, which he imagined were much 
nearer than was actually the case. He 
was stopped on his course by want of 
water, and was obliged to return with 
his two companions to Cooper's Creek. 
They were too enfeebled to renew the 
attempt to go southwards, and were 
obliged to remain on the lower part of 
Cooper's Creek, some distance from the 
depot, subsisting mainly on casual sup- 
plies obtained from friendly natives. In 
the meantime Brahe, with the lagging 
rearguard, had returned to the depot, bnt 
not finding Burke and his party, went 
south once more. The end came on 
June 28th, 1861, when Burke died of 
starvation, Wills, whom Burke and King 
had left to go in search of the blacks, 
dying about the same time. King, their 
only surviving comrade, managed to sub- 
sist amongst the natives until rescued 
on Sept. 21st by a relief party, under 
the command of Mr. Alfred W. Howitt, 
which had been sent out from Melbourne 
when Brahe returned with the news 
of Burke and Wills' non-return to the 
depot. Mr. Howitt buried the ill-fated 
explorers, Burke having particularly re- 
quested King not to bury him, but to let 
him lie above ground with a pistol in 
his hand. Public feeling, however, de- 
manded the rescue of their remains, 
and they were recovered by a second ex- 
pedition sent out under Mr. Howitt, 
and brought back to Melbourne on 
Dec. 28th, 1862. A public funeral was 
accorded to these two brave but luckless 
explorers, on Jan. 21st, 1863, after they 
had lain in state twenty days, and a 
monument to their memory, the work of 
the Australian sculptor, Charles Summers, 
now occupies a prominent position oppo- 
site the Parliament House, Melbourne. 
The cost of the original expedition, and 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bur 



of the subsequent searches, was estimated 
at £57,000. 

Burnett, Commodore William Farquhar- 
son, C.B., entered the Royal Navy in June 
1838, and became Captain in Nov. 1854. 
Jn July 1855 he was created C.B., and in 
July 1862 was appointed Commodore on 
the Australian Station. On Feb. 7th, 
1863. he perished in the wreck of H.M.S. 
Orpheus off Manukau, New Zealand, when 
out of a crew of 260 only 70 were saved. 

Burns, Hon. John Fitigtrald, M.L.A. 
was born in the north of Ireland, and 
emigrated to New South Wales at an 
early age. Having engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits in the Hunter River district, 
he was returned to the Assembly for 
the Hunter in 1862, and represented the 
constituency for many years. He is now 
one of the members for St. Leonard's. 
He was Postmaster-General in the Robert- 
son Ministry from Feb. 1875 to March 
1877, and in that of Mr. Farnell from 
Dec. 1877 to Dec. 1878. He introduced 
postal cards into Australia in 1875, and 
was the first to give employment to 
women in the telegraph department In 
1878 he arranged with the Government* 
of the other Australian colonies and New 
Zealand for the duplication of the sub- 
marine cable to Australia. Mr. Burns was 
Treasurer in the last Robertson Ministry 
from Dec. 1885 to Feb. 1886, and in that 
of Sir Henry Parkes from Jan. 1887 to 
Jan. 1889. He was gazetted a C.M.G. in 
the Jubilee year, but declined the honour, 
and the appointment was cancelled. 

Bums, Bev. Thomas, D.D., was born at 
Mossgiel, Ayrshire, Scotland, on April 
10th, 1796. His father, Gilbert Burns, 
was brother to the Scottish poet, Robert 
Burns, and was factor to Lord Blantyre. 
While % yet a child his parents removed 
to the form of Dinniny, Dumfriesshire. 
At the parish school he received his 
primary education, proceeding in course 
of time for the higher branches to the 
Grammar Schools of Closeburn and Had- 
dington. At the latter he was a pupil 
of the famous Edward Irving, from 
whom he received a prize for proficiency 
in mathematics. From the Gram- 
mar School at Haddington Mr. Burns 
entered the University at Edinburgh, 
where he pursued with success the arts 
curriculum, and attended the classes in 
tbeolcgy prescribed for candidates for the 
ministry of the Established Church of 



Scotland. He was then taken on trial for 
licence by the Presbytery of Haddington, 
and by it was duly licensed to preach as 
a probationer of the Church of Scotland. 
He was at that time acting as tutor in the 
family of Sir Hugh Dalrymple, Berwick 
House, Haddington, through whose in- 
fluence he obtained a presentation to the 
parish of Ballantrae, in the Presbytery 
of 8tranraer, Galloway, where he was 
ordained by that Presbytery in 1825. 
From Ballantrae he was translated to the 
parish of Monkton, Ayrshire, in 1830. 
where he continued parish minister till 
the disruption of the Church of Scotland 
in 1843, when he relinquished his status 
as a minister of the Church of Scotland, 
and joined the Free Church of Scotland 
which was then formed. For a short 
time he remained in Monkton as Free 
Church minister, and helped largely to 
organise other Free Churches In the 
Presbytery of Ayr. His attention having 
been drawn to the proposal of the New 
Zealand Company to found a 8ootch 
colony in Otago, possessing the church 
and school privileges peculiar to Scotland, 
and drawn from the membership of the 
Free Church, and having received the 
offer of being appointed the first minister 
of the projected colony, he resigned 
his charge at Monkton with a view of 
proceeding to Otago in that capacity. 
Circumstances having hindered the im- 
mediate realisation of the New Zealand 
Company's scheme of colonisation, Mr. 
Burns spent a year or two in giving 
lectures on the Company's plan, visiting 
for this purpose various parts of Scotland, 
but receiving no remuneration from the 
Company for this service. He accepted 
a call from the Free Church congregation 
of Portobello, in the neighbourhood of 
Edinburgh, and continued to act as 
minister there till October 1847. At that 
date all arrangements for prosecuting the 
proposed settlement of Otago having been 
completed, and Mr. Barns adhering to 
his appointment as first minister of the 
colony, he demitted his charge, and made 
ready to proceed with the outgoing 
emigrants to Otago. With his family, he 
joined at Greenwich the Philip Lamg, 
under the command of Captain Andrew 
Elles, which, with the John Wichliff, 
appointed to sail from London, had been 
chartered to convey the first emigrants 
to Otago. These vessels left their re- 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bar 



• spective ports on Nov. 27th, 1847. The 
Johm Wickliff reached Port Chalmers on 

► March 23rd, 1848, and the Philip Laing on 
April 15th following. The day after the 
arrival of the Philip Laing being the 
Sabbath, the passengers on both ships 
assembled on board the Philip Laing for 
Divine service, which was conducted by 
Mr. Burns. On the following Sabbath 
Divine service was held in Dunedin, when 
Mr. Burns preached. From that time to 
February 1864 Mr. Burns continued alone 
to minister to the religious needs of the 
settlers, the majority of whom had located 
themselves in Dunedin and neighbour- 
hood, while some had settled at Port 
Chalmers, and others had taken up land 
in the Taieri, Tokomairiro, and Clutha 
districts, all of whom were periodically 
visited by Mr. Burns. From his minis- 
terial visits southwards Mr. Burns was 
relieved by the arrival, in February 
1864, of the Bev. William Will and the 
Bev. William Bannerman, with whom 
he took part in constituting the Pres- 
bytery of Otago in June following, and 
of which he was the first Moderator. 
Further relief was given him by the 
settlement of Bev. William Johnstone, at 
Port Chalmers, in June 1858, and by the 
subdivision of the Free Church, Dunedin, 
by the formation of Knox Church, under 
the pastorate of the Bev. D. M. Stuart, in 
I860. In 1861 Mr. Burns received the 
diploma of Doctor of Divinity from the 
University of Edinburgh. In 1866, on 
the formation of the synod as the Supreme 
Court of the Church, rendered necessary 
by the increase of ministers throughout 
Otago and Southland, and the formation 
of several presbyteries, Dr. Burns presided 
as first Moderator. Advancing years and 
failing health led to the appointment of 
a colleague and successor in the person 
of the Bev. George Sutherland in 1868. 
Towards the close of 1870 Dr. Burns retired 
wholly from public duties, and died on 
Jan. 23rd, 1871. A monument to his 
memory has been erected in Dunedin, 
not far from the spot where one of his 
illustrious uncle has stood for some years 
past. Whilst Captain Cargill was the lay 
organiser and ruler of the Otago settle- 
ment, the late Dr. Burns was its spiritual 
guide and adviser. It was in 1844 that 
the New Zealand Company, perceiving 
the wonderful life which animated the 
free Church, approached her with a view 



to found a Free Church colony in New 
Zealand. The offer was entertained, and 
the Laymen's Association for planting 
the colony of Otago was organised, with 
Dr. Alcorn for its secretary in Glasgow 
and Mr. John M'Glashan for its secretary 
in Edinburgh. The Association, with 
the utmost unanimity, fixed on Captain 
Cargill to be the Moses and Dr. Burns 
to be the Aaron of the enterprise, as 
Dr. Stuart phrased it. It is well known 
that Sir William Chambers was one of 
those who directed attention to Dr. Burns 
as in all respects suitable for the office 
of pioneer minister. The doctor devoted 
much time to the advocacy of the scheme, 
and in his speeches he gave prominence 
to its objects — the settlement of the 
people on their own acres and the 
planting of church and school within 
their reach. 

Burrow**, Hon. Robert, M.L. A., formerly 
Minister of Mines, Victoria, was born at 
Perth, a township near Ottawa, Canada, 
in 1827. After experience in the lumber 
trade he left Canada in 1852, and arrived 
in Melbourne in April 1853. He almost 
immediately afterwards left for the 
Bendigo (Sandhurst) diggings, where he 
took an active part in creating Sandhurst 
municipality, and was chairman of the 
local council on the occasion of railway 
communication being established be- 
tween Melbourne and Sandhurst in 1862. 
He was returned to the Victorian Assembly 
for Sandhurst in Jan. 1866, and held the 
seat till his defeat in May 1877. In 1880 
he was re-elected, and still sits for the 
same constituency. From August 1881 
to March 1883 he was Minister of Mines in 
the O'Logblen Government. Mr. Burrowes 
married in 1858 Sarah Ellen, daughter of 
P. Vickery. 

Burt, Sir Archibald Faull, son of George 
Henry Burt, was born in 1810, and edu- 
cated at a private school at Richmond. 
He was called to the bar at the Middle 
Temple in 1845, and emigrated to the 
island of St. Christopher, where he 
practised his profession, being Attorney- 
General from 1849 to 1860. He was Speaker 
of the House of Assembly, a Member of 
the Executive and Legislative Councils, 
and for some time Acting Chief Justice. 
He was also a Member of the Admini- 
strative Committee and Chancellor of the 
Diocese of Antigua and the Leeward 
Islands, In I860 he was appointed Civil 

7 i 



Bur] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Commissioner and Chairman of Quarter 
Sessions in Western Australia, and in 
the following year Chief Justice of that 
colony, an office which he held until his 
death on Nov. 21st> 1879. Sir Archibald 
married, in 1836, Louisa Emily, daughter 
of John Bryan, M.D., of St. Christopher, 
and was knighted in 1873. 

Burt, Oetaviui, son of the late Sir 
Archibald Paull Burt, Chief Justice of 
Western Australia (?.v.). He was ap- 
pointed Clerk in the Governor's office, 
Western Australia, in May 1872 ; in Jan. 
1874 Clerk to the Executive Council and 
Private Secretary to the Acting Governor ; 
from April 1874 to Dec. 1874 was Private 
Secretary to Governor Weld ; in May 1875 
was appointed Clerk to the Executive 
Council and Private Secretary to Governor 
Sir William C. F. Robinson; in Sept. 
1887, Chief Clerk and Keeper of records 
in Survey Office; Resident Magistrate, 
Newcastle, in April 1880; ditto, York, in 
April 1887 ; Assistant Colonial Secretary 
in April 1887. In 1889 to 1890 Mr. Burt 
was acting Colonial Secretary and a 
member of the Executive and Legislative 
Councils during the absence in England 
of Sir William Robinson, when Sir Mal- 
colm Eraser, the Colonial Secretary, dis- 
charged the functions of Administrator of 
the Government. 

Burt, Hon. Septimus, M.L.A., Q.C., 
Attorney-General, Western Australia, 
seventh son of Sir A. P. Burt, was born at 
St. Kitts on Oct. 25th, 1847, and educated 
at Shaw House, Melksham, Wilts, and at 
Bishop's School, Perth, Western Australia. 
He was called to the Colonial bar in May 
1870, and became senior partner in the 
firm of Stone & Burt. He was nominated 
a member of the Legislative Council in 
1874, but resigned, and was afterwards an 
elected member, retaining his seat until 
the dissolution of that body in 1890. 
At the special request of the Governor 
Mr. Burt acted as Attorney-General, with 
a seat in the Executive Council, for six 
months in 1886, after the retirement of 
Mr. Hensman, his private practice ren- 
dering it impossible for him to hold the 
position longer. In the same year he 
was a member of the Western Australian 
Commission for the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition of 1886, and was appointed 
one of the representatives of Western 
Australia at the Colonial Conference held 
'u London in 1887. In the same year he 



was made Q.C. Mr. Burt is Com 
Agent for Portugal and Vice-Consul 
Denmark. He revisited England in 1 
Mr. Burt married, in July 1872, J 
daughter of Gustavus Edward Cocld 
Hare, formerly of Kircullen, oo. Gal 
and afterwards Government Residei 
Albany, Western Australia, by J 
Wright his wife. Mr. Hare was a 1 
brother of the well-known Arohdet 
(Julius Charles) Hare, of Hurstmonfl 
In Dec. 1890 Mr. Burt accepted a i 
in the Forrest Ministry, and 
appointed first Attorney-General 
Western Australia under respom 
government, being returned for i 
burton to the Legislative Assem 
In 1891 he visited London in the capsi 
of first acting Agent-General of Wesi 
Australia, but returned to the coll 
later in the year. ] 

Burton, Sir William Westbrooke, fii 
son of Edmund Burton, of Davent 
Northamptonshire, by Eliza, only dau| 
ter of Rev. John Mather, of Chorli 
Lancashire, was born on Jan. 31st, IT 
and educated at Daventry Grama 
School He entered the navy in 18* 
taking part in the attack on New Orles 
in 1814. In Nov. 1819 he entered at t 
Inner Temple, and was called to the I 
in Nov. 1824. Having practised wi 
success, he was Recorder of Davent 
from 1826 to 1827, and Puisne Judge 
the Cape of Good Hope from 1828 
1832, when he was appointed to a simi 
post in New South Wales, which he h< 
until 1844, when he was transferred 
Madras, where he remained till 18 
when he retired from the bench a 
returned to Sydney. He was nominal 
to the Legislative Council of New Soi 
Wales, and was President of that be 
from Feb. 1858 to May 1861, when j 
prior to the expiry of the functu 
of the House by effluxion of time, 
resigned, with nineteen other memtx 
on the attempt of the Cowper Ministry 
carry the Robertson Land Bills throt 
the House by the nomination of twen 
one new members, favourably dispoc 
to the policy of the Government. Wl 
the Council was reconstituted under 1 
instructions of the Home Government 
that year, Sir William Burton was i 
again offered a seat, Mr. Wentwo 
succeeding him in the presidential chs 
Consequent thereupon $ir William 



7* 



Digitized by 



Googk 



w 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[But 



- Wed to quit the colony and return to 
1 nfknd, where he died in Aug. 1888. Sir 

fflliam was knighted by patent in Nov. 

144. He married, first, on April 5th, 
i j?7, Margaret, daughter of Leny Smith, 

! Homerton, who died in Sept. 1846; 
>.; ri secondly, on June 11th, 1849, Maria 
' khonsine, daughter of John Beatty 
;i mi, M.P. for Dublin, who survived 
^ so. Sir William was the author of a 
ii ochure, entitled "The State of Re- 

Sion and Education in New South 
s: ties," in which he drew a terrible 
& ictore of the state of the convict estab- 
:i Anient at Norfolk Island in the year 
i w4, when he visited it as a judge to 
4 J a contingent of mutineers, of whom 
33 feteen were subsequently hanged, 
*t High Jndge Burton mercifully post- 

fed the executions until he could con- 
with 8ir Richard Bourke, in Sydney, 
secure that, at any rate, they shonld 
^provided with the consolations of 
*figwn before being launched into 
fanu'ty. Tbe pamphlet called forth a 
■Ply from Bishop Ullathorne. 
littler, Hon. Edward, Q.C., M.L.C., was 
*n in the county of Kilkenny in 1829, 
"d educated at Kilkenny College. At 
liearly age he was a contributor to the 
■Win Nation, and in 1849 he joined 
•t (now Kir) Charles Gavan Duffy in 
ftmng that paper, which had been 
■PPressed during the troubles of 1848. 
J, 1863 he emigrated to New South 
Wes, and became a contributor to the 
•pw, being called to the colonial bar, 
t which he practised with great success, 

* 1866. 8ix years later he was nomi- 
nal to the Legislative Council, but 
Jfad from it, and entered the Lower 
[*se in 1869 as member for Argyle. 
J*as Attorney-General in the Parkes 
•jwnnent from May 1872 to Nov. 1873, 
**p he resigned in consequence of not 
J*wing the vacant office of Chief Jus- 
■* which he alleged had been promised 
JKttby 8ir Henry Parkes, who passed 

• over in favour of his junior at the 
W the late 8ir James Martin. He was 
wpointed to the Legislative Council 
■ Oct. 1877, and died suddenly whilst 
Naged in a case in the Supreme Court 
* Sydney on June 9th, 1879. 

fetter, Hon. Henry, son of Gamaliel 
wafer, solicitor, was born in Cornhill, 
**&cn, on November 17th, 1821. In 
*83 the family emigrated to Tasmania. 



Mr. Butler was educated in England, 
and chose medicine as his profession, 
becoming a member of the Royal College 
of Surgeons in 1843, and in 1849 a 
fellow of that college. After studying 
at some of the hospitals on the Conti- 
nent, he returned to Tasmania, and 
began the practice of his profession in 
Hobart. He was elected to the old 
Legislative Council as member for 
Brighton, and on the introduction of free 
institutions in 1856 he entered the new 
House of Assembly as member for the 
same constituency, holding the seat, with 
a short interval, until his death. In 
August 1869 he became a member of the 
Wilson Ministry without portfolio. In 
the following October he was appointed 
Minister of Lands and Works, a position 
which he held till Nov. 1872, when he 
resigned with his colleagues. He suc- 
ceeded Sir Robert Officer as Speaker of 
the Assembly in April 1877, and having 
been twice re-elected in the interval, 
resigned in July 1885. Dr. Butler took 
a prominent part in educational matters. 
In 1853 he was appointed a member of 
the Central Board of Education for the 
colony. In 1856, when two boards were 
appointed, he became Chairman of the 
Southern Board. In 1863, shortly after 
the amalgamation of the two boards, he 
was appointed Chairman of the Central 
Board in succession to Mr. W. E. Nairn. 
As chairman he administered the educa- 
tional system of the colony with ability 
and success until the abolition of the 
Board of Education in 1884 and the 
transference of the control of the educa- 
tion department to a Minister directly 
responsible to Parliament. Dr. Butler 
married Catherine Smith, daughter of 
Thomas Smith, of Glen Rock, Sydney. 
He died at Hobart on August 22nd, 1885. 
Butler, Very Rev. Joseph, D.D., O.C.C., 
Prior and Commissary-General, Port Mel- 
bourne, was born in Limerick, Ireland, in 
Sept. 1844, and educated at the Catholic 
University, Dublin. He entered the Car- 
melite Order in Dublin in 1859, was or- 
dained priest in 1868, and was for many 
years engaged as a professor in colleges 
attached to houses of his Order in Ire- 
land. He was president of their seminary 
in Dublin until Feb. 1881, when he and 
other fathers of the Order left Ireland, 
on the invitation of Bishop (now Arch- 
bishop) Reynolds, of Adelaide, S.A., to 



73 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Byr 



found a house of the Carmelite Order in 
that diocese. In October of the same 
year Prior Butler commenced giving 
missions in Victoria, and was persuaded 
by the late Archbishop of Melbourne 
to settle down in the archdiocese, the 
mission of Port Melbourne being accepted 
by him on behalf of his Order, of which 
he was the head in Australasia until his 
return to Ireland in 1891. 

Buvslot, Abraham Louis, was born in 
Switzerland on March 3rd, 1814, and very 
early displayed artistic leanings, study- 
ing his profession at Lausanne and Paris. 
After fourteen years' residence in Brazil, 
where he painted some excellent land- 
scapes, he finally came to Melbourne in 
1865, where three of his pictures — "A 
Winter Morning in Heidelberg," "A 
Summer Afternoon at Templestow," and 
" WaterpoolatColeraine" — werepurchased 
by the trustees of the Victorian National 
Gallery. At the Melbourne Exhibition 
of 1875 he gained a first prize for " View 
of Gisborne" and a " Sea Piece." 

Buiaoott, Charles Hardie, was born at 
Torrington, Devonshire, in 1835, and 
arrived at Sydney, N.8.W., in 1852, 
where, desiring to become a journalist, 
he acquired the art of letter press 
printing. In 1860 he went to Queensland, 
where he established the Maryborough 
Chronicle, and about two years later 
moved northward to Bockhampton. In 
1884 he started the Peak Downs Tele- 
gram, at Clermont, where he lived until 
the great flood of 1870, when he narrowly 
escaped with his life by climbing a tree 
at midnight, as the surging waters broke 
into his printing office, and carried away 
much of his plant. Disheartened with 
his prospects after this occurrence, he 
sold his business for a nominal sum, 
intending to remove with his family to 
New Zealand; but in passing through 
Bockhampton he was induced to buy the 
Bulletin for his brother, and was obliged 
to remain for the time being to carry it 
on. He soon converted the paper into a 
morning daily, and published the weekly 
Capricomian. In 1873 he was returned 
to the Legislative Assembly as member 
for Bockhampton, and held that position 
for more than four years, when the 
pressure of private and public business 
compelled his resignation. In 1878, his 
health being unsatisfactory, he removed 



to Brisbane, where he continued to write 
for his journals at Bockhampton, and also 
contributed to the leading columns of the 
Brisbane Courier. In Jan. 1879 he was 
induced by Sir Thomas McHwraith to 
accept the Postmaster-Generalship, with 
a seat in the Legislative Council. This 
position he occupied till Dec 1880. 
Mr. Buzaoott was the author of some of 
the principal measures introduced by the 
first McHwraith Ministry, among others 
the Divisional Boards Act of 1879, the 
Local Works Loans Act of 1880, the 
Postal Card and Note Act and the General 
Tramways Act of 1882. As Postmaster- 
General he united the distinct Post and 
Telegraph departments into one, thus 
saving much expense, introduced the 
telephone into the colony, and induced 
the Cabinet to call for tenders for the 
Torres Straits mail service by steamers 
running between Brisbane and London — 
a project enthusiastically adopted and 
carried through successfully by Sir Thomas 
MoHwraith, then on a visit to the mother 
country. In Dec. 1880, in consequence 
of the death of his eldest brother, Mr. 
Buzaoott was compelled to retire from 
public life, and devote his attention to 
business. He accepted the management 
of the Brisbane Newspaper Company, in 
which he acquired one-third interest. 
Under his auspices the Courier was 
doubled in size, the Queensland** enlarged, 
and the Evening Observer purchased and 
carried on as an eight-page daily. In 
1888, yielding to the pressure of friends, 
he sought election to the Legislative 
Assembly as member for Oxley, but was 
defeated, and has not since sought to 
re-enter public life. He is editor, as well 
as part proprietor, of the Brisbane Courier. 

Byrne,KightBev.JosephPatrick,Roman 
Catholic Bishop of Bathurst, N.S.W., 
was consecrated to that see in August 
1885, in succession to the late Bishop 
Quinn. 

Byrne, Hon, Bebert, who for a few 
months was Treasurer of Victoria, is the 
eldest son of Michael Byrne, of Dublin* 
Ireland, and was born there on Nov. 12th, 
1822. He left Ireland for New York in 
1848, and settled there, carrying on the 
business of general auctioneer in that city 
as well as in Boston* Towards the end 
of 1852 he left America for Victoria, arriv- 
ing in Melbourne In Feb, 1853, He oom- 



74 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Cad 



meoced auctioneering at Sandridge, now 
called Port Melbourne, and represented 
the district in the Melbourne Corporation 
prior to its being constituted a separate 
municipality. At the general election of 
1864 he contested Sandridge for a seat 
in the Legislative Assembly in the Liberal 
interest against the Hon. David Moore, 
but was defeated by three votes, and was 
unsuccessful on petition. Shortly after- 
wards he was returned for Crowlands 
by a very large majority. In 1869, when 
Sir James M'Culloch went outside the 
House for a Commissioner of Customs, 
Mr. Byrne carried a motion censuring the 
Government, which was taken by them as 
a vote of want of confidence, on which 
they resigned, a new Ministry being 
formed on Sept. 20th, 1869, with the Hon. 
J. A. Macpherson as Chief Secretary and 
Mr. Byrne as Treasurer. When, however, 
the latter sought re-election at the hands 
of his constituents, he was defeated by 
Mr. Bolfe, the gentleman to whose ap- 
pointment he had objected, and retired 
from office on Jan. 21st, 1870, being suc- 
ceeded by Mr. (now Sir Graham) Berry. 



Mr. Byrne lias not since re-entered 
public life. 

Byrnes, Hon. Thomas Joseph, M.L.C., 
B.A., LL.B., Solicitor-General, Queens- 
land, was born in Brisbane in Nov. I860, 
and was educated at the Primary School, 
Bowen, where he won two State School 
Scholarships, and entered the Brisbane 
Grammar School, where he won the Lilley 
Gold Medal three times. Subsequently 
he was successful in the Junior Exam- 
ination at Sydney University, and at the 
Melbourne University Matriculation Ex- 
amination passed first on the list, and won 
an Exhibition to the University. He also 
won several scholarships and graduated 
with honours, taking the B.A. and LL.B. 
degrees. He was called to the bar in 
Victoria in 1884, and then returned to 
Queensland, where he read in the cham- 
bers of Mr. Real for one year, and 
oommenoed practice in 1885, speedily 
obtaining a leading position at the 
Supreme Court Bar. In August 1890 he 
accepted a seat in the Legislative Council, 
with the post of Solicitor-General in the 
Griffith-Mcllwraith Ministry. 



OadeU, Franeis, the principal explorer 
of the river Murray, was the son of 
Hugh Francis Cadell, of Cockenzie, near 
Preston Pans, Haddingtonshire, and was 
born in 1822, and educated at Edinburgh 
and in Germany. He entered as a mid- 
shipman on board an East Indiaman, 
and took part in the first Chinese war, 
being present at the siege of Canton and 
the capture of Amoy and Ningpo. At 
twenty-two he was in command of a 
vessel, and meanwhile visited the ship- 
building yards of the Tyne and Clyde, 
gaining a thorough knowledge! of naval 
architecture and the construction of 
steam engines. He studied the subject 
of river navigation after a visit to the 
Amason ; and in 1848, when he arrived in 
Australia, his attention was drawn to the 
practicability of navigating the Murray 
and its tributaries, which had till then 
only served for watering flocks. En- 
couraged by the Governor of South Aus- 
tralia (8ir H. F. Young), he put his 
project into execution. He embarked in 
a small boat at Swanhill on the Upper 

75 



Murray, and descended the stream to 
Lake Victoria at its mouth, a distance of 
1300 miles. Having thus proved that the 
Murray was navigable, he succeeded in 
crossing the dangerous bar at its mouth 
in a steamer planned and constructed 
under his supervision, for the Murray 
Steam Navigation Company, of which he 
was the main promoter. .This vessel 
accomplished 1500 miles on her first 
voyage from Adelaide in 1858, when 
Captain Cadell had on board Sir H. F. 
Toung and Lady Young and a large 
party of ladies and gentlemen. Other 
steamers were procured, and the Murrum- 
bidgee, the Edward, and the Darling 
rivers in like manner opened to traffic in 
1858. Captain Cadell, although he was 
preceded by Mr. Bandell in the naviga- 
tion of the Murray in a small steamer, 
was awarded the bonus of £4000 offered 
by the Government for opening up that 
river to the junction with the Darling 
to vessels of 40-horse power and not 
more than 2 feet draught. He was the 
object of several valuable presentations, 



o 



Cad] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Cai 



and a gold medal was struck in his 
honour by order of the South Australian 
authorities. His subsequent career was 
chequered and adventurous, and his end 
tragic and mysterious. The Murray 
Steam Navigation Company collapsed, 
and ruined others as well as Captain 
Cadell. He then engaged in the trans- 
port service in the New Zealand war, 
and, later on, failed in an attempt to 
establish stores at various depdts along 
the Murray. A like fate attended him 
in a pastoral venture to the north of 
Lake Victoria. He was not more sue* 
cessful when he resorted to pearl-fishing 
on the north-east and north-west coasts 
of Australia. Ultimately Captain Cadell, 
who discovered the mouth of the Roper 
River in 1867, was murdered by his 
native crew whilst on a voyage from 
Amboyna to the Eei islands in June 
1879. General Robert Cadell, C.B., 
younger brother of the late Captain 
Cadell, now owns the family property at 
Cockenzie, and another brother (Colonel 
Cadell, V.C.) is Governor of the Andaman 
Islands, where the late Earl of Mayo was 
murdered. 

Cadman, Hon. Alfred Jerome, M.H.R., 
Minister for Native Affairs, New Zealand, 
is a native of that colony. His father 
was intimately connected with the Cape 
Colville Peninsula from early in the 
fifties, and it was to him that the first 
New Zealand miners' right was issued. 
Mr. Cadman, sen., was an active politician, 
and his son early took a part in public 
life. On the inauguration of the county 
system, he became first Chairman of the 
Coromandel County Council, and has 
continued to act in that capacity ever 
since. He has sat in the House of 
Representatives as member for Coroman- 
del since 1881, and being an advanced 
Liberal, was for several years in close 
political accord with Sir George Grey. 
He was appointed to a seat in the Ballance 
Cabinet in Jan. 1891. 

Cafljra, Stephen Mannington, is a medi- 
cal man in practice at South Yarra, Mel- 
bourne, and is well known as the inventor 
of a raw meat preparation patented as 
44 Liquor Carnis. He is the son of James 
Caffyn and Martha his wife, and was born 
at Salehurst, Sussex, on May 15th, 1851. He 
was married in 1879 at Chobham, Surrey, 
to Miss Kathleen Hunt, and went to 
Sydney in 1880, where he was Government 



medical officer. In 1890 he published 
"Miss Milne and I," and in 1891 "A 
Poppy's Tears." Mrs. Caffyn is an 
authoress of ability. 

Cairns, Rev. Adam, D.D., was born at 
Longforgan, Perthshire, Scotland (of 
which parish his father was minister) on 
Jan. 30th, 1802. He was educated at 
the parish school and by his father, and 
went to St. Andrews in 1814 and to 
Edinburgh University in 1818. In 1823 
he was licensed to preach by the Pres- 
bytery of Cupar, and acted as assistant 
to the Rev. Sir H. W. Moncrieff, in West 
Church parish, Edinburgh, till the tatter's 
death in 1827. He was ordained minister 
of Minor in Tweeddale in 1828, and was 
translated in 1833 to Dunbog, in Fife, 
where he married Miss Jessie BallingaU, 
of Ayton. In 1837 he became minister 
of Cupar. At the disruption in 1843 he 
sided with the Free Church, and was 
employed in important parochial work 
until 1853, when he accepted a commis- 
sion from the Colonial Committee of the 
Free Church to proceed to Melbourne, 
where he arrived in September of that 
year. There, amidst the excitement of 
the gold fever, he laid the foundations 
of Presbyterianism in Victoria, acting as 
pastor of the Chalmers Church Congre- 
gation till 1865, when, his health failing, 
he became an emeritus minister, retaining 
his standing in the Church without pas- 
toral charge. He died on Jan. 30th, 
1881. 

Cairns, Sir William Wellington, 
E.C.M.G., son of William Cairns, of 
Cultra, co. Down, by his second wife, 
Matilda, daughter of Francis Beggs, of 
The Grange, Malahide, and half-brother 
of Lord Chancellor Cairns, was born in 
1828. From 1852 to 1862 he filled various 
positions in the Ceylon Civil Service, and 
was appointed Postmaster-General there 
in 1864. In 1866 he returned to England, 
and in 1867 was appointed Lieut.-Governor 
of Malacca, of St. Kitts in 1868, and of 
Honduras in 1870. He was appointed 
Governor of Trinidad in 1874, but in a 
few weeks was compelled to resign on 
account of ill-health. From Jan. 1875 
to March 1877 he was Governor of Queens- 
land, when he was transferred to South 
Australia, where he only remained from 
March to May, then finally retiring from 
the Colonial Service on the ground of ill. 
health. Sir William, who was created 



76 



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DICTIONARY OF AtJStftALAStAN 6lOGkAt>HY. 



Cal] 

C.M.G.in 1874 andK.C.M.G. in 1887, died 
unmarried on July 7th, 1888. 

Calder, Jamet Erskine, was born at 
Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire, on Jane 
18th, 1808, and was educated at the Royal 
Military College, Sandhurst. Having 
abandoned his intention of entering the 
army, he emigrated to Tasmania, and in 
1 829 obtained a Government appointment 
as Assistant Surveyor. For many years 
be did good service as a surveyor and 
explorer, and no man had a larger know- 
ledge of Tasmania. In 1841 he was ap- 
pointed to accompany Sir John and Lady 
Franklin on their memorable overland 
journey through the forest to Macquarie 
Harbour. He served under Surveyors- 
General Frankland, Power, and Sprent; 
and in 1859 was himself promoted to be 
Surveyor-General of the colony in suc- 
cession to the last-named gentleman. 
In 1870 Mr. Calder retired on a pension, 
and shortly afterwards was appointed 
Sergeant-at-Arms to the House of As- 
sembly, an office which he held until his 
death. Mr. Calder contributed many 
valuable articles to the press on the early 
history of Tasmania. His papers on the 
aborigines, containing a large mass of 
original information on their habits and 
history, were republished under the title 
of u The Wars, Extirpation, Habits, etc., 
of the Native Tribes of Tasmania " (Ho- 
bart, 1875). He also wrote ** Boat Expe- 
ditions around Tasmania, 1815 and 1824 " 
(Hobart, 1881); "Oyster Culture"; 
"Tasmanian Industries" (1869); "The 
Woodlands of Tasmania " (London Royal 
Colonial Institute, 1874). At the time of 
his death he was preparing a work on 
••The Pitcairners and Norfolk Island." 
He married in 1842 a daughter of Mr. 
Pybus, of Bruny Island. After fifty-three 
years of service under the Government, he 
died at Hobart on Feb. 20th, 1882. 

Calvert, Caroline Louisa Waring, better 
known under her maiden name, was the 
youngest daughter of the late James 
Atkinson, and was born at Oldbury, near 
Berrima, N.S.W., on Feb. 25th, 1834. Her 
mother had in early life written some 
successful books for children ; and when 
very young Miss Atkinson wrote for the 
Sydney Morning Herald a series of papers 
called "A Voice from the Country," which 
attracted considerable notice at the time. 
Miss Atkinson also wrote •'Gertrude" 
(1857), "Cowanda" (1859), "Tom Hil- 

77 



[Cal 



licker," and other Australian tales, illus- 
trated by herself. Besides productions 
published in the Sydney Mail, she was 
the author of some Kurrajong sketches 
which appeared in the Town and Country 
Journal, During her residence at Kur- 
rajong she collected valuable specimens 
of native plants for Baron F. von MtiUer, 
many of which are recorded in "Flora 
Australiensis " and the •• Fragmenta Phy- 
tographia Australian" The genus Atkin- 
sonia was established in her honour, 
and the species Epacrii Calvertiana was 
named to indicate her exertions at a 
later period. In 1870 she married Mr. 
James Snowden Calvert, who accompanied 
Dr. Leichardt in his exploring expedition 
to Port Essington in 1843-5. She died 
suddenlv on April 28th, 1872. Mr. Calvert 
died in July 1874. 

Calvert, Sot. James, the well-known 
Methodist Missionary, was a native of 
Pickering, in the North Riding of York- 
shire. He was sent out in 1838, in 
company with John Hunt, to labour 
amongst the cannibals in Fiji, where 
he remained for eighteen years, during 
which time he witnessed marvellous 
triumphs of Christianity. In his labours 
among the Fijians he was ably assisted 
by his heroic wife, Mary Fowler Calvert, 
who was in every way a model mission- 
ary's wife, and much of the wonderful 
success of those years was due to her 
patient, self-denying labours. By Mr. 
Calvert's ministry the Fijian King Thak- 
ombau was converted to Christianity, 
renounced polygamy, and for many 
years after lived a consistent life. His 
last act as a king was to cede Fiji to 
Great Britain. In 1856 Mr. Calvert re- 
turned to England, and during his stay 
in the country superintended the printing 
of the entire Scriptures in the Fijian 
language. In 1872 he was sent out by 
the Wesleyan Missionary Society to South 
Africa. He died at Hastings in 1892 at 
the advanced age of seventy-nine. 

Calvert, John Jackson, Clerk of the 
Parliaments, New South Wales, is the 
son of the late Very Rev. Thos. Calvert, 
D.D., Dean of Manchester, and Juliana 
his wife, daughter of Sir Charles Watson, 
Bart., was born at Manchester in Aug. 
1830, and was educated at Shrewsbury 
School and at Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford. He went to New South Wales 
in 1853, and joined the Civil Service 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Gam 



as a clerk in the Colonial Secretary's 
office in the same year. He was ap- 
pointed Clerk of Select Committees of 
the Legislative Assembly in 1856, First 
Clerk of the Legislative Council in 1859, 
Clerk Assistant in 1860, and Clerk of the 
Parliaments (a position he still holds) in 
April 1871. Mr. Calvert married in 1869 
Mary Murray, daughter of James Barker, 
of Sydney. 

Cameron, General Sir Duncan Alexander, 
G.C.B., son of the late Lieut.-General Sir 
John Cameron, E.C.B., was born in 1808, 
and entered the army in 1825, becoming 
captain in 1833, major in 1839, and colonel 
in 1854. At the Battle of the Alma, 
in the Crimean war, he commanded the 
42nd Regiment, or Black Watch, and the 
Highland Brigade at Balaclava, at Kertch, 
and at Sebastopol. At the assault on 
the outworks, on June 18th, 1854, he was 
also in command, and for his services 
received a medal with three clasps, 
besides being made a C.B. and an officer 
of the Legion of Honour, and receiving 
the Sardinian and Turkish medal (third 
class) of the Medjidieh. In 1859 he was 
made major-general. In 1863 he was 
despatched to New Zealand to succeed 
General Pratt in charge of the twelve 
regiments in that colony at the time of 
the Maori war, being granted the rank 
of lieut.-generaL Up to this moment 
there had been no absolute declaration 
of war between the Waikatos and the 
colonists ; but on July 12th in that year, 
General Cameron crossed the Maungata- 
whiri with 380 men, and this was practi- 
cally the beginning of the Waikato war. 
He it was who conducted the assaults 
upon Mere-Mere, Rangiriri, Bangiaohia, 
and the Gate Pa ; and effectually brought 
to a conclusion the northern war. In 
Jan. 1864, General Cameron went to 
Wanganui, whither the war had extended. 
This was the occasion of an unfortunate 
quarrel between the Governor (8ir George 
Grey) and himself. General Cameron 
with 1100 men refused to attack a pa 
called Wereroa, the capture of which the 
Governor considered indispensable to a 
successful campaign, and alleged that 
his force was insufficient. In the issue 
the colonial forces, under Sir George 
himself, in conjunction with the friendly 
Maoris, attacked and took the pa ; but 
the incident led, in Feb. 1864, to the 
retirement of the General, who went to 



England and laid his complaints before 
the War Office. His charge against the 
Governor was that he had encouraged 
subversion of discipline, and consequently 
confusion and disorder. Lord de Grey 
at the War Office espoused the cause of 
General Cameron, and Sir George Grey 
was somewhat curtly snubbed by the 
Colonial Office for his officiousness in 
taking the field. In 1864 General Cameron 
was created K.C.B., and in 1873 G.C.B. In 
1868 he was promoted to the rank of lieut.- 
general, and in 1875 to that of general 
From 1868 to 1876 he was Governor of 
the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, 
and Was some time Vice-President of the 
Council of Army Education, and Hon. 
Colonel 1st Battalion Royal Highlanders. 
General Cameron married, in 1873, Flora, 
fourth daughter of Andrew Maclean, M.D., 
Deputy Inspector-General of the Royal 
Military College, Sandhurst, who died in 
1875. General Cameron died on June 8th, 
188G. 

Camidge, Bight Rev. Charles Edward, 
D.D., Bishop of Bathurst, New 8onth 
Wales, son of the late Rev. Charles Joseph 
Camidge, MJL, vicar of Wakefield, York- 
shire, was born in 1838, and educated 
at Wadham College, Oxford, where be 
matriculated in Oct. 1856, and graduated 
B.A. in 1860, and M.A. in 1863, being 
created an honorary D.D. in 1887. He 
was oniained deacon in 1860, priest in 
1861, and was curate at Sheffield from 
1860 to 1861, Wakefield, 1861 to 1868 ; 
vicar of Hedon, Yorkshire, from 1868 to 
1873; rector of Wheldrake from 1873 
to 1877 ; vicar of Thirsk from 1876 to 
1887; canon and prebendary of York, 
from 1882 to 1887; rural dean of Thirsk 
from 1883 to 1887, when he was appointed 
Bishop of Bathurst, in succession to Dr. 
Marsden, being consecrated at West- 
minster Abbey on Oct. 18th in that year, 
by the Archbishop (Benson) of Canter- 
bury, and Bishops Thorold, Bardaley, 
Perry, and Marsden. Dr. Camidge, who 
married Louisa Carow, daughter of K. F. 
Sanderson, is author of a "History of 
Wakefield, and its Industrial and ITine 
Art Exhibition," published in 1866. 

Campbell, John Logan, M.D., M.R.C.8^ 
only son of Joljn Campbell, M.D., f 
Edinburgh, sixth son of Sir James Camp- 
bell, Bart., of AberuchiU and Kilbrytfe, 
by Catherine, daughter of John Logan 
of Knockshinock, oo. Ayr, was born in 



7» 



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blfiTt6NARV Of AU§t1ULASIAN MlOtiRAPflY. 



[Can 



1817, and educated at Edinburgh Uni- 
yersity, where he took his medical degree. 
In 1839 he threw up his commission in 
the East India Company, whose service 
he had entered, and migrated to Sydney, 
but in the following year went to New 
Zealand, settling on an island in Waite- 
mata Harbour, known to the natives, 
from whom he purchased it, as Motu 
Korea, now Brown's Island. This was 
before the Government had fixed upon 
the site of the capital — Auckland — to 
which he removed and established the 
firm of Brown and Campbell in 1840. In 
1848 he visited England, returning to New 
Zealand in 1850. In 1855-6 he was Super- 
intendent of the Province of Auckland, 
and on June 2nd, 1856, joined the Staf- 
ford Government as member of the Execu- 
tive Council without portfolio, being at 
that time M.H.B. for Auckland in the 
Assembly. On Nov. 24th he resigned 
his office, as also his superintendent, 
and returned to England, but went out 
again in 1859, and was elected member 
for ParaelL He went once more to 
England in 1861, and did not return till 
1871, when he settled definitely in the 
colony, but did not again enter public 
life. Dr. Campbell has been Chairman of 
the Board of Education in Auckland, and 
of the New Zealand Board of the Bank 
of New Zealand, an institution of which 
he was one of the founders. He founded 
and maintained at his own expense the 
Free School of Art in Auckland. He is 
the author of " Poeriamo," a book on early 
life in Auckland. Dr. Campbell married 
in 1858 Emma, daughter of Sir John 
Cracroft Wilson, K.C.S.L He is now 
sole partner of the mercantile firm he 
established on the foundation of Auck- 
land in 1840. 

Campbell, Hon. Sir Thomas Cockburn, 
If X.C., 4th Bart^ of Gartsfbrd, Ross-shire, 
is the second son of the late Sir Alexander 
Thomas Cockburn Campbell, 2nd Bart. 
(who in 1825 assumed the name of 
Campbell in addition to his patronymic 
Cockburn), by his second wife, Grace, 
daughter of Joseph Spence, of Birstwith, 
oo. York. He was born at Exeter in 
1845. On the death of his brother 
Sir Alexander, 3rd Bart., on Sept. 6th, 
1871, he succeeded as 4th Bart. He 
was married at Albany, Western Aus- 
tralia (where his rather was formerly 
resident magistrate), in 1870, to Lucy 



Anne, daughter of Arthur Trimmer and 
Mary Anne his wife, daughter of Captain 
Sir Richard Spencer, R.N., C.B., K.H., 
of Pooteness, Western Australia. He was 
for a number of years a nominee member 
of the old Legislative Council of Western 
Australia, and acted as Chairman of 
Committees of that body down to its 
dissolution, on the inauguration of the 
new Constitution in 1890. In 1889 he 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the 
Albany electorate. In the early part of 
the year 1890 he was one of the delegates 
appointed to proceed to London, to afford 
information and assistance in the passing 
of the Constitution Bill, which had been 
shelved in the House of Commons the 
previous session. He took an active part 
in the efforts which eventuated in the 
passing of the Constitution Act, giving 
the local parliament complete control 
over the whole territorial area of the 
colony, his evidence before the Select 
Committee of the House of Commons 
creating considerable sensation. He was 
also a witness before the Colonisation 
Committee of the House of Commons. 
Sir Thomas was appointed president of 
the new Legislative Council, to which he 
had been nominated in Dec. 1890. 

Campbell, Bar. Thomas Hewitt, Princi- 
pal Otago College, New Zealand, was 
the son of Duncan Campbell, of London, 
and was born in July 1828. He was 
educated at Merchant Taylors' School 
and St. John's College, Oxford, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1851, M.A. in 1853, and 
was Fellow of his College till 1862. After 
being an Under-Master at the Charter- 
house and Head-Master of Wolverhamp- 
ton Grammar School, he was appointed 
Principal of Otago College in 1863, but 
was drowned off Port Chalmers on July 
4th, 1863. 

Cani, Bight Bev. John, D.D., LL.D., 
Roman Catholic Bishop of Rockhampton, 
was born at Cologna, Italy, about 1836, 
and educated in his native province and 
at the Roman University at Sapienza, 
where he graduated D.D. and LL.D. 
He was ordained a priest in 1859, and 
accompanied the first Roman Catholic 
Bishop of Brisbane, Dr. Quinn, to Queens- 
land. He was appointed parish priest 
at Warwick in the same year, and 
went to Brisbane in 1868. Ten years 
later Dr. Cani was made Pro-Vicar 
Apostolic of Northern Queensland, and 



79 



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Googk 



Can] 



blCTldNARY 6V AtJStkALASlAM B166rAphV. 



[fltf 



when the diocese of Brisbane was divided 
into two, on the death of Bishop Quinn, 
Dr. Cani was appointed, by papal brief, 
Bishop of Rockhampton, and was con- 
secrated in St. Mary 8 Cathedral, Sydney, 
by the late Archbishop Vanghan, on 
May 21st, 1882. 

Canterbury, Bight Hon. John Henry 
Thomas Manners Sutton, 3rd Yiseonnt, 
K.C.B., G.C.M.G., was born on May 27th, 
1814. His lordship was the second son 
of Charles, 1st Yiseonnt Canterbury, 
Speaker of the House of Commons from 
1817 to 1834, by Lucy Maria Charlotte, 
eldest daughter of John Denison, of 
Ossington, Nottinghamshire, and married 
on July 15th, 1838, Georgians, young- 
est daughter of Charles Tompson, of 
Witchingham Hall, Norfolk. Lord Can- 
terbury was Under Secretary for the 
Home Department from 1841 to 1846, 
Lieut.-Governor of New Brunswick from 
1854 to 1861, and Governor of Trinidad 
from Sept. 1864 to April 1866, when he 
was appointed to succeed Sir Charles 
Darling as Governor of Victoria. He 
assumed office in August 1866, under 
circumstances of unusual difficulty. His 
predecessor's concurrence in the measures 
taken by the M'Culloch Ministry to 
establish the absolute supremacy of the 
Legislative Assembly in matters of 
finance, had endeared him to the people 
as much as it embroiled him with the 
imperial authorities. Coming as the 
representative of the latter, Lord Canter- 
bury's action was certain to be sub- 
jected to severe scrutiny; and it is to 
his credit that, whilst he loyally adhered 
to his instructions, and was thus placed 
in opposition to the popular wishes in a 
period of extreme excitement, he man- 
aged to emerge from the crisis to the 
satisfaction of the Home authorities, 
and without incurring any marked odium 
in the colony over which he presided as 
the representative of the Queen, The 
Duke of Edinburgh visited Victoria 
during his term of office, and for the 
nonce party strife was hushed. He 
succeeded his brother, the 2nd Viscount, 
in Nov. 1869, and left Victoria in March 
1873 for England, where he died on 
June 24th, 1877. 

Capo, William Timothy, was the eldest 
son of William Cape, of Ireby, in Cum- 
oerland, and was born at Walworth, in 
Surrey, on Oct. 25th, 1806. He was 



do 



educated at Merchant Taylors' School, 
and proceeded to Sydney with his father 
in 1821. Here he assisted the latter in 
opening the Sydney Academy. The elder 
Mr. Cape was afterwards appointed by 
the Government master of the Sydney 
Public School in Castlereagh Street, and 
here Mr. W. T. Cape acted as an assistant 
master, becoming head-master on the 
resignation of his father. In this posi- 
tion he remained until July 1829, and in 
1830 opened a private school in King 
Street, Sydney. About this time the idea 
of establishing Sydney College was 
mooted; and in 1835, as the result of 
overtures from the committee of this 
college, Mr. Cape transferred his private 
pupils to that institution and was ap- 
pointed head-master. In 1842 he resigned 
this post, and again opened a private 
school, on the Glemore Road, Paddlngton. 
In 1856 he finally retired from scholastic 
work, having during his long career con- 
ducted the education of some of the 
leading publicists of Sydney. In 1859 
he was elected to the Legislative Assem- 
bly for Woilombi, and did good service 
in the cause of education. He was also 
one of the Commissioners of National 
Education, a Magistrate, and a Fellow of 
St. Paul's College within the University 
of Sydney. He died in London on June 
14th, 1863, of small-pox. 

Carey, Major-General George Jaeksoa, 
C.B., eldest son of Thomas Carey, of Rozei, 
Guernsey, by his second wife, Barbara, 
daughter of Colonel Jackson, M.P., was 
born in 1828, and entered the army in 
1845. Having served with distinction 
in the Cape Mounted Rifles, of which he 
became major, he was military secretary 
to Sir James Jackson, when commanding 
the forces at the Cape, and was ultimately 
colonel of the 18th Irish. He was Acting 
Governor of the Isle of Wight in 1862, 
and served in New Zealand as colonel 
on the staff and brigadier-general from 
August 1863 to August 1865. He dis- 
tinguished himself at the taking of 
Orakau (one of the few real successes 
of the war) in 1864, and in recognition 
of his services was made C.B. in 1885. 
Subsequently the Maori " king-maker,'* Te 
Waharoa, made his submission to him. 
Having been appointed to the com- 
mand of the forces in Australia, he took 
up his residence in Melbourne, and on 
the departure of Sir Charles Darling was 



o 



M 



btCtflONARV OP AUSTkAiAStAJ* BIOGRAPHY. 



| Car 



Acting Governor of Victoria, administer- 
ing the government from May to August 
1866. He returned to England in 1867, 
and was promoted to the command of 
the 2nd Brigade at Aldershot* In 1871 
he was appointed to command the 
Northern District, and became major- 
general. He died at Manchester on 
Jane 12th, 1872. General Carey married 
in Feb. 1861 Hester Olivia, only daughter 
of William Gordon Thompson, of Clifton 
Gardens, Hyde Park, London. 

Cargill, Captain William, the founder 
of the Otago settlement, New Zealand, 
was born in August 1784, and entered 
the army, becoming captain in the 74th 
Highlanders. The General Assembly of 
the Free Church of Scotland, having had 
its attention directed to the openings 
for colonisation in the province of Otago, 
New Zealand, an Otago Association was 
formed at Glasgow in May 1846, to 
found a special settlement for Scotch- 
men. Four hundred thousand acres of 
land were purchased for the purpose 
from the New Zealand Company, and 
in Not. 1847 Captain Cargill, who had 
been one of the main promoters of the 
project, sailed in the John Wiekliff as 
the leader of the new pilgrims, pitching 
his tent in March 1848 on the territory 
acquired. From this time forth Captain 
Cargill was virtually ruler of the new 
settlement until the New Zealand Con- 
stitution Act was passed, when he was 
elected first Superintendent of Otago, 
and was re-elected in 1866. He was 
returned to the first House of Repre- 
sentatives of New Zealand as member 
for Dnnedin in 1864 Captain Cargill 
died in Dunedin on August 6th, 1860, 
just prior to the arrival of the notifica- 
tion that he had been created C.B. His 
eldest son, Mr. Wm. Walter Cargill, was 
member for Berwick in the House of 
Commons from 1863 to 1866, and was one 
of the founders and a director of the 
Oriental Bank Corporation. He was also 
Chairman of the Board of Directors of 
the New Oriental Bank Corporation. 

Carleton, Hugh Franeii, eldest son of 
Francis Carleton, of Clare, oo. Tipperary, 
and Greenfield, co. Cork, by Charlotte 
Molyneux, eldest daughter of George 
Molyneux Montgomerie, of Garboldi- 
sham Hall, co. Norfolk, and grandnephew 
of Viscount Carleton, was bom in 1810. 
Ha settled in the Bay of Islands, N.Z., 

8l 



in 1842, and married Nov. 30th, 1800, 
Lydia, daughter of Archdeacon Henry 
Williams, of Waimate, N.Z. He was for 
many years Speaker of the Auckland 
Provincial Council, and in 1854 sat in 
the first General Assembly at Auckland. 
He was a member of the House of 
Representatives for nearly thirty years, 
and was, up till his retirement from 
politics, Chairman of Committees. He 
died in London on July 14th, 1890. Mr. 
Carleton was the author of " A Page of 
the History of New Zealand " (Auckland, 
1864) ; " Life of H. Williams, Archdeacon 
of Waimate" (Auckland, 1874). 

Oarr, Horn. John, J.P., was born at 
Conisborough, in Yorkshire, on Sept. 21st, 
1819, and educated at Tickhill in that 
county, and emigrated to South Australia 
in 1862. Entering the Legislative As- 
sembly in March 1864, he represented 
Noarlunga for more than fifteen years, 
and subsequently sat for Onkaparinga. 
He was Commissioner of Public Works 
in the Hart Ministry from May 1870 to 
Nov. 1871 ; and from the latter date till 
Jan. 1872 in the Government of Mr. (now 
Sir) Arthur Blyth. He was Commis- 
sioner of Crown Lands under Mr. Colton's 
Premiership, from June 1876 to Oct. 
1877. In the next year he received the 
Queen's permission to bear the title of 
" Honourable n within the colony. 

Carr, His Grace the Most Be?. Thomas 
J., D.D., Archbishop of Melbourne, was 
born in the county of Galway in 1840, 
and studied at St. Jarlath's College, 
subsequently going to the Royal College 
of Maynooth. Dr. Carr was ordained 
to the priesthood on the Feast of 
Pentecost, 1866, and spent the first 
years of his clerical life in missionary 
labours in his native diocese. In 1870 
he was appointed Professor of Rhetoric 
in St. Jarlath's College, and in 1872 dean 
in Maynooth College. Two years later he 
became Professor of Theology by public 
consensus, and in 1880 was appointed 
Vice-president of Maynooth College. In 
August 1883 Dr. Carr was consecrated 
Bishop of Galway; having been during 
the previous three years editor of the 
Irish Ecclesiastical Record, the official 
organ of the Irish Catholic Church. His 
principal literary work is "A Commentary 
on Church Censures." In Aug. 1886 Dr. 
Carr was appointed to succeed the late 
Dr. Goold as Archbishop of Melbourne, 

Digitized by VjOC$?1( 



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fciCTtONARV OF AUSTRALASIAN 6lOCRAt>HY. 



[Car 



where be arrived on Jane 11th of the 
next year, the anniversary of the death 
of his predecessor. 

Carnngton, Bight Eon. Charles.Robert, 
Baron, G.C.M.G., F.B.S., sometime 
Governor of New South Wales, is the 
eldest son of the second Lord Carrington, 
by his second wife, Augusta Annabella, 
younger daughter of Peter Robert, Lord 
Willoughby de Bresby, joint Hereditary 
Lord Great Chamberlain of England. 
Lord Carrington was born on May 16th, 
1843, and entering the army, ultimately 
became Captain in the Royal Horse 
Guards. He was member for Wycombe 
in the House of Commons from 1865 to 
1868, when he succeeded his father in 
the peerage. From 1881 to 1885 he was 
Captain of the Corps of Gentlemen-at- 
Arms, and in right of his mother is joint 
Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain of 
England. It was in 1885 that Lord Car- 
rington, who had previously mainly had 
a reputation as a man of society and 
pleasure, first came forward in a promi- 
nent capacity as a serious publicist. The 
Australian Colonies had long been dis- 
satisfied with the official, or " effete aristo- 
cratic," type of Governors, and had been 
demanding that future viceroys should be 
men of a class not deemed unworthy of 
the higher prizes of English political life. 
There were difficulties in the way of a 
literal compliance with the wish thus 
expressed ; but as a sort of compromise, 
it was decided to go outside the official 
class, and to appoint for the future as 
colonial viceroys men of superior wealth 
and social status, the position being, in 
fact, as the Imperial authorities wisely 
recognised, mainly a social one. Lord 
Carrington was the Governor selected to 
inaugurate the new rigime % and rendered 
it a striking success, his term of office as 
Governor ofNew South Wales from 1885 to 
1890 giving high satisfaction to the Colon- 
ists, and constituting him, to quote Lord 
Onslow, the late Governor of New Zealand, 
probably " the most popular Governor who 
ever went to Australia." Even in the 
political arena Lord Carrington was able 
to exercise much quiet influence, and in 
his social duties, which he performed 
with unfailing tact, he was greatly aided 
by his wife, the daughter of the fifth 
Lord Suffield, to whom he was married 
in July 1878. The departure of Lord 
and Lady Carrington from New South 



Wales was marked by expressions of re- 
gret and esteem, quite without previous 
parallel in Australian history. Since his 
return to England Lord Carrington has 
taken an active part in English politics 
as a supporter of Mr. Gladstone's Home 
Rule policy, and has embraced numerous 
opportunities of placing his views on 
Colonial and Imperial topics before the 
public He does not look with hope to 
a formal federation, but believes that the 
ties of kinship which now bind the Mother 
country and the Colonies might be in- 
definitely strengthened by sympathetic 
action on the part of the former. To the 
Liberal party he looks as the best ex- 
emplars of the imperialism of the future, 
and the speeches in which he has attacked 
what in some quarters is regarded as the 
vested monopoly of the Tory party in an 
enlightened colonial policy, have excited 
considerable attention both in England 
and the Colonies. At the elections in 
1892 Lord Carrington was returned to 
the London County Council as a member 
of the " progressive n party. 

Carrington, Francis Thomas Dean, was 
born in London on Nov. 17th, 1843, and 
educated at the City of London SchooL 
He received his first lesson in drawing 
from George Cruickshank, and went 
through the South Kensington course. 
He commenced drawing for Clarke 9c Co., 
Paternoster Row, a title-page to one of 
Captain Mayne Reid's novels being his 
first appearance in print. Mr. Carrington 
came to Australia, and after some ex- 
perience on the diggings at Wood's Point, 
Jericho, Jordan, and Crooked River, be 
joined Melbourne Punch in 1866, succeed- 
ing N. Chevalier and O. R. Campbell. 
With this paper he was connected -for 
twenty-one years, drawing the principal 
cartoons and many smaller blocks all 
through the stirring times of the Darling 
excitement and the " Berry blight." Mr. 
Carrington left Punch when it was amal- 
gamated with the Bulletin and joined 
the Melbourne AuetraZatum. 

Carrington, Frederic Alonso, the 
"father of the settlement n of Taranaki, 
N.Z., as he is generally called, when 
a young man entered the Ordnance 
Survey Department of England, being 
appointed in Jan. 1826 by the Duke 
of Wellington. Showing ability for topo- 
graphical delineation and survey work, he 
soon attracted the attention of the 



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eminent engineers of the day, and when 
the Reform Bill was passed in 1832, he 
was selected by the Parliamentary Com- 
missioners to describe the boundaries of 
the boroughs in the districts from Bristol 
to Manchester. For his services on that 
occasion he received the special thanks 
of the Commissioners. Subsequently he 
was selected by the Plymouth Company 
as its chief surveyor to go to New Zealand 
to choose a site for the settlement the 
company proposed forming there. On 
Feb. 12th, 1841, Mr. F. A. Carrington 
and family, together with his brother, 
Mr. Octavius Carrington (who was his 
chief assistant), and the survey party, 
arrived off Taranaki. With great labour 
lines were cut through the dense vege- 
tation, and a spot cleared; and after 
much difficulty the site for the town of 
New Plymouth was laid out and surveyed 
under Mr.-F. A. Carrington's directions. 
In Sept. 1843 Mr. Carrington returned 
to England, and on his arrival in London 
he found that the directors of the New 
Zealand Company (which had absorbed 
the Plymouth Company) were thinking 
of ceasing their functions for a time, and 
accordingly Mr. Carrington retired from 
their service, receiving a very compli- 
mentary testimonial from the directors. 
Mr. Carrington was engaged in con- 
nection with railways during the time 
he was in England (1844-51), but he gave 
a good deal of thought and attention to 
New Zealand matters, and tried to make 
Taranaki better known to the British 
public. Mr. Carrington took with him 
to England a quantity of the Taranaki 
ironsand, and after having a very careful 
analysis made of some of it he had a bar 
of iron cast. He then entered into a 
lengthy correspondence with the Colonial 
Office, endeavouring to obtain a grant of 
the beach on the Taranaki shore, which 
resulted in a refusal, though Lord Grey 
offered to give Mr. Carrington a letter to 
the Governor of New Zealand, which on 
his arrival there would ensure a grant of 
the beach being given to him, provided it 
had not been leased to any one before. 
As it would have taken too long in those 
days to have visited New Zealand and 
return home again with the desired 
information, the matter was for the time 
abandoned; but Mr. Carrington exhibited 
the bar of iron and some of the Taranaki 
ironsand at the Exhibition of 1851, when 

83 



he called the attention of the Master- 
General of the Ordnance Department 
(Sir H. de la Beche) to it After visiting 
California three different times from 
London, in connection with mines, water- 
races, railways, etc., Mr. Carrington again 
returned to New Zealand, having been 
absent nearly fourteen years, his object 
being the utilisation of the ironsand and 
other matters in connection with the 
district; and being backed by men of 
capital and standing, who took great in- 
terest in the colony, hoped to start the iron 
industry in Taranaki. The North Island 
was in a very unsettled state at the time 
owing to the natives showing an antago- 
nistic attitude towards the Europeans, 
which in 1860 ended in hostilities which 
lasted for ten years. In 1862 Mr. Car- 
rington was appointed Government En- 
gineering Surveyor for Taranaki, and in 
that capacity carried out in connection 
with the military authorities the road 
construction necessary in the district. 
On peace being restored Mr. Carrington 
turned his attention to local matters, and 
consenting to be nominated as Super- 
intendent of the province of Taranaki in 
1869, he was returned by the electors, and 
held that position till the provinces were 
abolished in 1876. He was also elected 
to a seat in the House of Representatives, 
and held the position for several years. 
He retired from politics in 1880. Seeing 
the necessity there was for harbour 
accommodation at New Plymouth, Mr. 
Carrington for years agitated in the hope 
of getting protective works built that 
shipping might visit the port in safety. 
It was chiefly through his exertions that 
a fourth of the land revenue of the 
district was set aside for harbour pur- 
poses and a Harbour Board created, which 
raised the money to carry out the work. 
On Feb. 7th, 1881, Mr. F. A. Carrington 
laid the first stone of the present structure, 
thus crowning his labours as the founder 
of the settlement of Taranaki 

Carrow, Richard, son of Rev. Harry 
Carrow and Leah (Cooke) his wife, was 
born at Loxton Rectory, Somersetshire, 
England, on March 15th, 1845. He was 
educated atBlackheath ProprietarySchool, 
and having arrived in New Zealand in 
March 1868, married firstly at Auckland 
in April 1871 Miss Augusta C. Wilkins, 
and secondly at Christchurch, in that 
colony, on August 12th, 1879, Miss 



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Katherine M. Longden. Mr. Carrow was 
appointed clerk in the Public Works 
Office at Christchurch in Dec. 1873, rail- 
way storekeeper at Wellington, N.Z., in 
June 1875,. and stores manager in Feb. 

1877. In May of that year he took a 
clerkship in the New South Wales Rail- 
way Department in Sydney, and return- 
ing to New Zealand, was appointed in 
Dec. of the same year locomotive super- 
intendent at Christchurch, stores manager 
of the Middle Island Railways in June 

1878, and stores manager of the New 
Zealand Railways in Nov. 1880, a position 
he still holds. 

Garrotters, Joseph Hector McHeil, 
M.L.A., ex-Minister of Public Instruction, 
New South Wales, son of John and Char- 
lotte Carruthers, was born at Kiama, 
N.8.W., on Dec. »21st, 1857. He is a 
solicitor in Sydney, and has been four 
times returned to the New South Wales 
Legislative Assembly for Canterbury at 
the head of the poll, with the largest 
number of votes given for any single 
candidate in Australia. He was Minister 
of Public Instruction in the Parkes 
Government from March 1889 to Oct. 
1891, and founded the Department of 
Technical Education (1889), instituted 
Arbour Day in New South Wales (1890), 
and formed the public school cadet force 
(1890). He is also the legislative author 
of the "Women's College Act n of 1889, 
and founder of the Training College for 
Teachers within the University of Sydney. 
Mr. Carruthers married at Sydney on Dec. 
10th, 1879, Louise Marion Roberts, daugh- 
ter of William Roberts, solicitor, Sydney. 
He is a trustee of the National Park. 

Casey, Hon. James Joseph, C.M.G., 
County Court Judge and Land Tax Com- 
missioner Victoria, is the son of the late 
James Casey, of Tromroe, co. Clare, 
Ireland, and was born there on Dec. 
25th, 1831. He was educated at Oalway 
College, and after five years spent in 
America he arrived in Victoria in 1855, 
where he Joined the late Mr. Angus 
Mackay in the purchase of the Bendigo 
Advertiser, and afterwards started the 
Melvor Timet and Riverine Herald. In 
1861 he was elected to the Assembly for 
Sandhurst, but was unseated on petition. 
Two years later he " was returned for 
Normanby in the Liberal interest, and 
continued to sit for that constituency 
until 1880. In Sept. 1865 he was called 



[Cal 



to the Victorian bar, and practised with 
success, being from time to time Crown 
Prosecutor. From July 1868 to 8ept. 
1869 he was Minister of Justice in the 
second M'Culloch Administration, ex- 
changing this office for that of Solicitor- 
General about a fortnight before the 
defeat of the Government. The next 
year Mr. Casey was appointed Chairman 
of a Royal Commission on Intercolonial 
Legislation and a Court of Appeal. In 
June 1872 he became Minister of Lands 
and Minister of Agriculture under Mr. 
Francis, and held office till August 1875 — 
for the last twelve months of the time 
under Mr. Kerford, who succeeded Mr. 
Francis as Premier. Whilst at the head 
of the Lands Office Mr. Casey reorganised 
the department, and constituted the 
survey branch on an effective basis. He 
also checked the system of •« dummyism " 
by instituting inquiries, and subsequently 
forfeiting the runs and improvements of 
the incriminated squatters. In 1878 he 
was appointed Executive Commissioner 
for Victoria at the Paris Exhibition, and 
was created C.M.G. for his services, being 
also nominated an Officer of the Legion 
of Honour by the French Government. 
The Victorian Hansard was established 
on his motion, and, when in office, he 
introduced the system ot" appointing 
magistrates to districts instead or for the 
whole colony. The jurisdiction of the 
County Courts was, on his initiation, in- 
creased from £50 to £250 at common 
law, and an equitable jurisdiction was 
conferred on them np to £500. Though 
still claiming to be a Liberal, Mr. Casey 
assumed an independent attitude towards 
the second Berry Ministry from 1877 to 
1880, and was in consequence ejected from 
his seat at Mandurang at the general 
election in the latter year. He did not 
re-enter parliament, though he unsuc- 
cessfully contested Sandridjge (now Port 
Melbourne) in 1883. Mr. Casey, who 
was the first President of the Federal 
Bank of Australia, was Executive Vice- 
President of the Melbourne International 
Exhibition of 1880, and in that capacity, 
and as Chairman of the Great Britain 
Committee, contributed much to its 
success. In April 1884 Mr. Casey, who is 
the author of " Casey's Justices' Manual," 
was appointed a County Court Judge ; and 
in July 1885 he assumed the additional 
functions of a Land Tax Commissioner, 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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being for a short time in that year an 
Acting Judge of the Supreme Court. 
Mr. Casey married Mary Teresa, daughter 
of John Cahill and Mary McNamara 
his wife. 

Castella, Hubert de, a native of Switzer- 
land, visited his brother Paul in Victoria, 
and finally settled there in 1862, when he 
purchased three thousand acres of land in 
the parish of Yering, and commenced 
planting the now famous St. Hubert vine- 
yard. About 1875 he formed a limited 
company, under which the vineyard was 
carried on until 1879, when Mr. A. Rowan 
joined him as partner in the present firm 
of Be Castella and Rowan. The vineyard 
produces an average of seventy thousand 
to eighty thousand gallons of wine 
annually. 

CastelU, Paul de, the pioneer of viti- 
culture in Victoria, was born in Switzer- 
land, and emigrated to Melbourne in 1849. 
In the following year he purchased the 
Yering cattle station, where in 1856 he 

Slanted the first vineyard in Victoria, 
[r. Castella in 1859 imported plant 
necessary for the cellar and ten thousand 
vines, half of which were Sauvignon and 
two thousand La Folle (the grape used 
for making the best Cognac), the latter 
of which were all failures. The produce 
of the Yering vineyard is now well 
known in the Australian wine market. 

Catt, Hob. Alfred, M.P., J.P., Chairman 
of Committees of the Legislative Assem- 
bly of South Australia, was born in 1838 
at Newington, in Kent. He arrived in 
South Australia in 1847, and for ten 
years engaged in agricultural pursuits at 
Balhannah and Strathalbyn. After a 
short trial of the Victorian diggings he 
returned to Strathalbyn, and entered into 
business. Subsequently he opened a 
store at the then youthful town of Glad- 
stone, and was elected to the Assembly 
for the district of Stanley, April 27tfi, 
1881. Three years later, when the con- 
stituency was reconstructed, he was re- 
turned for Gladstone, which he still 
represents. Mr. Catt accepted the post 
of Commissioner of Crown Lands in Mr. 
(now Sir) John Bray's first administra- 
tion, on June 24th, 1881, and held it till 
April 23rd, 1884, under circumstances of 
special difficulty. Disasters had fallen 
thickly upon the farmers of the colony, 
especially in the northern districts lying 
beyond Goyder's line of rainfall, where 



»5 



thirsty and often heavily timbered coun- 
try had been taken up at extravagant 
prices by the competing agriculturists, 
who in some cases nad offered as much 
as £6 6*. per acre. The attempt to grow 
wheat in these parts proved that the 
selectors could not pay the stipulated 
price, and the Government of the day 
came to the rescue with a proposal that 
the farmers should be allowed to surren- 
der their land and compete for it again. 
The result was that they got their land 
back at about .£1 0». 6a., thus entailing 
upon the State a nominal loss of about 
half a million. The surrender clauses 
were admittedly difficult to administer, 
and Mr. Catt was much blamed at the 
time for allowing farmers holding ex- 
cellent land in the lower north and 
south-east to come under these clauses. 
Mr. Catt> however, claimed that these 
were exceptional cases. On the fall of 
the Downer Ministry in 1887, Mr. Catt 
accepted the portfolio of Commissioner 
of Public Works under Mr. Playford, and 
held it from June 11th, 1887, to June 
27th, 1889. At the commencement of 
the session of 1890 Mr. Catt was unani- 
mously elected to the Chairmanship of 
Committees of the Legislative Assembly. 
In 1887 he received the royal permission 
to bear the title of " Honourable " within 
the colony. 

Oavenagh-Mainwaring, Hon. Went- 
worth, was member for Yatala in the As- 
sembly of South Australia from 1863 to 
1881 ; and was Commissioner of Crown 
Lands, under Mr. Strangways, from Nov. 
1868 to May 1870, and Commissioner of 
Public Works in the Ayers Government 
from March 1872 to July 1873. In 1887 
he received permission to bear the title 
of Honourable. Having married Ellen, 
daughter of George Mainwaring, who, on 
the death of her brother in 1891, became 
entitled to the Whitmore Hall estate, in 
Staffordshire, he assumed the additional 
name of Mainwaring. 

Chaffey, George and William Benjamin, 
are the leading members of the firm of 
Chaffey Brothers, who in 1887 entered 
into contracts with the governments of 
Victoria and South Australia, for the 
settlement by means of irrigation of half 
a million acres of land on the banks of 
the Murray River. The Messrs. Chaffey 
are natives of Ontario, Canada, and for a 
number of years carried on irrigation 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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enterprises with success in Southern 
California, forming settlements, of which 
the best known are those at Riverside, 
Etiwanda, and at Ontario in the San 
Bernardino County, where they estab- 
lished an agricultural college, endowing 
it with land valued at £20,000. In 1886 
the brothers came to Australia, and 
secured from the governments of Victoria 
and South Australia the sites for two 
irrigation colonies on the banks of the 
Murray, the combined area totalling 
500,000 acres. These settlements are 
situate at Mildura, in Victoria, and 
Renmark, 140 miles lower down the 
river, in South Australia, the former, 
being the first transferred to them, 
having made the most headway. The 
Mildura settlement consists of 250,000 
acres, of which 50,000 acres are, in the 
first instance, being practically dealt with, 
this area including the site of a town 
and surrounding residential or suburban 
villa blocks. A company has been floated 
to provide the needful capital, and a 
most satisfactory and superior class of 
settlers has been attracted. The culti- 
vation intended to be carried on is that 
of the grape, orange, olive, prune, and 
any other fruits or vegetables found 
suitable. The establishment of an agri- 
cultural college, similar to that at 
Ontario, is also provided for in the 
contracts with the governments, the 
stipulation having been inserted at the 
suggestion of the firm. 

Challis, John Henry, was a native of 
England, and emigrated to Sydney, where 
he became a clerk in the employment of 
Messrs. Flower & Marsden. In 1842 he 
was admitted a partner in the firm, but 
left for England in 1855, revisiting the 
colony once subsequently. He died in 
1880, leaving the greater part of his pro- 
perty to the University of Sydney, subject 
to his widow's life interest. She died in 
1888, when the large fund became avail- 
able for the endowment of a number of 
new chairs, named after their founder. 

Chalmers, Bev. James, the well-known 
New Guinea missionary and explorer, was 
born at Ardrishaig, Argyllshire, on August 
4th, 1841, and was brought up in Inverary, 
where he served articles in a lawyer's office. 
He was subsequently for some time a city 
missionary in Glasgow, and then studied 
for the ministry at Cheshunt College, 
near London. He left Great Britain as 

$6 



a missionary for Rarotonga, Hervey GrouJ 
on Jan. 4th, 1866, in connection with tb 
London Missionary Society, on board th 
John Williams, and suffered much in th 
Channel from the severe gale in whid 
the London was lost. Mr. Chalmei 
arrived at Rarotonga on May 20th, 186" 
having been twice wrecked on the wa 
and lost everything. He spent tc 
years in Rarotonga at the head of r 
educational establishment, but at tb 
request of the directors of the Londq 
Missionary 8ociety left the island in 1871 
and joined the New Guinea Missioi 
During the years that followed tf 
Chalmers explored and opened up mad 
miles of coast line and inland for to 
purpose of establishing mission station 
and assisted in the proclaiming of th 
protectorate over British New Guina 
Mr. Chalmers visited the north-east coal 
of New Guinea three times, and mad 
several important discoveries. In conjoin 
tion with Dr. Gill, he wrote " Work aa 
Adventures in New Guinea," and aftei 
wards " Pioneering in New Guinea," bo* 
published by the Religious Tract Society 

Chalmers, Right Rev. William, Churo 
of England Bishop of Goulburn, N.S.W 
was educated at St. Andrews Universit 
and at St. Augustine's College, Cante 
bury. In 1858 he accepted an appoint 
ment from the Society for the Propagatio 
of the Gospel as Missionary to Labuai 
where he was ordained Deacon in tha 
year and Priest in 1859. In 1861 he pre 
ceeded to Australia, where he was Incuoo 
bent of Inglewood in Victoria from 186 
to 1868, Malmesbury from 1868 to 187* 
Kyneton 1870 to 1878, and of St Paul'i 
Geelong, from the latter year (when he ws 
also appointed Canon of Melbourne) ti 
May 1892, when he was elected to succee 
the late Dr. Thomas as Bishop of Goulbun 

Chambers, Charles Haddon, the wel 
known dramatist, was born at Stai 
more, Sydney, N.S.W., in 186a H 
traces his descent from an old west c 
Scotland family which had migrated toth 
north of Ireland, and been incorporate 
in the famous Ulster plantation. Hi 
father's maternal grandfather, Job 
Ritchie, was the first shipbuilder in Ire 
land. In the middle of the last centm 
this enterprising Scotsman went ovc 
from the Clyde, and founded the yaw 
where the White Star liners are* no' 
built. The dramatist's father, Job 



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-GP%itchie Chambers, was born in Ulster. 
ri:t At a comparatively early age he went to 
ar>' Victoria, and, subsequently drifting into 
i ^ew South Wales, he became attached to 
*kfhe Civil Service of that colony, in which 
ale^e remained, occupying high positions in 
u^Tie Lands Department until he died in 
be«t$82. Haddon Chambers himself was 
it if 3ucated at Marrickville and Fort Street 
s-fublic schools, and in 1875 entered the 
at ^^cal Civil Service, but resigned after a 
/? jhort time and betook himself with a 
nl^ quatter friend to the "back-blocks." 
lis* In 1880 he visited Europe, returniug to 
d ' Lustralia after a nine months' trip. In 
i ca 1882 he reappeared in London to begin 
rr i hs literary career, which he did by 
ati ' publishing some stories and articles in 
nfi he society journals; and subsequently 
\p le wrote a number of short stories for 
a he Argosy, Belgravia, Truth, CasselFs 
& Saturday Journal, and other periodicals — 
.-tone of which, a story of murder, entitled 
i * In Cold Blood," drew a leading article 
i.^Tom the Daily News. Mr. Chambers 
<*\ext turned his attention to the stage. 
^Feeling* his way cautiously at first, he 
-^produced a two-act farce at Margate in 
• < 1 886. Next year a little domestic drama, 
^he Open Gate, was played with success 
: t the Comedy Theatre, London. In 
:- conjunction with Mr. Stanley Little, he 
then dramatised for Mr. Charrington and 
- Miss Janet Achurch, Rider Haggard's 
novel "Dawn," under the title of Devil 
Caresfoot, which was first produced at 
a matinee at the Vaudeville Theatre, Lon- 
don. These artistes have recently re- 
produced the piece in Australia, with 
considerable success. Mr. Haddon Cham- 
bers, however, made his coup by a four-act 
original drama, Captain Smift, written 
for and originally produced by Mr. Beer- 
' bohm Tree, the well-known actor-manager 
of the Haymarket Theatre. This proved 
an immediate and genuine success, not 
only in London, but also in the English 
provinces, in America and in Australia. 
Since then Mr. Haddon Chambers has 
written The Idler* As there was no 
immediate prospect of the production 
of this play in London, he crossed to 
New York, where he produced it at the 
Lyceum Theatre. The play scored an 
immediate and conspicuous success, with 
the result that, three months later, it 
appeared under the management of Mr. 
U eorge Alexander at the St. James 1 



»7 



Theatre, London, where it bad a good 
run. The Idler has also been brought 
out with great success in Australia, 
with Mr. Charles Cartwright and Miss 
Olga Nethersole in the leading parts. 
Mr. Haddon Chambers' comedy, The 
Honourable Herbert, was produced by 
Mr. Thomas Thome, at the Vaudeville 
Theatre, in 1892. Mr. Chambers re- 
published his admirable short story "The 
Pipe of Peace," which he has dramatised 
for Mr. Geo. Alexander, in Mr. Patchett 
Martin's "Oak-Bough and Wattle-Blos- 
som," and also contributed to Mr. Philip 
Mennell's collection "In Australian 
Wilds." 

Champ, Colonel Hon. William Thomas 
Napier, first Premier of Tasmania, is the 
son of Captain Thomas Champ and Mary 
Anne Blackaller, his wife. He was born 
at Maldon, Essex, on April 15th, 1808, 
and was educated at the Royal Military 
College, Sandhurst. Having obtained a 
commission in the army, he arrived in 
Sydney with his regiment in Oct 1828. 
The following year he was stationed 
in Tasmania, and in 1830 took part in 
Governor Arthur's famous attempt to 
form a cordon across the island so as to 
secure the hostile blacks on Tasman's 
Peninsula. He afterwards retired from 
the army, entered the civil service in 
Tasmania, and held successively the fol- 
lowing appointments, viz., Assistant 
Police Magistrate, Chairman of the Board 
for Investigating the Penal Settlement 
of Tasman's Peninsula, and Comptroller- 
General of Convicts. In 1852, on the refusal 
of Mr. H. S. Chapman, the then Colonial 
Secretary, to support the official transpor- 
tation policy, he was appointed to succeed 
him as Acting Colonial Secretary, and on 
the concession of responsible govern- 
ment was awarded a bonus of £6000 in 
lieu of a pension for loss of office. He 
was elected to the first House of Assembly 
as member for Launceston in 1856, and 
became the first Premier of the colony 
under the new Constitution in November 
of that year, when he was sworn of the 
Executive Council. He only, however, 
retained office till the end of Feb. 1857, 
when he retired rather than assent to 
the reduction of the Governor's salary. 
He subsequently went to reside in 
Victoria, where he succeeded Captain 
Price, who was murdered in 1857, as 
head of the Convict Department, and 

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became a lieut.-colonel in the local forces 
unattached. Colonel Champ held the posi- 
tion of Inspector-General of Penal Estab- 
lishments in Victoria till Deo. 31st, 1868, 
when he retired on a pension, and went 
to reside on his estate (since called 
Darra), near Meredith. In 1871 he was 
ohosen member, of the Victorian House of 
Assembly for the East Bonrke Boroughs, 
but his old dislike for politics returned, 
and he resigned before the end of the 
Parliament. He was a justice of the 
peace and a lieutenant-colonel in the 
Victorian Military Forces, commanding 
for some Tears the North Melbourne 
district, and retired finally with the rank 
of colonel. He was married at New 
Norfolk, Tas., in March, 1837, to Helen 
Abigail, daughter of Major James Gibson, 
formerly of the 15th Light Dragoons. 

Chandler, Alfred Thomas, was born in 
Geelong, Victoria, in 1852, his father being 
a native of New South Wales. The latter, 
after some experience on the diggings, 
eventually settled at Hamilton, in the 
western district of Victoria, where his 
son, the future poet, received the rudi- 
ments of education at the State school, 
afterwards attending night classes and 
several terms at the Hamilton Academy. 
Having acquired the typographical art 
in the office of the Hamilton Spectator, 
Mr. Chandler removed in 1878 to Adelaide 
where he joined the staff of the South 
Australian Register* and subsequently 
acted for six years as a parliamentary 
reporter for the Advertiser. In 1889 Mr. 
Chandler, in conjunction with Mr. H. C. 
Evans, started a satirical weekly paper 
called Quiz, which enjoys a considerable 
popularity in South Australia. In 1887 
Mr. Chandler published a " Bush Idyll 
and other Poems," and in 1889 " Songs of 
the Sunland." 

Chanter, John Moore, M.L.A., son of 
John and Elizabeth Moore Chanter, was 
born at Adelaide, S.A., on Feb. 11th, 1845, 
and has held a number of public appoint- 
ments at Moama, in New South Wales. 
Mr. Chanter has represented the Murray 
electorate in the New South Wales Legis- 
lative Assembly since 1885. In Jan. 1889 
he accepted offioe in the Dibbs Ministry, 
as Secretary for Mines, and retired with 
his colleagues in the following March. 
He married at Campbell's Creek, near 
C'astlemaine, Vict., on Nov 16tb, 1863, 
Miss Mary Ann Clark, 



88 



Chapman, Hon. Henry Samuel, came of 
a family which had amassed wealth in 
commerce with the American colonies, 
but became impoverished by the War of 
Independence. His father was a Civil 
Servant in the Barrack Department, 
and he was born at Kennington on 
July 21st, 1803, and educated at a school 
at Bromley, Kent. He was a clerk in 
Esdaile's Bank, and subsequently with 
a bill broker. In 1 823 he went to Canada, 
and became a merchant in Quebec, and 
in 1833 started The Daily Advertiser in 
Montreal, the first daily newspaper in 
Canada. He returned to England early 
in 1835 as the delegate of the popular 
party in Canada, who instructed him to 
confer with Hume, O'Connell, and Roe* 
buck, whom he had known in Canada. 
Along with the last named he took a pro- 
minent part in the agitation for securing 
representative government for Canada, 
and was the friend of John Stuart Mill 
and Richard Cobden. During his resi- 
dence in England, which lasted till 1843, 
he contributed many political and eco- 
nomical articles to magazines and news- 
papers, edited the works of Jeremy 
Bentham, in conjunction with Dr., after- 
wards Sir John, Bowring, and wrote the 
articles on "Weaving" and "Wool, and 
its Manufacture" for the JSncyclopwdia 
Britanniea in 1842. Having acted as an 
assistant commissioner for inquiring into 
the grievances of the handloom weavers 
in 1838, and having in 1840 been called 
to the English bar, he joined Edward 
Gibbon Wakefield in his plans for the 
colonisation of New Zealand. On Feb. 
8th, 1840, he started The New Zealand 
Journal, which lasted for some years, 
and in 1843 he was appointed Judge of 
the Supreme Court of New Zealand, and 
sailed for Auckland. For the following 
nine years he lived in Wellington. In 
1852 he was appointed to the Colonial 
Secretaryship of Tasmania, but lost 
his office owing to his sympathy with 
the Anti-transportation party. Return- 
ing to England, he rejected an offer of 
a West Indian governorship, and went 
out in 1854 to Victoria, where he entered 
the Legislative Council in ' 1855. On 
March 11th, 1857, he was appointed 
Attorney-General in the O'Shanassy Gov- 
ernment, but went out of office on April 
29th in the same year. The O'Shanassy 
Government came into power again on 



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DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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March 10th, 1858, when Mr. Chapman 
resumed his office, holding it till Oct. 
27th, 1869. He was also Law Lecturer 
at the Melbourne University, and acted 
from 1862 to 1863 for Sir Redmond Barry, 
as Judge of the Supreme Court. He 
formulated and introduced the Ballot 
Bill into the Victorian Parliament, from 
which it has spread into use all over 
the British Empire. In 1864 he was re- 
appointed Judge of the Supreme Court 
of New Zealand, and lived in Donedin 
tUl his death, on Dec. 27th, 1881. In 
1876 he retired from the Bench, and was 
subsequently Chancellor of the University 
of Otago. Mr. Chapman was the author 
of many pamphlets and papers, including 
"The New Zealand Portfolio" (1843) 
and " Parliamentary Government or Re- 
sponsible Ministries of the Australian 
Colonies " (1854). In regard to his con- 
nection with the ballot, it may be stated 
that he drafted for Mr. Nicholson in 1866 
the clauses which created the special 
form of the device known as the " Aus- 
tralian ballot," which simply leaves the 
voter to strike out the names of those 
candidates for whom he does not intend 
to vote. This form has been very gene- 
rally adopted in America. Mr. Chapman 
married first, in 1840, Caroline, daughter 
of Mr. J. G. Brewer, barrister«at-law ; 
and, secondly, Miss Carr, a sister of the 
wife of Mr. R. D. Ireland ($.*.). 

Chapman, Hon. Thomas Daniel, 
M.L.C., was born at Bedford, England, 
and came to Tasmania about 1844, be- 
coming a leading merchant in Hobart. 
Entering on politics, he was returned for 
the City as a member of the first semi- 
elective Legislative Council which met 
in 1861. He became the leader of the 
Liberal party; having much to do with 
the cessation of transportation and the 
concession of responsible government, on 
lines which he largely shaped, in 1860. 
He joined the Champ Ministry — the first 
formed under the new rSgimi— -and held 
office as Colonial Treasurer from Nov. 1st, 
1866, to Feb. 26tb, 1867. After four years 
and a half in Opposition he himself be- 
came Premier on August 2nd, 1861. At 
first he held no portfolio, but on Nov. 1st 
in the next year assumed that of Colonial 
Treasurer. He resigned, with his col- 
leagues, on Jan. 20th, 1863, and, after 
four years spent in opposition to the 
Whvte Ministry, reassumed office as Co- 



s 9 



lonial Treasurer, under Sir Richard Dry, 
on Nov. 24th, 1866. On the reconstruc- 
tion of the Ministry under Mr. (after- 
wards Sir) JameB Milne - Wilson, on 
August 4th, 1869, Mr. Chapman continued 
to hold the Treasurer-ship till the retire- 
ment of the Ministry, on Nov. 4th, 1872. 
His six years' tenure of the post was the 
longest since responsible government was 
inaugurated. Mr. Chapman left the 
Assembly for the Legislative Council in 
1873, when he was returned for Bucking- 
ham, a constituency which he represented 
till his death. He took office for the last 
time on August 4th, 1873, becoming Co- 
lonial Secretary in Mr. Kennerley's 
Government, but resigned on April 1st, 
1876. On July 11th, 1882, he succeeded 
Mr. Innes as President of the Legislative 
Council, a position which he held till his 
demise on Feb. 17th, 1884. 

Cheeks, Hon. Alfred, sometime Supreme 
Court Judge, New South Wales, was 
born at Evesham, Worcestershire, in 
1811, and is stated to have been a lineal 
descendant of the celebrated Sir John 
Cheke. He was called to the English 
bar in 1836, and joined the Oxford Cir- 
cuit. Having emigrated to Sydney in 
1837, he was appointed a magistrate 
in 1838, and practised as a barrister. In 
1841 he was appointed Commissioner of 
the Court of Claims, and in June of the 
same year Crown Prosecutor, Chairman 
of Quarter Sessions in 1844, and Com- 
missioner of the Court of Requests in 
1846. From 1861 to 1867 he again acted 
as Chairman of Quarter Sessions, and 
from 1868 to 1866 was a District Court 
Judge. From the latter date till his 
death, on March 14th, 1876, he officiated 
as a Judge of the Supreme Court. 

Chester, Henry Xajoribanks, P.M., has 
been in the Queensland Government 
service since 1876, and in 1877 was sent 
on an exploring expedition to New Guinea. 
In July of the next year Mr. Chester was 
appointed by Sir Arthur Gordon to repre- 
sent him in New Guinea in his capacity as 
High Commissioner of the Western Pacific. 
In 1883, when Sir Thomas Mcllwraith 
decided on annexing the island on 
behalf of the Queensland Government, 
Mr. Chester was employed to proclaim 
the Queen's sovereignty, which he carried 
into effect on April 4th. Mr. Chester has 
been police magistrate at Croydon sioce 
Nov. 1887, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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Chetham-Strode, Alfred Rowland, son 
of Admiral Sir Edward Chetham-Strode, 
K.C.B., K.C.H., of Southill, Somersetshire, 
was born on May 10th t 1823. In 1841 
he went to New Zealand, when he settled 
at Wellington. Entering the Government 
service in 1846, Mr. Chetham-Strode was 
appointed Inspector of Armed Constabu- 
lary, of which body he had command. He 
also received a war medal for services ren- 
dered during encounters with natives at 
Horokiwi, Porirua, Wanganui, and other 
places. In 1849 he was appointed Resi- 
dent Magistrate in Otago, and occupied 
the position from 1860 to 1862 of Sub- 
Treasurer of Otago ; was Curator of Intes- 
tate Estates for some six years, and Sheriff 
and Commissioner of Native Reserves. He 
was also the first Returning Officer and 
Registration Officer after the Constitution 
Act was granted to New Zealand. Elected 
by the trustees, he was Vice-President of 
the Savings Bank from its formation. 
In 1866 Mr. Chetham-Strode was called 
to the Legislative Council, but resigned 
in 1868. In conjunction with the Hon. 
(now Sir) Julius Vogel, he was the means 
of establishing the Benevolent Asylum. 
Mr. Chetham-Strode was a member of 
Council of the University of Otago in 
1869, and represented the Council at the 
tercentenary of the Edinburgh University 
in 1884. In 1873 Mr. Chetham-Strode 
resigned the duties of Resident Magis- 
trate in Dunedin, and in 1882 he returned 
to England, and settled at Norwood, 
where he engaged in philanthropic works. 
He married, in 1861, Miss Emily Borton, 
and died on May 13th, 1890. 

Guilders, Bight Hon. Hugh Culling 
Eardley, M.P., F.R.S., formerly a Minister 
of the Crown in Victoria, is the son of 
the late Rev. Eardley Childers, of Cantley, 
Yorkshire, by his marriage with Maria 
Charlotte, eldest daughter of Sir Culling 
Smith, Bart. He was born on June 26th, 
1827, and educated at Cheam School 
and at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1860 (14th 
Senior Optime), and M.A. in 1867. He 
married in 1850, Emily, third daughter of 
G. J. A. Walker, of Norton, Worcester- 
shire, and in the same year emigrated to 
Victoria, where he was for a short time 
a tally clerk on Cole's Wharf, Melbourne. 
Having introductions from the Colonial 
Office, and being well connected, he was 
soon looked after by the Government, and 



was appointed successively Secretary to a 
Denominational School Board, a member 
of the National Board of Education in- 
stituted in 1852, and subsequently Im- 
migration Agent. On Oct. 26th, 1852, he 
succeeded Mr. C. H. Ebden in the far 
more important post of Auditor-General 
of Victoria. Under the inflation of the 
gold rigime, extravagance was universal, 
and the Government had not escaped the 
contagion, if indeed it had not promoted 
it. It is charged against Mr. Childers by 
the historian of Australia, Mr. Rusden, 
that by his device of an imprest system 
he removed the salutary checks on the 
extravagance of the public service, which 
it was the ration d'etre of his office to 
supply. The effect was, at any rate, 
that unauthorised expenditure flourished 
apace, with the result that within eighteen 
months there was found to be a sum of 
£1,682,328 of unadjusted imprests, of 
which £283,745 were reported by an Ex- 
pert Committee to be "wholly unac- 
counted for." In Dec 1863 Mr. Childers 
first entered the Administration, being ap- 
pointed Collector of Customs in Victoria, 
in succession to Mr. Cassells, and taking 
his seat in the Executive Council (Dec. 
5th). In his official capacity he con- 
ducted the bill for the establishment of 
the Melbourne University through the Le- 
gislative Council, and ultimately aided in 
obtaining for it in 1859 a Royal Charter. 
It is a curious circumstance, that in 1855 
he opposed the introduction of vote by 
ballot in parliamentary elections, but 
probably on grounds that were in a great 
measure local After responsible govern- 
ment was conceded to Victoria, Mr. Chil- 
ders was returned to the first Legislative 
Assembly in the district of Portland, and 
was a member of the first Ministry con- 
stituted under the new autonomous con- 
ditions. Mr. Haines was Premier, and Mr. 
Childers held the office of Commissioner 
of Trade and Customs from Nov. 1855 to 
Feb. 1867, when he left Victoria, and re- 
turned to England as the first Agent- 
General of the Colony in London. He 
was also in the enjoyment of a colonist 
pension of £866 per annum, which he 
has drawn ever since, with the exception 
of the intervals during which he has had 
office in England. At the present time 
he has an ex-Cabinet Minister's pension 
in England, but the amount of his Vic- 
torian pension is first deducted, so that 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Chit 



the Colonial Treasury obtains no relief. 
Mr. Childers* first wife died in 1875, and 
he married secondly, in 1879, Katharine 
Ann, daughter of the late Bishop (Gilbert) 
of Chichester, and widow of the Hon. 
Gilbert Eliot Mr. Childers was member 
for Pontefract (which he unsuccessfully 
contested in 1859) in the House of Com- 
mons from 1860 to 1885, when he was 
defeated ; but in Jan. 1886 was returned 
for 8outh Edinburgh. He was a Lord of 
the Admiralty from April 1864 to Aug. 
1865 ; Secretary to the Treasury from the 
latter date till July 1866 ; First Lord of 
the Admiralty from Dec. 1868 to March 
1871, when the strain of work in connec- 
tion with the reorganisation of his de- 
partment compelled his retirement. Mr. 
Childers was Chancellor of the Duchy 
of Lancaster from Aug. 1872 to Oct. 1873 ; 
Secretary of State for War from April 
1880 to Dec 1882; Chancellor of the 
Exchequer from the latter date to June 
1885; and Secretary of State for the 
Home Department in Mr. Gladstone's 
shortlived Home Rule Ministry in 1886. 
Throughout his political career in England 
Mr. Childers has been one of Mr. Glad- 
stone's staunchest supporters. 

Chisholm, Caroline, was the daughter 
of William Jones, and was born at 
Wootton, in Northamptonshire, where 
her father, the well-known yeoman 
philanthropist, resided, in May 1810. She 
married, in 1830, Captain Archibald 
Chisholm, of the Indian army, who 
being granted 8ick leave, went to Sydney 
with his family in 1839. When com- 
pelled to return to India he left his wife 
and family behind; the former there- 
upon devoting herself to assisting the 
friendless female immigrants who were 
coming to the colony in shiploads. 
With this view she raised funds, opened 
a central depot, and made arrangements 
for the dispersion of the new arrivals in 
the country districts. So great was her 
success that up to 1845 she had pro- 
vided homes for over 11,000 immigrants, 
including many men. In that year 
Captain Chisholm rejoined his family, 
ana they returned to England in 1846 ; 
but this in no way induced Mrs. Chisholm 
to abandon the good work which she 
bad taken in hand, and for seven years 
she was actively employed in promoting 
suitable emigration, founding, amongst 
other similar agencies, "The Family 



Colonisation Loan Society," by which 
passage money was advanced and repaid 
by weekly instalments. Meantime she 
lectured throughout England in favour 
of emigration, improved accommodation 
for females being provided by her efforts 
on board emigrant ships. In 1854 she 
revisited Australia, and carried on her 
good work till 1866, when she finally 
returned to England, dying at Fulham, 
on March 25th, 1877. Mrs. Chisholm, 
who was the author of several works on 
emigration, was buried at Northampton, 
the obsequies being performed by the 
Roman Catholic bishop. In 1867 Mrs. 
Chisholm was granted a Civil List 
pension of £100 per annum. Her hus- 
band, who supported her in all her 
philanthropic undertakings, attained the 
honorary rank of major, and died at 
Rugby on August 17th, 1877, aged 
eighty-two.- 

Christie, Major William Harvey, some- 
time Postmaster-General, New South 
Wales, was the son of Thomas Christie, 
M.D., of Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, 
and was born at Ceylon in 1808. He 
was educated at Rugby and the Military 
Academy, Woolwich, where he qualified 
for the artillery. Joining the 80th Regi- 
ment as an ensign, he became lieutenant 
in 1827, captain in 1833, and major in 
1838, when he went to New South Wales 
with his regiment. He retired from 
the army in 1840, and acted as police 
magistrate till 1842, when he was 
appointed Agent for the Church and 
School Estates. From 1852 to 1865 he 
held the then non-political office of 
Postmaster-General of New South Wales. 
Major Christie died at Pyrmont on 
March 19th, 1873. 

Chubb, Hon. Charles Edward, Puisne 
Judge, Queensland, is the son of the late 
Charles Frederick Chubb, solicitor, of 
Ipswich in that colony. He was born 
in London on May 17th, 1845, and edu- 
cated at the Grammar School at Calne, 
Wiltshire, the City of London School, 
and, after his arrival in Queensland (in 
1861) at the Collegiate School at Ipswich, 
where he was articled to his father. Mr. 
Justice Chubb was admitted an attorney 
of the Supreme Court in Sept. 1867, 
and in May 1878 was called to the bar, 
and in 1883 appointed Q.C. In the same 
year he was elected a member of the 
Legislative Assembly for Bowen, and 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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was Attorney-General in the latter days 
of the first Mcllwraith Administration, 
from Jan. 6th to Nov. 13th, 1883, bat 
did not seek re-election at the dissolu- 
tion which resulted in the defeat of his 
party. He on several occasions acted 
as Grown Prosecutor and Deputy Judge 
of the District Courts, and in August 1889 
he was appointed Acting Puisne Judge 
of the Supreme Court, being appointed 
Puisne Judge in December of the same 
year, and attached to the Northern 
Division. 

Chute, General Sir Trevor, K.C.B., for- 
merly Commander of the Forces in Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand, third son of 
the late Francis Chute, of Chute Hall, 
oo. Kerry, by Mary Anne, daughter of 
Trevor Bomford, of Dublin, was born 
at Tralee, in 1816. He entered the 
army in 1831, became lieutenant in 
1836, captain in 1839, major in 1847, 
lieut.-colonel in 1849, colonel in 1854, 
major-general in 1864, lieat. -general in 
1872, and brevet-general in 1877. He 
served with the 70th Regiment in India 
for twelve years, and went through the 
Mutiny, being on May 24th, 1857, in 
charge of the force which occupied the 
fort of Hote Murdaw. From August 1858 
to Jan. 1860 he commanded a brigade 
at Lucknow, and in Feb. 1861 embarked 
in command of the 70th Regiment for 
New Zealand. He served with his regi- 
ment during the Maori war, and in March 
1863 was appointed brigadier in com- 
mand of the Australian colonies. In 1865 
he suoceeded General Cameron in com- 
mand of the forces in New Zealand, with 
the local rank of Brigadier-General. In 
the following year he conducted a cam- 
paign in the Wanganui district, capturing 
many pas, including Okatuku (Jan. 4th, 
1866), Putahi (Jan. 7th), Otapawa (Jan. 
13th), and Waikoko (Feb. 1st). The 
effect of this campaign was successfully 
to open up the road between Wanganui 
and Taranaki. It was during these 
operations that the shooting of a Maori 
prisoner of war by order of General 
Chute led to subsequent complications 
between the Governor (Sir George Grey) 
and the Colonial Office. Sir Trevor Chute, 
who was created K.C.B. in 1867, adminis- 
tered the government of New South Wales 
from the departure of Sir John Young 
(afterwards Lord Lisgar) to the arrival 
of the Karl of Belmore, Dec. 24th, 1867, 



to Jan. 7th, 1868, and left for England in 
1870. General Chute was placed on the 
retired list in 1881. In 1868 he married 
Ellen, eldest daughter of Samuel Brown- 
ing, of Epsom, Auckland, New Zealand. 
He died at Egmont, Bracknell, Berks, on 
March 12th, 1886. 

Clark, Hon. Andrew Iu^lis, M.H.A., 
Attorney-General, Tasmania, son of 
Andrew Clark and Ann Inglis, his wife, 
was born at Hobart Town, on Feb. 24th, 
1848. Mr. Clark was called to the Tas- 
nianian bar on Jan. 30th, 1877. He 
represented Norfolk Plains in the House 
of Assembly from July 1878 to May 
1882, and has sat for South Hobart from 
March 1887 down to the present time. 
Mr. Clark, who was married at Melbourne 
in Jan. 1878 to Miss Grace Ross, was 
appointed Attorney-General on March 
29th, 1887. He was one of the representa- 
tives of Tasmania at the Federal Council 
of Australasia in 1888 and 1889. In 
1890 he was one of the delegates of the 
colony to the Federation Conference in 
Melbourne, and in 1891 attended the 
Federation Convention at Sydney in the 
same capacity. In 1890 Mr. Clark 
visited England, with the intention of 
appearing before the Privy Council on 
behalf of the Government, m the litiga- 
tion with the Main Line Railway ; but 
the compromise arrived at in connection 
with the State purchase of the line 
having terminated the proceedings before 
the hearing, his further stay was rendered 
unnecessary. 

Clark, Eev. Charles, the well-known 
lecturer, was born in London on April 
19th, 1838, and entered the Baptist Col- 
lege at Nottingham as a student for the 
ministry. After filling several charges 
in London and the provinces, he accepted 
the pastorate of the Baptist Church in 
Albert Park, Melbourne, where he arrived 
in April 1869. Having been very suc- 
cessful as an amateur lecturer on secular 
subjects, he resigned his pastoral charge 
in 1874, and lectured professionally 
throughout the Australian colonies with 
extraordinary success. After a tour in 
America in 1876, where he attracted large 
audiences, he returned to Australia, but 
shortly afterwards left for England, where 
he remained till 1889, when he revisited 
Australia, and achieved a considerable 
measure of his former success. 



9« 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN 6IOCRAPHV. 



[CI* 



Clark, Joan Howard, son of Francis 
Clark, of Birmingham, by his marriage 
with the sister of Sir Rowland Hill, was 
born at Birmingham on Jan. 15th, 1830. 
He emigrated to Adelaide with his 
father and mother in 1850, and joined 
the former in the firm of Francis Clark & 
Bon, accountants and merchants. He 
assisted in the formation of the Ade- 
laide Philosophical Society and the 
South Australian Institute, and was 
secretary of the former for seven years. 
In 1865 he joined the proprietary of 
the South Australia* Register, and acted 
as commercial manager, and in 1870 
became editor. Mr. Clark (who was well 
known as a^press contributor under the 
nam de plume of " Geoffrey Crabthorn ") 
died at Port Willunga, on May 20th, 1878. 

Clarke, Lieut.-0eneral Hon. Sir Andrew, 
R.E., G.C.M.G., C.B., C.I.B., eldest son of 
the late Colonel Andrew Clarke, E.H., 
of Belmont, co. Donegal, Governor of 
Western Australia from 1846 to 1847, 
and Frances his wife, was born on July 
27th, 1824, at Southsea, Hants, and after 
a successful career at the Woolwich 
Academy entered the Royal Engineers 
in 1844, as second lieutenant. In 1846 
he was appointed aide-de-camp to the 
late Sir William Denison, who was then 
about to assume the Governorship of 
Tan Diemen's Land, and acted in that 
capacity till 1848, when he served in 
New Zealand until the close of the war, 
when he was sent on a mission to Heke. 
In 1849 he returned to Van Diemen's 
Land, now Tasmania, and acted as Sir 
William Denison's private secretary till 
1853, when he was appointed Surveyor- 
General and Chief Commissioner of 
Crown Lands of Victoria, with a seat in 
the Legislative Council. On responsible 
government being inaugurated in Nov. 
1856, Captain Clarke ^as he then was) 
was included in the Haines Ministry, and 
being; sworn of the Executive Council, 
continued to act as Surveyor-General. 
In his address to the electors of Sooth 
Melbourne, in Sept. 1856, he advocated 
an energetic railway policy, a reform in 
the constitution, the abolition of the 
property qualification for members of 
Parliament, a readjustment of the elec- 
toral districts on the basis of population, 
tbe extension of the municipal system, 
and the abolition of the technical diffi- 
culties which encumbered the transfer 



of real estate. The working men of the 
colony took great interest in Captain 
Clarke's candidature, and drew up an 
address to the electors of South Mel- 
bourne, urging them to return him. 
After his election to the first Legislative 
Assembly of Victoria, and while a mem- 
ber of the Haines Administration, he 
carried several railway bills through Par- 
liament, and took an active part in the 
policy of his colleagues. In March 1857 
the Government was defeated by a 
motion brought forward by Mr. (after- 
wards Sir John) O'Shanassy, and resigned 
office. But the new Government only 
lasted six weeks, and on April 29th Mr. 
Haines returned to power. But Captain 
Clarke did not go into office with him, 
as he dissented from his new policy, and 
less than twelve months afterwards de- 
feated his former colleagues on the bill 
for the representation of minorities, and 
was requested by the Governor, Sir Henry 
Barkly, to form an Administration. Be 
made the attempt, and obtained the co- 
operation of Mr. O'Shanassy, while Sir 
William Stawell, who was then Chief 
Justice, volunteered to resign his seat on 
the bench and take office as Attorney- 
General. But one of the conditions 
demanded by Captain Clarke was a dis- 
solution, and as Sir Henry Barkly did 
not see his way to grant that request, 
Captain Clarke gave up the attempt to 
form an Administration, and Mr. O'Shan- 
assy took office with Mr. Duffy, Mr. 
Chapman, Mr. Ireland, and others as his 
colleagues, in March 1858. This was the 
last occasion on which Captain Clarke 
took a personal part in Victorian politics, 
and he left Victoria towards the end of 
the year on a confidential mission with 
which he was entrusted by Mr. O'Shanassy 
to assist, with his advice, the six asso- 
ciated banks who were entrusted with 
the flotation of the first Victorian loan. 
In 1859 he was suggested for the position 
of the first Governor of Queensland, and 
his name was sent for the approval of 
the Cabinet, but the appointment was 
not made; and after being offered one 
or two colonial offices, he resumed his 
military duties in 1858. He has, how- 
ever, always continued to take a keen 
interest in Australian affairs, and es- 
pecially in those of Victoria, for which 
colony he was on several occasions Act- 
ing Agent-General in London down to 



93 



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DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[ClA 



1892. Sir Andrew, who was made C.B. 
in 1869, K.C.M.G. in 1873, CLE. in 1878, 
and G.C.M.G. in 1885, may be regarded 
as the founder of municipal institutions 
in Victoria, the official bill which he 
brought in for their establishment in 
1855 having laid the foundation of the 
system, which has since been so widely 
and successfully extended. Through his 
exertions the public reserves and the 
National Museum were established on a 
permanent basis, and the first Melbourne 
Industrial Exhibition was initiated by 
him. Sir Andrew Clarke, who became 
captain in 1854, major and lieut.-colonel 
in 1867, colonel in 1872, major-general 
in 1884, and who was placed on the 
retired list with the honorary rank of 
lieut.-general in 1886, was employed 
in various important official positions 
after leaving Victoria, from which colony 
he draws a pension of £800 per annum, 
under the 50th clause of the Imperial 
Act establishing the constitution of the 
colony. He was Commanding Royal 
Engineer of the Eastern and Midlands 
districts till 1863, when he went to 
inspect the establishments on the west 
coast of Africa, and was engaged in 
operations against the Ashantees when 
they invaded the Gold Coast Colony. 
Sir Andrew was Director of Works of 
the Navy from 1864 to 1873, and in this 
capacity designed and executed the great 
extension of National dockyards. From 
1873 to 1875 he was Governor of the 
Straits Settlements, and initiated and 
conducted the operations which stamped 
out piracy and established the per- 
manent authority of the Crown. In 
1875 Sir Andrew was employed on a 
special mission to Siam, and from that 
year till 1880, was director of Indian 
rublio Works, and a member of the 
Council of the Viceroy. From 1881 to 
1882 he was Commandant of the School 
of Military Engineering at Chatham, and 
from the latter year until 1886 Inspector 
General of Fortifications. Sir Andrew, 
who was a member of the Koyal Com- 
mission for the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition, and a member of the Com- 
missions in London for the Melbourne 
Exhibitions of 1880 and 1888, un- 
successfully contested Chatham against 
Sir John Gorst, in 1886, as a Gladstonian 
Liberal. As acting Agent-General and 
otherwise he has warmly vindicated the 



right of Australia to dominate the 
Western Pacific, and to prevent the in- 
trusion of France and Germany. He 
married, in 1867, Mary Margaret Ellen, 
eldest daughter of Charles W. Mackillop, 
formerly of the Indian Civil Service. 

Clarke, Hon. Fielding, LL.B., fourth 
son of the late Henry Booth Clarke, of 
London, was educated at London Uni- 
versity, where he graduated LL.B. in 
1877. He entered at the Middle Temple 
in Nov. 1872, was called to the bar 
in May 1876, and went the North- 
eastern Circuit. Mr. Clarke was At- 
torney-General of Fiji from 1881 to 1882; 
Acting Chief Justice and Chief Judicial 
Commissioner for the Western I*acific, 
from 18JB2 to 1883, and frbm 1884 to 
1885, when he was permanently con- 
firmed in the office. Mr. Clarke was 
appointed to his present position as 
Chief Justice, at Hong Kong, in 1892. 

Clarke, Bov. George, son of George 
Clarke, of Wyndham, Norfolk, England, 
and Martha his wife (nSe Blomfield), was 
born at Parramatta, N.S.W., in the year 
1823. His father was one of the first 
missionaries sent out to New Zealand 
by the Church Missionary Society; 
and in 1824 the family proceeded to 
the Bay of Islands and took up their 
residence at Waimate, the principal 
missionary station. At an early age 
Mr. Clarke was sent to Tasmania for his 
education, which he received at the school 
of Mr. R. W. Giblin at New Town, near 
Hobart. In 1838 he returned to New 
Zealand. His proficiency as a Maori 
scholar, his intimate knowledge of Maori 
customs, and his great influence with the 
natives procured him an appointment as 
one of the protectors of the aborigines. 
He was one of the witnesses to the 
celebrated Treaty of Waitangi, whereby 
the Maori chiefs ceded the North Island 
of New Zealand to the Queen. He was 
prominent in native matters during the 
administrations of Governors Hobson, 
Fiteroy, and Grey. He accompanied the 
surveying party of the New Zealand 
Company to the South Island, and he 
drew up the document whereby the 
Otago block, on which the city of 
Dunedin now stands, was conveyed to 
the Company by the Maori chiefs. On 
the outbreak of the Honi Heki war in 
1844, he was employed by the Governor 
to negotiate with the friendly natives, 

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and accomplished his mission with great 
tact and success. He accompanied 
Sir George Grey through the Heki war 
as interpreter, and saw a large amount of 
active service. In 1846 Mr. Clarke pro- 
ceeded to England, and entered High- 
bury College (afterwards New College), 
London, to study for the ministry of the 
Congregational Church. In 1851 he 
returned once more to Hobart, and 
accepted the pastorate of a Congre- 
gational Church, of which he has now 
been the minister for forty years. For 
some years he edited a monthly paper 
entitled The Tasmanian Independent, 
and took a prominent part in the move- 
ment for the separation of Church and 
State in the colony, which ended in the 
abolition of State aid to religion in the 
year 1868. Mr. Clarke was a member of 
the Tasmanian Council of Education for 
nearly thirty years, and was several 
times elected its President. On the 
establishment of the University of Tas- 
mania in 1890, he was elected a member 
of the Council and first Vice-chancellor 
of the University. Besides a large 
amount of literary work, he is the author 
of "Sunday Lectures on the Epistle to 
the Hebrews" (Hobart, 1884). He 
married Martha, daughter of Henry 
Hopkins, J.P. 

Clarke, Jamei Langton, M.A., second 
son of the late Andrew Clarke, of Belmont, 
Donegal, Ireland, and uncle of Lieut- 
General Sir Andrew Clarke, G.C.M.G. 
(?.«.), was born in 1801, and educated 
at the Military College at Sandhurst, 
obtaining a commission in the army, out 
of which he sold, and after graduating 
at Queens' College, Cambridge, was called 
to the bar at the Middle Temple in Jan. 
1835. In 1855 he went to Victoria, and 
was appointed a County Court Judge, 
and Judge of the Court of Mines in 1871. 
He married on Sept. 2nd, 1852, Miss A. 
Maria Harrison, of London; retired on 
a pension in 1871, and died at Mentone 
on Feb. 16th, 1886. 

Clarke, Joseph, J. P., third and youngest 
son of the late Hon. William John 
Turner Clarke, M.L.C. (g.v.), was born 
at Newtown, near Hobart, Tas., on Jan. 
1st, 1835. He managed his father's 
Tasmanian estates for some years prior 
to the tetter's decease in 1874, when 
be succeeded to large estates in that 
colony, and in South Australia and New 



Zealand. Since that time Mr. Clarke 
has resided at Toorak, near Melbourne. 
He married, in 1860, Caroline, daughter 
of his uncle, Lewis Clarke, who settled 
in Australia. Mr. Clarke has given 
many liberal donations to public insti- 
tutions and charities — notably £5000 to 
Trinity College, Melbourne, and £5000 
to the Anglican Cathedral of that city. 

Clarke, Marcus (Andrew Hislop), the 
distinguished Australian author, was the 
only son of the late William Hislop 
Clarke, a London barrister, and nephew 
of Col. Andrew Clarke, K.H., sometime 
Governor of Western Australia. The 
family were of Anglo-Irish origin. Marcus 
Clarke was born at Kensington, London, 
on April 24th, 1846, his mother dying a 
few months after his birth. He was 
educated at Chomley School, Highgate, 
under the late Rev. Dr. Dyne. His father 
dying when he was only seventeen years 
of age, and leaving him nothing beyond 
a few hundred pounds by way of patri- 
mony, it was decided by his friends that 
he should try his fortunes in Australia. 
He accordingly went out in Green's old 
" liner " the Wellesley in 1864. On arriv- 
ing in Melbourne he was taken in hand 
by his uncle, the late James Langton 
Clarke, then a County Court Judge in 
Victoria, who obtained for him a junior 
position in the Bank of Australia in 
Melbourne. Figures were not, however, 
to his taste, and after a brief and eccen- 
tric clerkly career, of which many amus- 
ing stories are told, he relinquished 
banking and took to the "bush," being 
sent in Jan. 1865 to acquire " colonial 
experience" on Swinton station, near 
Glenorchy, in Victoria. The owner of the 
station was Mr. John Holt, but his uncle 
had a pecuniary interest in it ; and 
young Clarke was thus permitted to lead 
a desultory, half lazy, half literary life for 
a period of about two years, during which 
he acquired " experiences " which, if not 
exactly those designed, were of high value 
to him in his future career as a writer, 
into which latter groove he now drifted. 
Amongst the visitors to the station was 
a " materialistic philosopher " named 
Dr. Lewins, who, struck with the youth's 
mental calibre and literary capacities, 
mentioned his discovery of the bush 
genius to the late Mr. Lachlan Mackinnon, 
of the Melbourne Argus, who at once 
offered him an engagement on that paper. 



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in the minor capacity of theatrical re- 
porter. This was gladly accepted, and all 
went smoothly until one of young Clarke's 
criticisms unfortunately antedated the 
appearance of a piece the first production 
of which it presumably described. He 
was promptly removed from the regular 
Argus staff, and became henceforth 
merely an occasional, though most copious 
and capable, contributor to that paper 
and to the well-known weekly journal the 
Australasian, issued from the same office. 
In the latter his most brilliant effusions 
appeared under the title of " The Peri- 
patetic Philosopher." He also contributed 
Bpecial articles, principally of theatrical 
criticism, to the Argus, in whose columns 
they formed a striking and favourite 
feature. Mr. Clarke purchased the Aus- 
tralian Magazine, which he rechristened 
the Colonial Monthly, and which he 
conducted. In its pages his first attempt 
at novel-writing, " Long Odds," appeared 
in serial form. He, however, wrote the 
first few chapters, the tale being finished 
by others, Mr. Clarke, in taking a jump 
which his horse failed to negotiate, being 
thrown with great violence and fracturing 
his skull. This was in 1868. Narrowly 
escaping with life after a protracted 
illness, Marcus Clarke resumed his literary 
activities, and about this time took the 
principal part in founding the Yorick 
Club, of which he was the first secretary, 
and which still flourishes as the leading 
literary and Bohemian club of the Vic- 
torian metropolis. It was at the Yorick 
that Marcus Clarke first made the ac- 
quaintance of Adam Lindsay Gordon, the 
equally dashing poet and gentleman 
steeplechase rider, for whom he formed 
a warm affection, and whose mournful 
end he deeply deplored, as is evidenced 
by the sympathetic preface which he 
wrote for the posthumous edition of 
Gordon's poems. At this time Marcus 
Clarke both edited and contributed to 
Humbug, a brilliant weekly comic journal 
published in Melbourne, but which, like 
the Colonial Monthly, was destined to be 
short-lived. Mr. Clarke stopped writing 
for the Melbourne Punch when he took 
the editorship of Humbug in 1869. In 
the former, however, some of his most 
sparkling work appeared. Amongst Mr. 
Clarke's contributory staff on Humbug 
were Dr. Neild, Mr. A. L. Windsor, Mr. 
Charles Bright, and Mr. Henry Kendall. 

9 6 



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Altogether it was a formidable rival to 
Mr. James Smith's Touchstone, a con- 
temporary weekly of similar character. 
On July 22nd, 1869, Mr. Clarke was 
married at St. Peter's Church, Melbourne, 
to Miss Marian Dunn, daughter of John 
Dunn, the well-known burlesque actor, 
and herself an actress of much cleverness. 
Mr. Clarke now ventured on dramatic 
work, and wrote Foul Play, a dramatisa- 
tion of Beade and Boucicault's novel of 
that name. It was produced at the 
Melbourne Theatre Boyal, but was only 
a -partial success. Various succeeding 
adaptations were more favourably re- 
ceived. Mr. Clarke now produced the 
great literary work with which his name 
will always be associated in both hemi- 
spheres, and which placed him at the 
head of Australian authors. "His 
Natural Life" is a story based on the 
tragic experiences of the old convict days, 
and is equally realistic and repulsive in 
the horrors it reveals. It was written as 
the result of a trip to Tasmania under- 
taken with the view of recruiting the 
author's health. He not only attained 
the latter object, but procured from the 
old convict records of the island the 
materials for a most powerful narrative, 
"His Natural Life" at first appeared 
serially in the Australian Magazine, It 
was, however, revised almost beyond recog- 
nition prior to publication in England, 
where it was issued by the Messrs. 
Bentley, and at once attracted the favour- 
able attention of the press and public. 
In the work of revision and excisionMr. 
Clarke was assisted by Sir Charles Gavan 
Duffy, to whom the work was dedicated 
on its appearance in book form. Mr. 
Clarke also published a selection from 
stories contributed to the Australasian 
under the title of "Old Tales of a 
New Country." In Jan. 1870 he was 
appointed Secretary to the Trustees of 
the Melbourne Public Library, organised 
by the late Sir Redmond Barry, who 
recommended him to the position and 
always remained his staunch friend. 
He became Sub-Librarian in 1876. 
Mr. Clarke now published "Holiday 
Peak n and " Four Stories High " ; and 
his drama Plot, written in 1872 and 
produced at the Princess's Theatre, Mel- 
bourne, also proved an undoubted success. 
Mr. Clarke, having quarrelled with the 
Argus and Australasian proprietary. 

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' became a contributor to the Everting 
Herald and Daily Telegraph, both pub- 

' lished in Melbourne. He subsequently 
became connected with the Age and 

' Leader, and contributed much brilliant 
matter to the latter above the signature 

f "Atticus." The connection with both 
these journals lasted till his death. In 
1878 Mr. Clarke refused the librarianship 
of the Victorian Parliamentary Library, 
offered him by Mr. (now Sir Graham) 
Berry. He did this in the certainty of 
obtaining the chief position in the Mel- 
bourne Public Library, which, however, 
was, much to his disappointment, con- 
ferred on Dr. Bride. His fame as a 
writer had in the meantime become 
widely diffused, and he was offered a 
permanent position on the staff of the 
London Daily Telegraph by its enter- 
prising proprietor, Mr. E. L. Lawson. 
This he was compelled to decline through 

> inability to leave Australia. He died in 
Melbourne on August 2nd, 1881, of con- 
gestion of the liver and erysipelas super- 

^ vening on pleurisy. Mr. Clarke left 
behind him an unfinished novel entitled 
••Felix and Felicitas," which displayed 
remarkable promise. In 1884 a selection 
from his writings was published by sub- 
scription by Messrs. Cameron, Laing & 
Co., of Melbourne. It is entitled "The 
Marcus Clarke Memorial Volume," and 
was edited by Mr. Hamilton Mackinnon, 
who prefaced it by a detailed Life of his 
friend and a complete list of his works, 

h which is of much interest to the student 
of Australian literature. 

Clarke, William, J.P., son of William 
Joseph Savers Clarke by his marriage 
with Miss Mary Ann Welsford, was born 
in Melbourne on June 26th, 1843, and 
married there on June 25th, 1862, 
to Miss Mary Ann Mortimer. He is a 
Justice of the Peace for the colonies of 
New South Wales and Victoria, and was 

' M.L.A. for Orange in the former colony, 
but was defeated at the general election 
in 1889. Mr. Clarke was Minister of 
Justice in the administration of Sir 
Henry Parkes, from Jan. 20th, 1887, to 
Jan. 10th, 1889. He has held important 

t positions in connection with financial 
institutions in the colonies, and is now 
Managing Director in London of the 

' Standard Bank of Australia, Limited. 
Mr. Clarke was a member of the New 
South Wales Commission in London for 



the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 
1886. 

Clarke, Bev. William Branwhite, M.A., 
F.R.S., was born at East Bergholt, 
in Suffolk, on June 2nd, 1798, and 
educated at Dedham Grammar School 
and at Jesus College, Cambridge, where 
he graduated B.A. in 1821, and M.A. in 
1824. He was ordained deacon in 1821, 
and priest in 1824. In 1822 he published 
three poems : " Lays of Leisure," " Pom- 
peii," and " The River Derwent, w and in 
1839 " Recollections of a Visit to Mont 
Blanc "and several religious poems. Whilst 
at Cambridge he attended the geological 
lectures of Professor Sedgwick and Dr. 
E. Clarke, and visited various parts of 
England in search of geological informa- 
tion during his vacations. After holding 
one or two small preferments he emigrated 
to New South Wales in 1839, partly for 
his health. He took charge of the King's 
School at Parramatta, and did clerical 
duty in that district, and subsequently 
at Campbell Town. From 1846 to 1870 
he was incumbent of St. Thomas's, 
Willoughby. Mr. Clarke was the author 
of numerous treatises on scientific, and 
especially geological, subjects. In 1841 
he demonstrated the existence of gold in 
New South Wales from geological and 
mineralogical evidences, and verified his 
contentions by finding specimens in the 
Macquarie valleys, and near the Vale of 
Clydd. In 1844 he described the existence 
of a goldfield in the Bathurst district 
without any personal exploration, and 
without any knowledge of Strzelecki's pre- 
vious discovery, which exactly coincided 
with his predictions. The then Governor 
of New South Wales, Sir George Gipps, 
dreading the effect of excitingthe cupidity 
of the convicts and labourers, requested 
Mr. Clarke, as he had done the Count 
previously, to keep his discoveries secret. 
With this injunction Mr. Clarke was well 
inclined to comply, as, according to his 
opinion declared in 1849, gold washing 
was more suitable for slaves than British 
freemen. In comparing the geology of 
Russia with that of Australia, in 1847, 
Mr. Clarke asserted that New South Wales 
" would be found wonderfully rich in 
metals" — a prophecy which has since 
been amply verified. For his services to 
science he was in 1876 elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society, and died on June 
17th, 1878, at North Shore, Sydney For 



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bis geological reports to the Government 
of New South Wales in 1853 Mr. Clarke 
was awarded £1000, and, subsequently, 
£5000 was paid him. The Government 
of Victoria awarded him £1000 in 1861. 
In July 1860 the governors of the Aus- 
tralian colonies signed a certificate stat- 
ing that the discovery of gold was made 
by Mr. Clarke in 1841. He also aided in 
developing the coalfields of New South 
Wales, and in 1877 was awarded the 
Murchison medal of the Geological 
Society of London for his services in 
determining the age of the carboniferous 
deposits in that colony. His labours also 
resulted in the discovery of tin. When 
the Sydney University was founded, he 
declined a seat in the Senate and the 
position of Professor of Geology. 



Clarke, Hon. Sir William John, Bart. 
M.L.C., LL.D., J.P., is the eldest son of 
the late Hon. W. J. T. Clarke, M.L.C. 
(#.r.), and was born in 1831 in Tas- 
mania. Sir William first arrived in 
Victoria in 1850, when he spent a couple 
of years in the study of sheep farming 
on his father's Dowling Forest station, 
and afterwards in the management of 
the Woodlands station on the Wimmera. 
For the next ten years he resided in 
Tasmania, working the Norton-Mande- 
ville estate in conjunction with his 
brother, Mr. Joseph Clarke. In 1862 he 
assumed the management of his father's 
concerns in Victoria, and on the latter's 
death in 1874 succeeded to his estates in 
that colony. Sir William early evinced 
a very strong interest in farming pur- 
suits, and introduced a scientific in- 
structor in the person of Mr. R. W. E. 
Mclvor, who lectured on agricultural 
chemistry for the benefit of the colony 
generally. Amongst Sir William Clarke's 
donations to public objects may be men- 
tioned the gift of £2000 to the Indian 
Famine Relief Fund, of £10,000 to- 
wards building the Anglican Cathedral 
at Melbourne, of £7000 to Trinity 
College, Melbourne University, and many 
others. In the domain of sport Sir 
William has figured prominently as a 
patron of coursing and yachting. He is 
the recognised head of the three Masonic 
constitutions in Victoria — a unique posi- 
tion not held by any other individual 
in the craft. On the death of Mr. John 
Thomas Smith, Sir William became 

9 s 



Prov. Grand Master of the Irish Con 
stitution; he followed the late Mr. A. 
K. Smith in the office of District Grand 
Master of the Scotch Constitution ; and 
on the demise of Captain Standish in 
1883, Sir W. J. Clarke was offered the 
position of District Grand Master of the 
English Constitution, the Prince of Wales 
signifying his warm approbation. The 
foundation stone of the Freemasons 
Hall in Melbourne was laid by him in 
March 1885, the finished building being 
consecrated by him to Masonic purposes 
in March 1887. Sir William founded, by 
a gift of 3000 guineas in the year 
1882, the " Southern Province (Victoria) 
Scholarship," in the Royal College of 
Music, England, the distinction being 
first won in 1883 by Miss Ada Beatrice 
Bloxham, and in ■ 1887 by Miss Isabella 
Webster. To the Melbourne Pu v 
Library he has presented some ad 
able statuary by Mr. Charles Bummt. 
and a full-length portrait by Mr. Dowling 
of Lord Melbourne, the minister aftei» 
whom the Victorian metropolis is named.' 
In 1886 Mr. Chevalier painted to Sir 
.William's order, **The Renunciation of 
Prince Gautama," a work considered 
the painter's masterpiece. The defence 
movement has been encouraged by Sir. 
W. J. Clarke's offer of valuable prize* 
for competition among the military and 
naval forces ; and in addition a battery 
of three Nordenf eldt guns, commanded by 
Lieutenant Rupert Clarke — Sir William's 
eldest son — is horsed and maintained 
at his expense. Sir William has repre- 
sented the Southern province in the 
Legislative Council since 1878, and in 
the following year he was President of 
the Melbourne International Exhibition ; 1 
for his services in connection with which, 
he was raised to the baronetcy in Dec 
1882. Sir William was a member of the 
Victorian Commission to the Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition of 1886, and had the 
honorary degree of LL.D. conferred on 
him by the University of Cambridge 
during the same year. Sir William 
Clarke married, firstly, on Nov. 23rd, 
1860, Mary, second daughter of the Hon. 
John Walker, M.L.C, of Tasmania, who 
died in 1871 ; and secondly, on Jaxi, 
21st, 1873, Janet Marian, eldest daughter! 
of the late Hon. Peter Snodgrass, M.L.C.. 
and granddaughter of the late Coloae 
Kenneth Snodgrass, C.B. 

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Clarke, Horn. William John Timer, 
M.L.C., was the second son of William 
Clarke, of St. Botolph, Aldgate, London, 
by Sarah Turner, of Weston Zoyland, in 
Somersetshire. He settled in Tasmania 
in 1840, and subsequently acquired ex- 
tensive pastoral property in that colony, 
and in Victoria, South Australia, and New 
Zealand. He married Eliza, daughter of 
Bey. George Pyke Dowling, of Puckington, 
Somerset, by Anne Biggs his wife, of an 
old and wealthy family of Bristol mer- 
chants, and had issue three sons — William 
John (now 8ir W. J.) Clarke (?.e.) ; Thomas 
Biggs, who was endowed with his father's 
Quorn Hall and Brambletye properties 
in Tasmania ; and Joseph (?.*.), who 
inherited the paternal estates in South 
Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania. 
Mr. Clarke was member for the Southern 

-'rinoe in the Legislative Council, and 
t in 1874. 
. «iayden, Arthur, was born in Berk- 
hire, and early identified himself with 
.he agricultural labourers' movement, 
becoming a member of the consultative 
committee of the National Agricultural 
Abourera' Union, under the presidency 
A Mr. Joseph Arch. In 1873 he accom- 
ianied Mr. Arch to Canada for the 
purpose of investigating that colony as 
i field of emigration, contributing letters 
zo the Daily Nem on the subject. In 
1S79 he went out to New Zealand, and 
while there acted as correspondent for 
the Daily New*. He returned to England 
n 1890. Mr. Clayden has delivered lec- 
tures on " New Zealand as an Emigration 
Field" ; and in 1885 read a paper before 
the Royal Colonial Institute on "New- 
Zealand in 1884." Some of his letters 
md lectures have been published in 
pamphlet form. 

Clifford, flir Charles, Bart., formerly 

Speaker of the House of Representatives, 

New Zealand, the eldest son of George 

Lambert Clifford (fifth son of the Hon. 

Thomas Clifford, second son of the third 

Lord Clifford of Chudleigh), by Mary, 

daughter of Walter Hill Coyney, of 

Weston Coyney, co. Stafford, was born 

at Mount Vernon, Liverpool, on Jan. 1st, 

1813, and educated at Stonyhurst. He 

vas one of the first settlers in Wel- 

ington, N.Z., under the New Zealand 

Company, arriving in 1843. While in 

England in 1850 he took a prominent 

art in the agitation for the grant of 



a constitutional government to New Zea- 
land; and in 1864, upon the passing of 
the Constitution Act, returned to the 
oolony, and was elected to the first 
parliament, of which he was appointed 
Speaker, an office he held until 1860. 
He was made a knight bachelor in 1858. 
Sir Charles was for long engaged in 
pastoral pursuits in the colony; but 
finally returned to England, where he 
has since lived. On July 16th, 1887, he 
was created a baronet of Flaxboume, 
province of Marlborough. Sir Charles 
married, on Jan. 13th, 1847, Mary Anne, 
daughter of John Hercy, of Cruchfield 
House, D.L. for co. Bucks. 

Clifton, Leonard Worsley, J.P., ex-Col- 
lector of Customs, Western Australia, sixth 
son of Marshal Waller Clifton, F.R.S. (suc- 
cessively Secretary to the Commissioners 
for Victualling the Navy and Chief Com- 
missioner for Australind, an abortive set- 
tlement in West Australia), by Eleanor, 
daughter of Daniel Bend, of Wandle 
House, Surrey, and younger brother of 
Sir Francis Clifton, 11th Bart., of 
Clifton, co. Notts, was born in 1830, and 
married, in 1858, Elizabeth, daughter of 
J. Ferguson, M.D., J. P., formerly Colonial 
Surgeon, Western Australia. The follow- 
ing are the details of his official career: 
Tending Waiter and Postmaster, Bun- 
bury, Western Australia, June 1849; 
Convict Clerk, Colonial Secretary's office, 
Jan. 1851, resigned Feb. 1852; reap- 
pointed Clerk in Colonial Secretary's 
office, and served from 1867 to 1859, 
when he was removed to the Customs 
Department as first clerk ; Acting Col- 
lector of Customs, 1862 ; Collector, 1863 ; 
and also officiates as Registrar of Ship- 
ping, Shipping Master, and Receiver of 
Wreck. Mr. Clifton, who retired from 
the public service in Jan. 1891, is a J.P. 
for the oolony. 

Cookbum, Hon. John Alexander, M.P., 
M.D., son of the late Thomas Cockburn, 
of Berwickshire, and Isabella Wright his 
wife, was born at Corsbie, near Duns, in 
Scotland, on August 23rd, 1850, and was 
educated at Cholmeley School, Highgate. 
He studied medicine at King's College, 
London, and graduated M.D. Lond. (gold 
medal) in 1874. He emigrated to South 
Australia in 1875, and practised medicine 
in Jamestown, where in 1877 he was 
appointed first mayor of the town, which 
office he held for three and a^half years. 



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In 1884 Dr. Cockbnrn was returned as a 
member of the House of Assembly for the 
district of Burra, and was Minister of 
Education in Sir J. W. Downer's Govern- 
ment from June 16th, 1885, to June 7th, 
1867. At the general elections in 1887 
he was defeated for the Burra, but was 
immediately afterwards returned for the 
district of Mount Barker. On June 27th, 
1889, Dr. Cockburn formed a ministry, 
and held office till August 1890 as 
Premier and Chief Secretary. His ad- 
ministration was characterised by the 
introduction of bills providing for Pro- 
gressive Succession Duties, a Progressive 
Tax on Unimproved Land Values, and 
other advanced Liberal measures. Dr. 
Cockburn was one of the representatives 
of South Australia at the Australasian 
Federation Conference held in Melbourne 
in Feb. 1890, and was one of the delegates 
to the Federal Convention held in Sydney 
in March 1891. Dr. Cockburn was chair- 
man of a board appointed to inquire into 
the subject of technical education, and 
was first chairman of the School of Mines 
and Industries of South Australia, which 
was established as the result of that 
inquiry. He also carried a resolution in 
the House of Assembly in favour of the 
introduction of drawing, science, and 
manual training into the state schools. 
In 1886, while Minister of Education, he 
instituted Arbor Day in South Australia. 
Dr. Cockburn married, in May 1875, 
8arah Holdway, fourth daughter of the 
late Forbes Scott Brown, of Berwickshire. 
Cookie, Sir James, F.R.S., first Chief 
Justice of Queensland, second son of 
James Cockle, of Great Oakley, near 
Harwich, in Essex, was born on Jan. 14th, 
1819, and educated at Stormont House, 
Bayswater, the Charterhouse, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1841 and M.A. in 1845. He en- 
tered at the Middle Temple in April 1838, 
and was called to the bar in Nov. 1846, 
practising as a special pleader and going 
the Midland Circuit. He was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society 
in 1854, and of the Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Society in 1856. In Nov. 1862 
he was appointed first Chief Justice of 
Queensland, and gained a high repute for 
judicial learning and impartiality. He 
was knighted in July 1869, and visited 
Europe in 1878. Sir James resigned in 
1879, and has since resided in London. 



Whilst in Australia he was President of 
the Queensland Philosophical Society, 
and has been a member of the Royal 
Society since June 1866, and of the 
Royal Astronomical Society since March 
1854. Sir James, who has published a 
work on mathematics, was for several 
years Honorary Treasurer of the London 
Savage Club, and was one of the Com- 
missioners for Queensland at the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition in 1886. He 
married on August 22nd, 1855, Adelaide 
Catherine, eldest surviving daughter of 
the late Henry Wilkin, of Walton, near 
Ipswich, in Suffolk. 

Coghlan, T. A., A.M.I.C.E., Government 
Statistician, New South Wales, is the 
author of " The Wealth and Progress of 
New South Wales," 1887-8, successive 
editions of which have been published 
under the auspices of the Government of 
that colony down to the present time. 

Cohen, Hon. Edward, was born in London 
in 1822, and landed with his parents in 
Sydney, N.S.W., in 1833. In 1842 he 
came to Melbourne, and, after a success- 
ful career as an auctioneer, was elected 
a member of the city corporation in 
Nov. 1860, and an alderman in 1865, 
He was Mayor of Melbourne in 1862-3, 
and in the following year was elected to 
the Assembly for East Melbourne, which 
he continued to represent until his death, 
Mr. Cohen was Commissioner of Trade 
and Customs in the Maopherson Govern- 
ment from Sept. 1869 to April 1870 ; and 
again in the Francis Administration from 
June 1872 to July 1874. Mr. Cohen, whe 
was regarded as the head of the Jewish 
community, married, in 1847, the eldest 
daughter of the late Moses Benjamin, 
J.P., and died in March 1877. 

Cohen, Hon. Henry Emanuel, sometime 
Treasurer of New South Wales, is th< 
second son of Abraham Cohen of Sydney 
N.S.W., and entered as a student at the 
Middle Temple in Oct. 186a In June 
1871 he was called to the English bar, 
and returned to Sydney, where he was 
admitted to the local bar, and became 
member for West Maitland in the Legis- 
lative Assembly. He was Colonial 
Treasurer in the Farnell Ministry from 
Dec. 1877 to Dec 1878. In May 1881 he 
was appointed Judge of the Sydney 
Metropolitan Court, .but resigned the 
position, and re-entered politics, being 
Minister of Justice in the Stuart Cabinet 



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from Jan. 1883 to Oct. 1885. Mr. Cohen 
is not now in Parliament. 

Cole, Edward William, was born in 
Jan. 1832, at Woodchurcb, Kent, and in 
1850 went to the Cape of Good Hope, 
from whence he arrived in Victoria in 
Nov. 1852. After leading a wandering 
life on the diggings, he came to Melbourne 
in 1862, and from small beginnings ulti- 
mately established the well-known Book 
Arcade in Bourke Street. Mr. Cole has 
also been successful in his literary efforts. 
He was married, on August 9th, 1875, to 
Eliza Frances, youngest daughter of the 
late C. J. Jordan, of Hobart, Tasmania. 

Cole, Hon. George Ward, M.L.C., 
F.R.G.S., Commander R.N., was the fourth 
son of John Cole, of Durham, and was born 
at Lumley Castle, in that county, on Nov. 
15th, 1793. He entered the Royal Navy 
in Oct. 1807, and served with distinction 
in various parts of the world, being 
on several occasions severely wounded. 
Having been placed on half -pay in Oct. 
1817, Captain Cole went into the merchant 
service, and commanded several vessels 
of which he was part owner. After 
numerous adventurous voyages, and en- 
gaging in various speculations, Captain 
Cole in 1839 decided to settle in Sydney, 
and purchased land there; but, after a 
visit to England, he changed his inten- 
tion, and made his home in Victoria, 
where he arrived in July 1840, and started 
business in Melbourne. In the following 
year he purchased land on the Yarra, 
and constructed the well-known Cole's 
Wharf in Flinders Street West, where 
Mr.- Childers acted as a tally-clerk on his 
first arrival in the colony. In 1851 Captain 
Cole built the City of Melbourne, the first 
screw steamer seen south of the line. 
Captain Cole represented Gippsland in 
the old Legislative Council from 1853 to 
1855, when he resigned with the object 
of revisiting England. Four years later 
he was returned to the Council for the 
Central Province, and was re-elected for 
ten years in 1860 and 1870 respectively. 
Captain Cole, who was a Protectionist, 
represented the M'Culloch Government 
. in the Upper House during the long and 
embittered struggle with the Assembly 
over the tacks to the Appropriation Bill 
from June 1863 to May 1868 ; and in Nov. 
1867 was sworn of the Executive Council. 
Captain Cole died on April 26th, 1879. 

Colenio,Bev. William, F.R.S.,F.L.8.,the 



representative of an old Cornish family, 
was born at Penzance in 1811. He is a 
first cousin to the late Bishop of Natal, 
John William Colenso, celebrated as a 
mathematician and Biblical critic. In 
his youth he learned the arts of printing 
and bookbinding and worked in the office 
of Watts & Son, 2, Temple Bar, Crown 
Court, where he was for a time engaged 
on work for the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. In 1833, the Church Missionary 
Society having decided to send out a 
press and outfit to New Zealand, Mr. 
Colenso was engaged in the double capa- 
city of missionary and printer. After 
many difficulties and delays the press and 
plant were landed at the Bay of Islands 
on Jan. 3rd, 1835. On opening his boxes, 
however, New Zealand's pioneer printer 
found that he had no cases, leads, rules, 
ink-table, roller stocks, nor frames, lye- 
brush nor potash, and, worst of all, no 
paper! Fortunately he had provided 
himself with a composing stick, the resi- 
dent missionaries had a little writing 
paper among their stores, the expert's 
ingenuity enabled him to supply other 
requirements after a fashion, and on Feb. 
17th, 1835, was worked off, in the presence 
of admiring spectators, the first copy of 
the first book printed in New Zealand — 
the Epistles to the Ephesians and Philip- 
pians, in the Maori language. Surmount- 
ing all difficulties, Mr. Colenso, in Dec. 
1837, completed his great work, the entire 
New Testament, in octavo, small pica 
type. Out of the large edition of six 
thousand copies only one is now known to 
exist, the volume being in Mr. Colenso's 
own possession. A full account of the 
difficulties attending this publication, 
which reads like a romance, will be 
found in Mr. Colenso's little book, pub- 
lished in 1888, " Fifty Years Ago in New 
Zealand." The year 1840 saw the birth 
of the newspaper press, and thencefor- 
ward Mr. Colenso chiefly devoted himself 
to missionary work, in the course of 
which he traversed nearly the whole of 
the North Island on foot, and twice over 
crossed the great snowy range of the 
Ruahine. For two years he resided with 
Bishop Selwyn at St. John's College, 
Waimate. In 1844 he took orders and 
settled down in Hawke's Bay, where he 
has since remained. As a man of science 
Mr. Colenso has a good reputation, rank- 
ing high as a botanist, and being an 



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acknowledged authority on Maori arts, 
antiquities, myths, and legendary lore. 
He has also paid much attention to the 
natural history of the islands, and has 
been for the last twenty years or more an 
active contributor to "The Transactions 
of the New Zealand Institute." Since 
his retirement from active missionary 
work he has filled important public 
offices. In 1861 he was elected to repre- 
sent Napier in the first General Assembly 
and retained the seat for many years. 
Under the old provincial system he was 
one of the town representatives in the 
Provincial Council, and at various times 
-filled the offices of Provincial Treasurer 
and Inspector of Schools. A few years 
since he was elected F.R.S. He was the 
first to recognise the fossil remains of 
the Moa, and has in manuscript a copious 
lexicon of the Polynesian language. 

Coles, Hen. Jenkin, ALP., J. P., Speaker 
of the Legislative Assembly of South 
Australia, son of Jenkin Coles and Caro- 
line his wife, was born in Sydney on Jan. 
19th, 1842. At the age of seven he went 
with his parents to England, where he 
was educated at the Blue Coat School 
(Christ's Hospital). In his sixteenth year 
he returned to Australia, and eventually 
settled in South Australia. He was in 
the mounted police for a short time, and 
subsequently started an auctioneering 
firm at Kapunda, where he has since re- 
sided. He was M.P. for the district of Light 
from May 17th, 1876, till the dissolution 
in March 1878, when he did not again 
offer himself. He re-entered political life, 
and was re-elected for Light on April 25th, 
1881, and has ever since sat for the 
constituency. He was Commissioner of 
Crown Lands and Immigration in Mr. 
Colton's second Administration from June 
16th, 1884, to Feb. 4th, 1885, when he 
succeeded Mr. Playford as Commissioner 
of Public Works, a position which he held 
till June 16th, 1886, when he resigned 
office with the rest of his colleagues. He 
remained in opposition for two sessions, 
being generally recognised as Mr. Colton's 
successor in the leadership. Mr. Play- 
ford, however, took the Premiership on 
the defeat of Sir John Downer's adminis- 
tration, Mr. Coles accepting office under 
him in his old post of Commissioner of 
Crown Lands and Immigration on June 
11th, 1887, resigning with his colleagues 
on June 27th, 1889. He acted as Oppo- 



sition Whip during the ensuing session, 
and received Her Majesty's permission to 
bear the title of ** Honourable " within 
the colony in recognition of his Minis- 
terial services. At the opening of the 
present Parliament he was unanimously 
elected Speaker of the House of Assembly 
in succession to Sir J. C. Bray. Mr. Coles 
married at Adelaide in 1866 Miss Ellen 
Henrietta Briggs. 

Colton, Hon. Sir John, E.C.M.G., for- 
merly Premier, South Australia, was born 
in Devonshire, on Sept. 20th, 1823, and 
emigrated to South Australia in 1 839. He 
is the senior partner in the firm of Colton 
& Co., and a prominent member of the 
Wesleyan body. He entered public life 
as an Alderman of the city of Adelaide 
in 1860, and was elected to the Legislative 
Assembly for Noarlunga in 1865. He was 
Commissioner of Public Works in the 
Strangways Ministry from Nov. 1868 to 
May 1870, when he retired from office 
and from Parliament. He was re-elected 
for Noarlunga in 1872, and was Treasurer 
in Mr. Boucaut's Government from June 
1875 to March 1876, when the Ministry 
was reconstructed, and Mr. Colton left 
it. On Mr. Boucaut's defeat in June 
1876, Mr. Colton became Premier, with 
the portfolio of Commissioner of Public 
Works. In Oct. 1877 he was displaced 
by Mr. Boucaut. Mr. Colton, who was 
Mayor of Adelaide in 1874, received Her 
Majesty's permission to bear the title of 
" Honourable " within the colony in 1878. 
In June 1884 he formed his second Ad- 
ministration, and was Premier and Chief 
Secretary till June 1885. He subsequently 
retired from public life and paid a length - 
ened visit to England. In Jan. 1891 he 
was gazetted K.C.M.G. 

Combes, Hon. Edward, C.M.G., M.L.C., 
son of the late Wm. Combes, was bom 
in 1830, and entered the Government ser- 
vice of New South Wales in 1858. Four 
years later he was appointed Government 
Mining Engineer, and was returned to 
the Assembly for Bathurst in 1872, for 
Orange in 1875, and at a later period 
for East Macquarie. Mr. Combes was 
Secretary for Public Works in the Robert- 
son Ministry from August to Dec. 1877, 
and in the following year was appointed 
Executive Commissioner for New South 
Wales at the Paris International Exhibi- 
tion, his seat in Parliament being declared 
vacant by reason of bis acceptance of an 



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office of emolument under the Crown. 
For his services at Paris and bis suc- 
cessful management of the New South 
Wales Court he was created C.M.G. and 
an officer of the Legion of Honour. Mr. 
Combes, who married a daughter of the 
late Wm. C. Hare, is a member of the 
Institution of French Civil Engineers, 
and an associate of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers of London. He is also 
an artist of considerable merit, and has 
exhibited with success at some of the 
leading London picture galleries. Mr. 
Combes was nominated to the Legislative 
Council of New South Wales in 1891. 

Conigrave, John Fairfax, J.P., is the 
son of Benjamin Conigrave and Martha 
his wife, and was born in Adelaide, S.A., on 
Nov. 23rd, 1843. He served his articles in 
the South Australia* Register office, and 
wasalso for some years on the literary staff 
of the Advertiser. Mr. Conigrave, who 
has been secretary and shorthand writer 
to many royal commissions and select 
committees in South Australia, was for 
a number of years secretary to the South 
Australian Chamber of Manufactures. 
He was secretary to the South Australian 
Commission for the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition of 1886, secretary to the 
Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibi- 
tion of 1887, and representative of South 
Australia at the Melbourne Centennial 
Exhibition of 1888. Mr. Conigrave 
married in 1868 Sarah, daughter of 
Charles Price, of Hindmarsh Island, S.A. 

Conolly, His Honour Edward Tennyson, 
Puisne Judge, NewJZealand, the son of 
Dr. John Conolly, of Hanwell, Middlesex, 
the eminent authority on insanity, who 
divided with William Take and one or 
two more the credit of introducing the 
non-restraint system into England, was 
born on August 31st, 1822. He entered 
as a student of the Inner Temple on Jan. 
18th, 1849, was called to the bar on Jan. 
30th, 1852, and for thirteen years practised 
in England on the Home Circuit. In 1865 
he went out to New Zealand, and took 
up his residence at Picton, in the south 
island. He represented Picton in the 
Marlborough Provincial Council from 
Jan. 1867 to 1876, when the provinces 
were abolished. In Dec. 1881 he was 
elected to the House of Representatives 
for Picton, and again in July 1884. In 
1882 he accepted the office of Minister 
of Justice under Sir Frederick Whitaker. 



Under Major Atkinson, in Sept. 1883, he 
retained his portfolio,* becoming also 
Attorney-General, but retired when the 
Government went out of office in August 
1884. He was appointed a Supreme 
Court Judge in August 1889. 

Cooke, Xboneser, J. P., Commissioner of 
Audit, South Australia, was accountant 
and subsequently manager of the English 
and Australian Copper Company in South 
Australia from 1862 to 1882. From 1875 
(in which year he was made J.P.) to 1882 
he represented Flinders in the Legislative 
Assembly of South Australia. Mr. Cooke 
was Chairman of the Royal Commission on 
Finance from 1880 to 1882, and a member 
of the Royal Commission on Education 
from 1882 to 1883. In February of the 
latter year he was appointed First Com- 
missioner of Audit. • 

Cooper, Sir Charles, first Chief Justice 
of South Australia, was the third son of 
the late Thomas Cooper, of Henley-on- 
Thames, Oxon, where he was born in 
March 1795. He entered at the Inner 
Temple in Jan. 1822, and was called to 
the bar in Feb. 1 827, and went the Oxford 
Circuit until 1838, when he was appointed 
sole Judge of the Supreme Court of South 
Australia. He arrived in the colony in 
Dec. 1839, and for ten years exercised 
unaided jurisdiction in civil, criminal, 
and insolvency cases. In 1849 he was 
appointed first Chief Justice of the 
colony, and held that office until 1862, 
when he returned to England, and re- 
sided at Bath and Cheltenham. Sir 
Charles, who married, on July 7th, 1853, 
Emily Grace, eldest daughter of Charles 
Burton Newenham, Sheriff of South 
Australia, was knighted in June 1857, 
and died at Bath on May 24th, 1887. 
Cooper's Creek, in the centre of Australia, 
was named after him by the explorer 
Captain Sturt. 

Cooper, Sir Daniel, Bart., G.C.M.G., 
second son of Thomas Cooper, of Rich- 
mond Cottage, Double Bay, near Sydney, 
N.S.W., who emigrated to Australia from 
Bolton-le-Moors, Lancashire, was born 
on July 1st, 1821. In 1843 he went 
to New South Wales, and was elected 
a member of the Legislative Council 
in 1849. In 1856 he was returned to 
the first Legislative Assembly of that 
colony for Sydney Hamlets, and was 
chosen the first Speaker of the Lower 
House. This position he held till 1860, 



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when he resigned, and was asked to form 
a Ministry in succession to that of the 
late Mr. Forster. He, however, declined, 
and returned to reside in England in 1861 . 
He married in 1846 Elizabeth, third 
daughter of William Hill, of Sydney, and 
was knighted in 1857, created a baronet 
in 1863, K.C.M.G. in 1880, and G.C.M.G. 
in 1888. Sir Daniel has on several 
occasions been Acting Agent-General for 
New South Wales, and was a member of 
the Royal Commission for the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition in 1886. The 
primary honours conferred on Sir Daniel 
Cooper were due to his spirited action 
in subscribing to the relief of the sufferers 
during the Crimean war and the Lanca- 
shire cotton famine. Sir Daniel is a 
member of the Senate of Sydney Uni- 
yersity and President of the Bank of New 
South Wales. 
Cooper, George Siison, ex-Under Secre- 
. tary, New Zealand, is the son of the late 
George Cooper, Colonial Treasurer of New 
Zealand in 1841-2. He entered the New 
Zealand public service in 1841 as a junior 
clerk in the Colonial Secretary's office. 
In 1847 he was appointed Assistant 
Private Secretary to Governor, Sir George 
Grey; in 1862 Native Land Purchase 
officer and J.P. ; in 1861 Resident Magi- 
strate and Native officer ; in 1868 Under 
Secretary for Native Affairs and Defence, 
and Under Secretary for the Colony in 
1870. This position he resigned in 1892. 
Cooper, Hon. Pope Alexander, M.A., 
Puisne Judge, Queensland, fifth son of 
Francis Cooper, of Sydney, N.S.W., was 
educated at Sydney University, where 
he took the Gilchrist and several other 
scholarships, and graduated B.A. and 
M.A. He matriculated at London Uni- 
versity, and entered as a student of the 
Middle Temple in Oct. 1868, being called 
to the bar in June 1872, when he re- 
turned to Queensland, and commenced 
practice in June 1874. Mr. Cooper was 
returned to the Assembly for Bowen, and 
was appointed Attorney-General and a 
member of the Executive Council in the 
Mcllwraith Ministry in Dec. 1880. He 
resigned office in Jan. 1883 on being ap- 
pointed to his present position of Judge 
of the Supreme Court, Northern division. 
Mr. Justice Cooper married, on August 
19th, 1873, Alice Frener, daughter of 
James Cooper, of London. 
Cope, Hit Honour Thomas Spencer, LL.B., 



third son of the late Thomas Cope, of 
West End, Hampstead, was born on 
April 19th, 1821, and in 1841 took the 
degree of LL.B. at the London University. 
He entered at the Middle Temple in 
April 1842, and studied law in the 
chambers of Mr. Thomas Chitty, being 
called to the bar in Nov. 1845. He prac- 
tised in the Courts at Westminster, and 
was for some time reporter for the Law 
Times in the Court of Exchequer, and at 
Nisi Prius for the Timet and Daily News. 
He emigrated to Natal in 1851, but, at- 
tracted by the gold discoveries, proceeded 
to Victoria, where he arrived in April 
1853, and was admitted to the local bar. 
In 1854 Mr. Cope was appointed Deputy 
Judge and Chairman of General Sessions 
for the Ballarat district, in place of the 
late Mr. Wrixon, and in 1858 was ap- 
pointed Judge of the Court of Mines and 
of the County Court, and Chairman of 
General Sessions for the district of Beech- 
worth, where he remained for ten years, 
when he became County Court Judge of 
Melbourne. Mr. Cope, who acted as a 
Judge of the Supreme Court for nearly 
a year in 1885 to 1886, during the ab- 
sence of the late Chief Justice Stawell, 
resigned his seat on the bench in April 
1888, and retired on a pension. He was 
one of the counsel for the Ballarat rioters 
in 1855, and was an advanced Liberal in 
politics, holding that the State should 
resume all sold lands and administer the 
same for the public benefit. He died on 
Nov. 11th, 1891. 

Copeland, Hon. Henry, M.L.A., Minister 
of Lands, New South Wales, represents 
New England in the New South Wales 
Legislative Assembly, and was .Secretary 
for Lands in the Jennings Ministry from 
Feb. 1886 to Jan. 1887. In Oct. 1891, 
when the second Dibbs Government was 
formed, he was again appointed Minister 
of Lands. 

Copley, Hon. William, M.L.C., ex- 
Minister of Agriculture, South Australia, 
was born in 1845, at the village of 
Highgreen, near Sheffield, and left 
Yorkshire for South Australia with his 
parents when four years of age. For 
two years his parents lived in the 
neighbourhood of the Burra Burra mines, 
and in 1851 they made a brief visit to 
the Victorian goldfields. On their return 
they settled at York, in the West Torrens 
district, and Mr. Copley was educated at 



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the Hind marsh Public School and Mr. 
Bath's school at North Adelaide. At an 
early age he entered upon agricultural 
pursuits. For some years he was en- 
gaged on the Murray Flats, but for the 
last fifteen years he has held a farm on 
the Black Rock Plains, near Orroroo. 
In 1883-4 he was President of the 
Farmers Association ; and in April 1884 
he was returned with Mr. E. Ward as 
member for the newly constituted district 
of Frome. He sat for this constituency 
for three years, but was defeated at the 
general election in 1887. He was re- 
turned for the northern district of the 
Legislative Council in July 1887. When 
Mr. Playford came into office in August 
1890 Mr. Copley consented to serve as Com- 
missioner of Crown Lands, a post which 
in January 1892 he exchanged for that of 
Minister of Agriculture and Education. 
Mr. Copley was a member of the South 
Australian Commission in Adelaide for the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886. 
Coppin, Hon. George Seltn, M.L.C., son of 
a Norwich surgeon, who took to the stage, 
was born on April 8th, 1819, at Steyning, 
Sussex. Adopting the stage as his pro- 
fession, when thrown on his own resources 
as a mere boy, he played in various pro- 
vincial towns and villages in England, 
and emigrated to Sydney, arriving on 
March 10th, 1843. For some time Mr. 
Coppin led a wandering life between 
Sydney and the two chief towns of Tas- 
mania. It was in Launceston that he 
first organised his own theatrical com- 
pany, which included the names of 
artistes destined to gain almost world- 
wide fame. Among these were Mr. 
Charles Young, for many years the lead- 
ing comedian of Australia, and his wife, 
a most powerful actress, better known in 
later life in England as Mrs. Hermann 
Verin; several members of the gifted 
Howson family ; and that prince of char- 
acter-actors, the late Mr. G. H. Rogers. 
With this capable band of performers 
Mr. Coppin crossed Bass's Straits in the 
schooner Swan, and, undertaking the 
management of the Queen's Theatre, 
Melbourne, practically laid the founda- 
tions of the drama in Port Phillip (1845). 
In 1852 he became manager of the 
Geelong theatre, and in 1854 visited 
England, where he entered into his 
historic engagement with the famous 
tragedian, G. V. Brooke. With the energy 



that has always characterised him, Mr. 
Coppin returned to Australia, taking out 
with him not only G. V. Brooke and a 
company, but also an iron theatre, which 
he erected in Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, 
and named the Olympic. Mr. Coppin 
returned to Melbourne on Dec. 18th, 1854, 
and from that year to 1859 he and Brooke 
were in partnership. Through over-specu- 
lation in the purchase of the Theatre 
Royal, and the laying-out of Cremorne 
Gardens, the partnership ended in finan- 
cial ruin ; but it was during those five 
years that the successful and unsuccessful 
diggers, and all that early class of restless 
and eager pioneer colonists of Victoria, 
saw in the tragedy and high comedy of 
Brooke, and the irresistible broad humour 
of Coppin, perhaps the most memorable 
performances in the annals of the Aus- 
tralian stage. Mr. Coppin next visited 
America with the late Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles Kean. Before this, in 1858, he 
had been elected to the Legislative 
Council for the South- Western Province ; 
but resigned his seat on leaving the 
colony. On his return to Melbourne he 
again assumed the management of the 
Theatre Royal ; but the building, which 
was uninsured, was almost immediately 
burnt down. He, however, rebuilt it in 
1872, and from that time his career has 
been one of ever-increasing prosperity. 
Mr. Coppin claims to have built no less 
than six theatres in the Australian 
colonies, and to have introduced two 
hundred artistes, some, like Brooke and 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Kean, of the highest 
dramatic excellence. His own name is a 
household word in Australia as the repre- 
sentative of certain characters in broad 
comedy, of which Tony Lumpkin and 
Bob Acres are types. But he is hardly 
less well known as a man of business and 
a politician. In 1874 he was returned 
for the important metropolitan consti- 
tuency of East Melbourne ; and he has 
left his mark on the statute-book as the 
founder of the Post Office Savings Bank. 
Mr. Coppin is also the founder of the 
Old Colonists' Association, the Victorian 
Humane Society, the Dramatic and 
Musical Association, and has been for 
years a Director of the Commercial Bank, 
as well as of innumerable financial com- 
panies. In conjunction with Sir Charles 
Gavan Duffy, he practically made the 
fashionable watering-place of Sorrento ; 



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and Mr. Coppin further claims to have in- 
troduced the camel and the English thrush 
into the colonies. He sat for East Mel- 
bourne until 1889, when he was defeated, 
and in August of that year entered the 
Upper House for Melbourne province. 

Oorbott, Bight Ear. Dr. James Francis, 
Roman Catholic Bishop of Sale, Vict., 
was formerly stationed at St. Kilda in 
that colony, and was appointed first 
bishop of Sale in May 1887. He was 
consecrated at St. Mary's, St. Kilda, on 
August 25th. He held for a considerable 
period the post of Private Secretary to 
the late Archbishop Goold. He is a 
native of Limerick, and the freedom of 
that city was conferred upon him during 
a visit to Ireland in 1890. 

Corney, Hon. Bolton Glanvill, M.L.C., 
M.R.C.S., Chief Medical Officer, Fiji, son 
of Bolton Corney, an author of repute, 
who wrote a famous attack on Isaac 
Disraeli's '• Curiosities of Literature," was 
educated at Fontainebleau, in London, 
and at Schwerin. After studying at St. 
Thomas's Hospital, he was admitted 
M.R.C.S., England, in 1874. Three years 
later he entered the Colonial Service as 
Government medical officer in Fiji, and 
was also appointed health officer at Suva 
in that island. In 1881 he became medical 
officer to the Immigration Department, 
and was acting chief medical officer in 
1882, 1883, 1884 and 1885. The latter 
post he has held continuously since June 
1 887, when he was permanently appointed. 
Dr. Corney was Acting Agent-General of 
Immigration from Jan. 1885 to March 
1887, and was nominated a member of 
the Legislative Council and of the Native 
Regulation Board in the former year. 
He married, in 1K74, Evelyn, daughter of 
Roland Hill, of Nibley, co. Gloucester. 

Costley, Edward, claims a place among 
the notable colonists of New Zealand, not 
through any remarkable act which dis- 
tinguished his long life, but because of 
his deathbed philanthropy. He was 
known among the *• old i< lent i ties " of 
Auckland as a man of rather penurious 
and retiring habits, who had acquired 
property in the early days, which, with 
the growth of the city, had become of 
great value. On his deathbed he sum- 
moned his lawyer, and directed him to 
divide his wealth among the city chari- 
ties, seven of these being named. The ! 
'tate realised £93,000, which was | 



[Con 



divided between the Auckland Hospital, 
Old Men's Home, Sailors' Home, Auck- 
land Institute, Costley Training Institute, 
Auckland Public Library, and the Par- 
nell Orphan Home, each of which re- 
ceived £12,500. Since Mr. Costley^ 
death an unsigned draft will has come 
to light which showed that he had long 
contemplated the application of his 
wealth to charitable purposes. He died 
on April 17th, 1883. 

Cottar, Thomas Young, L.S.A., was the 
son of Richard Cotter, a purser in the 
navy, and was born at Bantry, Ireland, 
in 1805. He served in the West Indies 
as a naval cadet, and was for some time 
in charge of the Government store depot 
at Bermuda. Subsequently he returned 
to London, and qualified for the medical 
profession in 1832. In Dec. 1835 he was 
appointed surgeon to the inchoate settle- 
ment of South Australia by the Board of 
Commissioners of that colony. He ar- 
rived in South Australia in the Coromandel 
in August of the next year, and acted as 
colonial surgeon. Subsequently he went 
into private practice, and died at Port 
Augusta, where he latterly resided, on 
Jan. 9th, 1882. He was one of the editors 
of the South Australian Magazine, and 
founder of the Adelaide Institute. 

Couehmin, Lieat.Col. Thomas, was 
appointed a foreman in the Survuy De- 
partment of Victoria in 1853 ; Assistant 
Surveyor in 1854; District Surveyor in 
1864; Chief Mining Surveyor of Victoria 
in Jan. 1867 ; Secretary for Mines in Jan. 
1877 ; a member of the Public Service 
Board in Feb. 1884, and Chairman of the 
Board in 1889, which position he still 
occupies. Ho served in the Volunteers 
from 1860 to 1883, and retired as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. 

Counsel, Edward Albert, was born at 
Piper's River, Northern Tasmania, in 1849. 
Was appointed Government District Sur- 
veyor of the Oatlands district in Ihho. 
In 1889 he was placed at the head of the 
Survey Department of Tasmania, with 
the title of Deputy Surveyor-General, ia 
succession to the late Charles P. Spreut. 

Courthope, Edward L., Auditor-General, 
Western Australia, entered the Civil Ser- 
vice of Western Australia as clerk in the 
Audit Office in 1847, and was appointed 
secretary to the Board of Education in 
1854, and Acting Auditor-General in 1863. 
He resumed his duties as clerk in the 



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Audit Office in 1805, and was appointed 
Begistrar-General in 1871, being promoted 
to the Auditor-Generalship in 1872. 

Convreur, Jessie Catherine ("Tasma"), 
the well-known writer, is the daughter of 
Alfred James Huybers, J.P., of Hobart, 
Tas., and was born at Higbgate, near 
London, being brought out as an in- 
fant by her parents to Tasmania in the 
early half of the fifties. Her father 
originally came from Antwerp to reside 
in England, and thence proceeded to 
Hobart, where the future novelist re- 
mained until her first marriage, when 
she went to live in Victoria, where her 
first story, *• Barren Love " (recently re- 
published by her in London in the col- 
lection " A Sydney Sovereign "), appeared 
in Mr. Garnet Waloh's Annual of 1877. 
She also contributed original tales, 
sketches, and essays to the Australasian 
and the Melbourne Review. In 1879 she 
went to reside permanently in Europe, 
which she had visited a few years pre- 
viously. From 1880 to 1882 she lectured 
in French on Australia in France and 
Belgium for the Geographical Society 
of Paris. She also wrote for Madame 
Adam's NomeUe Revue, and received from 
the French Government the decoration of 
Officier d'Academie. In 1883-4 she re- 
visited Australia. On her return to Europe 
she was married in 1885 to M. Auguste 
Convreur, the well-known Belgian pub- 
licist, and has resided since in Brussels. 
M. Convreur, who is the senior foreign 
member of the Cobden Club, and has 
been connected with the Independence 
Beige both as contributor and editor, 
was for twenty years one of the Liberal 
representatives of Brussels, and for four 
years Vice-President of the Chamber. 
In 1889, under her nom-de-plwme " Tasma," 
Madame Convreur published in London 
her first complete novel, entitled *' Uncle 
Piper of Piper's Hill "—a story of Aus- 
tralian life and manners, which was most 
highly commended by the leading literary 
critics in England and on the Continent. 
Her second novel, " In her Earliest Youth," 
published in 1890, is likewise Australian, 
and was equally well received by the 
press. About the same time "Tasma" 
also brought out the collection of short 
tales called " A Sydney Sovereign." She 
has now a new one-volume novel in the 
press entitled " A White Feather," and 
from tune to time she has contributed an 



occasional story to Mr. Edmund Yates's 
society journal, the World. Since her 
residence in Europe, Madame Couvreur 
has sent various contributions to the 
Melbourne Australasian, and is generally 
recognised, particularly in Victoria and 
Tasmania, as one of the leading writers, 
who, if not actually born, have been en- 
tirely educated in the colonies. " Tasma " 
contributed to Mr. Mennell's " In Austra- 
lian Wilds" (published by Hutchinson 
& Co.), and in Christmas 1890 a story to 
"Over the Sea," a collection of stories 
for English and Australian children, one 
to the collection " Under the Gum-Tree," 
and also the opening tale, "An Old Time 
Episode in Tasmania," to Mrs. Patchett 
Martin's "Cooee." 

Cowie, Bight Bar. William Garden, 
D.D., Bishop of Auckland, N.Z., the 
second son of Alexander Cowie, of 
Auchterless, Aberdeenshire, was born 
in London in 1881, and educated at 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, of which college 
he was scholar in 1852. In 1852-4 he 
took the Latin and English Essay Prizes, 
and graduated First Class in Law 1854, 
being admitted to the B.A. in 1855, to MA. 
in 1865, and having the degree of D.D. 
conferred upon him in 1869. Bishop Cowie 
was ordained deacon in 1854, and priest 
in 1855 by the Bishop of Ely. In 1854 
he was curate of St. Clement's, Cam- 
bridge, of Moulton, Suffolk, 1855-7, and 
was chaplain to Lord Clyde's army at 
Lucknow in 1858, and to Sir Neville Cham- 
berlain's column against the Afghans in 
1863-4. He has the medal and clasps for 
Lucknow, and for the frontier campaign 
of 1863. In 1863 he was appointed chap- 
lain to the Viceroy of India, and in 1864 
to the Bishop (Cotton) of Calcutta. In 
1865 he was Chaplain of Cashmere, and 
in 1867 was appointed rector of Stafford. 
In 1869 he was consecrated Bishop of 
Auckland in Westminster Abbey by the 
Archbishop (Tait) of Canterbury and 
Bishops (Selwyn) of Lichfield and 
(Browne) of Ely. Bishop Cowie is a 
governor of St. John's College, Auckland, 
and on the Senate of the New Zealand 
University (1880). He is the author of 
"Notes on the Temples of Cashmere," 
"lA Visit to Norfolk Island," and " Our 
Last Year in New Zealand," published in 
1888. 

Cowley, Hon. Alfred Sandlingi, M.L.A., 
J.P., Minister of Public Lands and Agri- 



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culture, Queensland, is the son of Isaac 
Cowley and Charlotte his wife, was born 
at Fairf ord, Gloucestershire, on April 24th, 
1848, and when quite a boy accompanied 
his parents to Natal, South Africa. He 
served an apprenticeship to the building 
and engineering trade, making the erec- 
tion of sugar machinery a speciality ; but 
he subsequently became an agriculturist, 
and was for three years engaged in cul- 
tivating sugar and coffee. Early in 1871 
Mr. Cowley left Natal for the Australian 
colonies, and was a resident of New 
South Wales for over two years, part of 
which time he was in charge of a central 
sugar-mill on the M'Leay river. Subse- 
quently he resided in the Maryborough 
district of Queensland for three years, 
during which time he was engaged in the 
cultivation and manufacture of sugar. 
After that Mr. Cowley settled in the 
Lower Herbert district, and was actively 
employed in the sugar industry. He was 
elected to the Queensland Legislative 
Assembly for Herbert in 1888, and on 
the formation of the Griffith-Mcllwraith 
Government in August 1890 was ap- 
pointed Secretary for Public Lands and 
Agriculture, and sworn of the Executive 
Council. Mr. Cowley was married at 
Pietermaritzburg, Natal, on July 24th, 
1880, to Miss Marie Campbell. 

Oowlishaw, Hon. James, M.L.C., was 
born in Dec. 1834 in Sydney, where he 
was educated at St. James's Grammar 
School, and went to Queensland in 1861 
to practise as an architect. In 1878 he 
was appointed to a seat in the Legis- 
lative Council, which he still retains. 
Mr. Cowlishaw was part proprietor and 
managing director for some years of the 
Brisbane Evening Telegraphy but sold bis 
interest in the newspaper in 1885. 

Cowper, Hon. Sir Charles, K.C.M.G., 
sometime Premier of New South Wales, 
son of the late Yen. Archdeacon William 
Cowper, D.D. (y.r.), was born at Drypool, 
Yorkshire, on April 26th, 1807, and when 
two years old was brought to Sydney by 
his father. He was educated privately, 
and entered the Commissariat depart- 
ment under Commissary-General Wemyss, 
being appointed secretary to the Church 
and School Lands Corporation in 1826 by 
Governor Sir Charles Darling. In 1831 
he married Eliza, second daughter of 
Daniel Sutton, of Wivenhoe, near Col- 
chester, Essex. When the Church and 

I 



School Lands Corporation was dissolved 
in 1833 Mr. Cowper went to reside in the 
county of Argyle, and held some sheep 
stations on the Murray. He was made a 
magistrate of the territory in 1839, and 
in 1843 he contested Camden with Mr. 
Roger Therry, Attorney-General, and was 
only defeated by ten votes. Being imme- 
diately invited to stand for the county 
of Cumberland, he was returned to the 
Legislative Council by a large majority, 
defeating even so popular a man as the 
late Sir James Macarthur. He was 
chairman of a company formed in 1846 
for railway construction, and in 1851 
he contested Sydney against Dr. Lang, 
Captain Lamb, and Mr. Wentworth, but 
was defeated. He was then returned for 
Durham. He introduced the Act for in- 
corporating the Sydney Grammar School, 
and that for establishing colleges affili- 
ated to the university. He was offered 
the position of Chief Commissioner of 
the city of Sydney, with a salary of 
£1000 a year, by Sir Charles Fitzroy; 
but declined it. At the general election 
in 1856 he was returned for Sydney to 
the first Legislative Assembly. On the 
resignation of the Donaldson Ministry, 
the first which held office under respons- 
ible government, in August 1856, Mr. 
Cowper was sent for by Sir W. Denison, 
and requested to form a Ministry. He 
was successful in that object, and himself 
held the post of Colonial Secretary, 
having for his colleagues the late Mr. 
Robert Campbell, Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
Terence A. Murray, Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
James Martin, and Mr. (afterwards Judge) 
Lutwyche. Objection was taken by the 
Opposition to the personal composition of 
the Ministry, and they were defeated and 
resigned in October, after holding office 
for six weeks. In Sept. 1867 Mr. 
Cowper became Premier and Colonial 
Secretary for the second time, and held 
office till Oct. 1859, passing the Electoral 
Act in 1858. His administration were 
defeated on their education policy, and 
Mr. Forster succeeded, but was ejected 
in less than five months, when Mr. (after- 
wards Sir) John Robertson's first Ministry 
was formed, with Mr. Cowper as Colonial 
Secretary. Under their aegis the famous 
Land Bill of 1861 was carried, and also a 
measure prohibiting future grants in aid 
of the religious bodies. In Jan. 1861 
Mr. Robertson, whilst continuing to hold 
08 



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office as Secretary for Lands, surrendered 
the Premiership to Mr. Cowper, who held 
it till Oct. 1863, when the Martin Ministry 
came in, bat was in turn defeated in Feb. 
I860, when Mr. Cowper became Premier 
and Colonial Secretary for the third time 
in a period of great financial difficulty, 
and he resorted to ad valorem duties to 
tide the colony over the crisis. In Jan. 
1866 Mr. Martin again came into power ; 
and the Robertson Ministry having inter- 
vened, Mr. Cowper became Premier and 
Colonial Secretary for the fifth time in 
Jan. 1870. He, however, resigned in 
December following, to become Agent- 
General for New South Wales in London. 
As a mark of appreciation of his public 
services the estate of Wivenhoe was pur- 
chased by public subscription, and settled 
on Lady Cowper. Mr. Cowper was created 
K.C.MG., and died on Oct. 19th, 1875, 
in London, having resigned the Agent- 
Generalship some time previously. 

Cowper, Charles, Sheriff of New South 
Wales, is the son of the late Sir Charles 
Cowper, K.C.M.G. (g.v.) ; and having been 
appointed clerk of the Executive Council 
of New South Wales, was a member of 
his father's Ministry, without a seat in 
the Cabinet, from Jan. 1861 to Oct. 1863. 
He is now sheriff of that colony. 

Cowper, Yen. Archdeaeon William, D.D., 
was born at Whittington, in Lancashire, 
on Dec. 28th, 1780, and ordained in 1808, 
when he was for a short time curate of 
Bawdon, near Leeds. He commenced his 
career in 8ydney in August of the follow- 
ing year as assistant colonial chaplain, 
and was incumbent of St. Philip's. He 
was made Archdeacon of Cumberland and 
Camden in 1848, and was Commissary 
during Bishop Broughton's absence in 
1K52. Archdeacon Cowper died in Sydney 
on July 6th, 1858. 

Cowper, Very Ear. and Yen. William 
Xacquarie, M.A., Dean of Sydney, is the 
son of the late Yen. Archdeacon William 
Cowper (g,v.\ and was born in Sydney on 
July 3rd, 1810. Dean Cowper was edu- 
cated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where 
he graduated BJL in 1833 and M.A. in 
1835. He was ordained deacon in 1833 
and priest in the following year, and was 
curate of St. Petrox, Dartmouth, from 
1833 to 1836, when he was appointed 
chaplain to the Australian Agricultural 
Company at Port Stephens, a post which 
he held for twenty years, when he became 



Principal of Moore College. In 1868 he 
was appointed Dean and Archdeacon of 
Sydney, and Vicar-General in 1866. 

Cox, Alfred, youngest son of William 
Cox, of the 102nd Regiment, was born in 
Sydney in 1826, where his father, who 
had accompanied his regiment thither, 
had settled. He was educated at King's 
School, Parramatta, and in 1844 visited 
England, but returned to the colonies two 
years later. In 1854 he paid a visit to 
Canterbury, N.Z., and after another trip 
to England in the following year settled 
finally in the south of Canterbury, in 1857. 
In 1861 he represented Geraldine in the 
Provincial Council. After an attempt to 
establish himself in the Waikato, which 
was frustrated by the Te Kooti raid, 
Mr. Cox returned to Canterbury, where, 
for the most part, he has since lived. 
Mr. Cox is the author of " Recollections," 
1884, and " Men of Mark of New Zealand," 
1886. 

Cracknell, Edward Charles, Superinten- 
dent of Electric Telegraphs, N.S.W., was 
born at Rochester, England, in 1831, 
and educated at Oxford. He came to 
Adelaide as Assistant Superintendent of 
Telegraphs in Nov. 1855, and became 
Assistant Superintendent of Telegraphs, 
N.S.W., in Jan. 1858, opening the first 
telegraph line to Liverpool on the 26th 
of that month. In 1861 he became 
Superintendent of Telegraphs. In 1876 
he studied torpedo warfare, and is lieut.- 
colonel commanding the N.S.W. Torpedo 
and Signalling Corps. His younger 
brother, Mr. William John Cracknell, 
was for many years Superintendent of 
Telegraphs in Queensland. 

Crane, Sight Boy. Martin, D.D., O.S.A., 
Roman Catholic Bishop of Sandhurst, 
Victoria, was born in the county of 
Wexford, Ireland, in 1818. After spend- 
ing his novitiate as an Augustinian at 
Grantstown, Wexford, and studying at 
Perugia, in Italy, he returned to Ireland 
in 1849, and was twice Provincial of 
the Augustinian Order. On Sept. 21st, 
1874, he was consecrated first Bishop of 
Sandhurst in the Pro-Cathedral, Dublin, 
by Cardinal Cullen. In 1882 Dr. Crane 
visited Rome, and his sight having become 
impaired, he did not return to his diocese 
till Feb. 1886, Dr. Reville having in the 
meantime acted as administrator of the 
diocese, and subsequently as coadjutor, 
a position he still holds. 



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Crawford, James Coutts, F.G.S n only 
son of Captain J. C. Crawford, R.N., 
by his second wife Jane, daughter of 
Admiral John Inglis, of Redhall, KB., 
was born on Jan. 19th, 1817, and was 
educated at the Royal Naval College, 
Portsmouth, and joined H.M.S. Prince 
Regent in the Channel Fleet He was 
engaged on the east and west coasts 
of South Africa and elsewhere, and 
received the medal of the Royal Humane 
Society for saving life. In 1837, when 
sob-lieutenant, he left the navy and 
went to Sydney. He visited New Zealand 
in 1838, and after some squatting ex- 
periences in Queensland, settled in New 
Zealand in 1846. In 1860 he was 
appointed to the Legislative Council, 
and in 1862 made a geological survey of 
the province of Wellington. In order to 
drain the Hataitai peninsula, he exca- 
vated the first tunnel in New Zealand. 
Mr. Crawford is the author of " Recollec-, 
tions of Travel in New Zealand and 
Australia" (1880); "The Reform of Eng- 
lish Spelling" (London, 1883). He re- 
tired from the Legislative Council in 
1867, and was fifteen years Resident 
Magistrate and Sheriff at Wellington, 
besides being a Captain in the New 
Zealand and 1st Lanark Militia. Mr. 
Coutts Crawford married first, on Nov. 
28th, 1843, Sophia, youngest daughter of 
Sir James Whitley Deans Dundas, G.C.B., 
of Barton Court, co. Berks, and Aston 
Hall, co. Flint, who died 1852; and, 
secondly, in Aug. 1857, Jessie, only 
daughter of Alexander McBarnet, of 
Torridon andt Attadale, Ross-shire, Scot- 
land, who died in 1880. He died in 
London on April 8th, 1889. 

Croke, The Most Bev. Thomas William, 
D.D., Archbishop of Cashel, Ireland, 
formerly Bishop of Auckland, N.Z., was 
born in'Mallow, Cork, on May 19th, 1824. 
His career at the Irish College in Rome was 
remarkably distinguished. He carried 
off the gold and silver medals in 1846, and 
next year was ordained to the priesthood 
and awarded the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity. After holding professional 
appointments in Carlow and Paris, Dr. 
Croke engaged in missionary work in his 
native county. In 1858 he became 
President of St Colman's College, Fermoy, 
and seven years later received the dual 
appointment of parish priest of Doneraile 

!d Chancellor of the Diocese of Cloyne. 



He was discharging the duties of this 
twofold office, when in 1870 he was 
nominated by Pius IX. to the bishopric 
of Auckland. On arriving in New Zea- 
land Dr. Croke found himself confronted 
by a very heavy uphill task. He 
found his diocese exceedingly depressed 
and disorganised, the bitter legacy of 
recent wars between the British and 
the Maoris, but he went to work with 
characteristic energy and perseverance. 
He laboured zealously in building churches 
and founding missions all over the North 
Island of New Zealand. He devoted 
himself in a very special manner to the 
evangelising of the Maoris, with whom 
he became exceedingly popular, not only 
as an ecclesiastic, but as an athlete. A 
bishop who never inquired about gates, 
but took at a jnmp every fence or obstacle 
that came in his way, was just the type of 
prelate to captivate these brave and high- 
spirited children of nature. In 1874 Dr. 
Croke revisited Europe with the object 
of securing a further supply of mission- 
aries for his Maori people, but it so 
happened that the archiepiscopal see of 
Cashel became vacant while he was in 
the Northern hemisphere, and Pius IX. 
insisted on his filling the position. The 
leading part that Dr. Croke has played in 
Irish politics since his elevation to the 
see of Cashel is too well known to need 
any detailed reference in this place. 

Cross, Ada, is the daughter of Henry 
Cambridge, of Runcton, Norfolk, by his 
marriage with Thomasine, daughter of 
Charles Emerson, M.D., of Shipdham, in 
the same county. She was born at St. 
Germains, Norfolk, on Nov. 21st, 1844, 
and was married at Ely, Cambs, on 
April 26th. 1870, to the Rev. George 
Frederick Cross, of Beeehworth, Victoria, 
with whom she arrived in that colony 
in August of the same year. She has 
written a number of serial tales in the 
Australasian and other Australian papers, 
under the pseudonym " A. C., M as well 
as essays and poems in the Melbourne 
Review. In a careful summary of Aus- 
tralian literature in the Sydney Daily 
Telegraph of April 11th, 1891, Mrs. 
Cross's poem " Unspoken Thoughts " was 
classed among the one or two really 
genuine poems produced in Australia, 
and her novels also received high com- 
mendation. Her first Australian novel, 
"Up the Murray " appeared in the 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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Australasian in March 1875 ; " In Two 
Years* Time" (afterwards published by 
Messrs. Bentley & Son) followed in 
1S79 ; and " Dinah n was began in Decem- 
ber of the same year. " A Mere Chance " 
(1880) was also published by Messrs. 
Bentley later; "Missed in the Crowd " 
appeared in 1881, and "Across the 
Grain" in 1882. Mrs. Cross has since 
published "A Marked Man" and "The 
Three Miss Kings." 

Grossman, Major-General Sir William, 
R.E., K.C.M.G., A.M.I.C.E., F.R.G.S., 
J.P., eldest son of the late Robert Cross- 
man, of Cheswick, Northumberland, by 
Sarah, his wife, daughter of Edmund 
Douglas, of Kingston-on-Thames, was 
born at Isleworth, Middlesex, on June 
30th, 1830. He was educated at the 
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, and 
entered the army as lieutenant R.E. 
in Dec 1848. He was appointed captain 
in 1858, major in 1872, lieut.-colonel in 
1873, colonel in 1878, and retired with 
the rank of major-general in Jan. 1886. 
Sir William has held a large number of 
ciril appointments, and was in charge of 
various public works in Western Australia 
from 1852 to 1 856. He was also a visiting 
magistrate of the colony. Sir William 
married in 1855 Catherine Josephine, 
daughter of John Lawrence Morley, of 
Albany, W.A. He was created C.M.G. 
on May 1st, 1877, and K.C.M.G. on May 
24th, 1884. He was returned at the head 
of the poll as M.P. for Portsmouth, in 
the Liberal interest, in Nov. 1885, and 
again in 1886 as a Liberal Unionist. 

Crowther, Hon. William Lodewyk, 
M.L.C., M.D., is the son of William 
Crowther, M.R.C.8. (who emigrated to' 
Tasmania), and grandson of Philip Wyatt 
Crowther, Comptroller of the City of 
LundoiL He married Victoire Marie 
Louise, daughter of General Muller, 
Kqnerry-in-waiting to the Duke of Kent, 
who was Mrs. Crowther's godfather. 
Dr. Crowther sat in the Legislative 
Council of Tasmania, and was a member 
of the Keibey Ministry without portfolio 
from July 1876 to August 1 877. In Dec. 
1*78 he formed an Administration, in 
which he was Premier without office 
nnta Oct. 1879. Dr. Crowther died on 
April 12th, 1885. 

Callem, Xdward Boyd, eldest son of the 
Bev. J. G. Cullen. was born on March 19th, 
1827, and educated in his father's parish 



of Balmaclellan, Kirkcudbright. He emi- 
grated to New South Wales about 1849, 
and after some of the usual vicissitudes 
of colonial life became a clerk in the 
Bank of New South Wales. In this 
capacity he opened a branch at Ipswich, 
Queensland, but retired from the bank, 
and engaged in pastoral pursuits. On the 
establishment of the Ipswich Municipal 
Council, he became the first town clerk, 
and acted as secretary to the old North 
Australian Club in that town. Mr. Cullen 
in 1861 entered the Queensland Civil 
Service, being appointed Chief Clerk in 
the Treasury in 1862, and Under-Secretary 
to that department in Oct. 1877. He is 
also a Commissioner of Stamp Duties, and 
in Oct. 1880 was appointed Accountant- 
General of the Supreme Court of Queens- 
land. 

Cuninghame, Archibald, was a barrister 
in Melbourne "in the early days," and 
attained to prominence in the public 
affairs of the inchoate community. In 
1845, prior to the separation of Port 
Phillip (Victoria^ from New South Wales, 
it was proposed by the authorities of the 
latter colony to float an immigration loan 
in London, as security for which the 
lands of Port Phillip would be pledged, 
as well as those of the Mother colony. 
Under these oircumstanccs a public 
meeting was held of the leading resi- 
dents of Port Phillip, under the presi- 
dency of the Mayor of Melbourne, on 
Sept. 28th, 1846, for the purpose of 
taking into consideration the necessity of 
petitioning the Queen against the pro- 
posed scheme for pledging the lands 
of Pert Phillip jointly with those of 
New South Wales proper, and to con- 
sider the propriety of appointing an agent 
to proceed to England to protest against 
the course proposed, and also to further 
the great cause of separation. The meet- 
ing passed resolutions against any further 
alienation of the land fund to afford 
labour to the middle district, and the 
scheme was also objected, to as creating 
a new and almost insurmountable barrier 
to separation. The assemblage appointed 
Mr. Cuninghame as their delegate to pro- 
ceed to England to represent the views 
of the colonists at the centre of the 
Empire, and he was thus the first some- 
what informally selected Agent-General 
of Victoria in London. A committee was 
also nominated to frame instructions for 



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the guidance of the delegate, and to draw 
up a petition, requesting the Colonial 
Secretary to hold his hand until Mr. 
Ctaninghame's arrival in London. On the 
committee were such well-known names 
as those of Cnrr, Westgarth, Niel Black, 
Stephen Henty, William Campbell, Ver- 
ner, Stawell (afterwards Sir William), 
Pohlman, McCombie, Dalgety, and 
O'Shanassy. Mr. Cuninghame continued 
to represent the colony in England for 
some years, and died at the family 
residence, Thornton House, Kilmarnock, 
Ayrshire, in October 1856, without having 
revisited Australia. He was the eldest 
son of Lieut.-Col. John Cuninghame of 
Caddall and Thornton, and Sarah his 
wife, only child of Major John Peebles. 

Curnow, Frauds, J.P., was appointed 
District Clerk and Paymaster in the 
Roads Department at Ipswich, Qd., in 
March 1864; organiser of the Railway 
Store Department in Nov. 1865; Rail- 
way Storekeeper in June 1866 ; Adminis- 
trator of the Locomotive Branch of 
the Railway Department, in addition, in 
June 1876, and Chief Clerk of Railways 
in Jan. 1877. In Jan. 1884 Mr. Curnow 
became Acting Commissioner of Rail- 
ways, was permanently appointed in 
March 1885, and retired on a pension in 
July 1889. 

Curnow, William, the present editor of 
the Sydney Morning Herald, was born 
in Cornwall, and emigrated to Australia 
in the year 1854. He had been in 
England a student for the ministry of the 
Wesleyan Church, and on arriving in 
Australia became an assistant minister in 
Queensland, being for some period in the 
Warwick district. He afterwards went 
to New South Wales, and resided for a 
number of years at Goulburn. He finally 
became the minister of the chief Wes- 
leyan Church in Sydney, and remained 
in this position till about 1877, when, his 
health railing, he made a voyage to Eng- 
land. For some years Mr. Curnow had 
been editor of a religious newspaper in 
connection with the Wesleyan com- 
munion, and had also been an occasional 
contributor to the Sydney Morning 
Herald. On his return from England, 
with the throat affection from which he 
suffered still uncured, he resigned his 
charge, and became a member of the staff 
of the Sydney Morning Herald. When 
*>r. Garran retired from the editorship in 



1885, after many years of service, Mr. 
Curnow became editor. 

Curr, Edward Miokleth waits, the eldest 
son of the late Edward Curr, was born in 
Hobart, Tasmania, in 1820, educated in 
England and France, and in 1841 and 
subsequent years was a stockowner in 
Victoria, Queensland and New South 
Wales. In 1862 he was appointed an 
Inspector of Sheep in Victoria, and later 
on Chief Inspector of Stock. At that date 
there were five millions of sheep suffering 
from scab in the colony, the annual loss 
on which was computed at over half a 
million sterling. Parliament offered a 
prize of £150 for the best essay on scab. 
The prize was given to Mr. Curr, and 
eventually the steps recommended therein 
were adopted, and the disease got rid of 
entirely. His essay was reprinted by the 
Government of Tasmania, and has been in 
demand in various parts of the world. In 
1863 Mr. Curr published a work entitled 
♦'Pure Saddle Horses, in 1883 "Re- 
collections of Squatting in Victoria,** and 
in 1886 "The Australian Race** was pub- 
lished for him by the Government of 
Victoria. Mr. Curr's father, the late 
Edward Curr, of St. Heliers, was styled 
in Victoria " the Father of Separation,** 
from the efforts which he exerted to 
secure severance from New 8outh Wales. 
This gentleman had been manager for 
the Van Diemen's Land Company. Be- 
tween 1827 and 1830 he induced the 
company to lay out £30,000 in the im- 
portation from Europe of prime sheep, 
chiefly merinos, and further sums on pure 
cattle and high-bred horses. From the 
merinos thus imported, which were from 
the very best flocks of Germany, the 
leading flocks of Australia are princi- 
pally descended. Mr. Curr resigned his 
position as Chief Inspector of Stock on 
July 30th, 1889, and died on August 3rd, 
1889. 

Curtis, Oswald, formerly Superintendent 
of the province of Nelson, N.Z., son of 
Stephen Curtis and Eleanora (Llewellyn) 
his wife, was born in London on Jan. 
20th, 1821, and landed at Nelson, N.Z., 
on June 18th, 1853. He was for many 
years a member of the Nelson Provincial 
Council, and was Superintendent of the 
province from 1867 to 1876, when the 
provinces were abolished. Mr. Curtis 
was a member of the New Zealand House 
of Representatives from 1867 to 1878, 



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and was Postmaster-General and Com- 
missioner of Customs, 8tamp Duties, and 
Telegraphs in the short-lived Stafford ad- 
ministration from Sept. 10th to Oct. 11th, 
1872. Mr. Curtis was for many years 
resident magistrate, warden, and coroner 
of the Nelson district and a governor 
of Nelson College. He was a Fellow 
of the University of New Zealand, and a 
member of the Senate from 1870 to 1888. 
Cnthbert, Hen. Henry, M.L.C., the 
eldest son of John Cnthbert, of Bos- 
common, Ireland, was born at that place 
on July 29th, 1829. In 1854 he was 
admitted a solicitor in Ireland, and the 
same year left for Victoria, where he was 
at once admitted to practice. In 1855 
he went to Ballarat, and, besides being 
successful in his profession, became 
largely interested in mining. He was 
the original promoter of the well-known 
Buninyong Gold Mining Company. In 



1874 Mr. Cnthbert was returned to the 
Legislative Council, unopposed, for the 
South- Western Province, and is now one 
of the representatives of the Wellington 
Province in that body. Mr. Cnthbert 
held the office of Postmaster-General in 
the second Berry Administration from 
July 1877 to July 1878, when he resigned 
in consequence of inability to support 
the Government scheme for Reform of 
the Council. In March 1880 he joined 
Mr. Service's Ministry as Commissioner 
of Customs and Postmaster-General, and 
held office till the defeat of the Govern- 
ment in the following August. Mr. 
Cnthbert was Minister of Justice under 
Mr. Gillies from Feb. 1886 to Nov. 1890. 
He married in May 1863 the second 
daughter of Mr. Kirby, of Melbourne, 
and was one of the representatives of 
Victoria at the Federation Convention 
of 1891. 



Daintree, Biehard, C.M.G., sometime 
Agent-General for Queensland, was born 
at Hemingford Abbotts, Huntingdonshire, 
in Dec. 1851, and was educated at 
Bedford Grammar School and Christ's 
College, Cambridge. Being in delicate 
health, he was recommended a voyage to 
Australia, and arrived in Victoria in 
1852, where he was employed as assistant 
to Mr. Selwyn, the Government Geologist, 
from 1854 to 1856, when Mr. Daintree 
returned to England, and was for six 
months a student in Dr. Percy's labora- 
tory in the Royal 8chool of Mines. In 
August 1857 Mr. Daintree returned to 
Melbourne, and in 1858 was appointed 
Field Geologist on the Geological Survey 
of Victoria, on which he worked for 
seven years, paying special attention to 
the Cape Patterson coal formation and 
the exploration of the Bass river. Having 
resigned his post in Victoria and en- 
gaged in squatting pursuits in North 
Queensland, he was appointed Govern- 
ment Geologist for North Queensland in 
1868, and in March 1872 Agent-General 
for the colony in London. He held this 
position till 1876, when he was compelled 
to resign through ill-health. He had 
been created C.M.G. in 1875, and died on 
June 25th, 1878. 



Daldy, Captain William Crush, was 
born at Rainham, Essex, in 1816. He 
arrived in New Zealand in 1841, having 
brought out the schooner Shamrock, 
eighty-five tons. On the voyage to Laun- 
ceston he touched at Tahiti. The trouble 
with the French was then going on, and 
Captain Daldy was arrested as a political 
prisoner, and tried on the beach by a 
black judge and jury. This caused con- 
siderable correspondence between the 
Governments of the day. Captain Daldy 
arrived in Auckland on July 1st, 1841, 
on which day the first Custom House 
was opened. He traded for some time 
with the schooner between Sydney and 
Auckland. In 1845 he returned to Eng- 
land in charge of the barque BeUina, 
the first vessel loaded at Auckland with 
merchandise for export to England. 
The cargo was somewhat mixed, includ- 
ing copper ore from Kawau, kauri gum, 
manganese from Waiheki, and the first 
export of wool, consisting of two bales. 
During the voyage home Dr. Martin and 
Mr. William Brown, who were passengers, 
both wrote their books on New Zealand. 
Captain Daldy returned to Auckland in 
1847, and two years later commenced 
business as a general merchant and 
shipping agent in the firm of Coombes 



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and Daldy. He was elected to the 
House of Representatives, and from May 
to June 1856 was a member of the Fox 
Ministry. Captain Daldy participated 
actively in provincial politics, holding 
various offices, and during the Maon 
disturbances he commanded a company 
of volunteers. In 1865 he again visited 
England, and for twelve months acted 
as agent for the Government, during 
which period he sent out a thousand 
emigrants. He has held many offices 
in connection with the municipal govern- 
ment of Auckland, was at one time 
captain of a volunteer fire brigade, and 
officiated for seven years as Chairman of 
the Harbour Board. 

Dalley, Bight Hon. William Bede, P.C., 
Q.C., was born in Sydney in 1831, of Irish 
Roman Catholic parentage, and was ad- 
mitted to the New South Wales bar in 1856. 
Having early displayed great oratorical 
ability, he was returned to the Assembly for 
the city of Sydney in the first Parliament 
elected under responsible government, 
and was Solicitor-General in the Cowper 
Ministry from Nov. 1858 to Feb. 1859. 
Subsequently he retired from political 
life, and devoted himself to the practice 
of his profession, with the exception of 
a short interval, during which he visited 
England, in conjunction with Mr. (now 
Sir) Henry Parkes, on an official mission 
for the promotion of emigration to New 
South Wales. They delivered addresses 
at most of the main centres of population 
in the United Kingdom : but little or no 
success attended their efforts, owing to the 
anti-democratic feeling aroused by the 
outbreak of the American war. Having 
been nominated to the Legislative Council 
in 1875, he accepted office under Mr. 
(now Sir) John Robertson, and was At- 
torney-General from February of that 
year to March 1877, when he resigned 
with his colleagues, resuming office in 
the same capacity in Sir John Robertson's 
fourth Administration in August 1877. 
This Government only lasted till De- 
cember of the same year, and Mr. Dalley 
remained out of office till Jan. 1883, 
when he became Attorney-General in the 
Ministry of Mr. (afterwards Sir) Alex- 
ander Stuart It was whilst filling the 
post of acting Premier in this Admini- 
stration, during the absence through ill- 
ness of Sir Alexander Stuart, that Mr. 
Dalley took on himself the responsibility 



of despatching the New South Wales 
contingent to the aid of the Imperial 
troops operating in the Soudan. The 
Ministry resigned in Oct. 1885, and Mr. 
Dalley (who had refused knighthood, and 
also the succession to the Chief Justice- 
ship vacated by the death of Sir James 
Martin in 1886) was in the latter year 
appointed a member of the English Privy 
Council, being the first Australian states* 
man upon whom that honour was con- 
ferred. He retired from the Legislative 
Council in 1887 on the ground of ill-health, 
and died on Oct. 30th, 1888. Mr. Dalley, 
who was not only an accomplished orator, 
but a man of remarkable artistic culture 
and great literary ability, was looked 
upon as the foremost representative of 
the Roman Catholic party in Australia. 
He had been a widower for some years, 
aud left two sons. A medallion tablet, 
executed by Sir Edgar Boehm, was erected 
to his memory in St. Paul's Cathedral by 
public subscription in 1890, the ceremony 
of unveiling it being performed by Lord 
Rosebery, who delivered an impressive 
address on the occasion. 

Dalrymple, George Augustas Frederick 
Elphinstone, First Speaker Legislative 
Assembly, Queensland, was the tenth 
son of Sir Robert Dalrymple Horn Elphin- 
stone, Bart., by his marriage with Graeme, 
daughter of Colonel David Hepburn* and 
was born on May 6th, 1826. He went 
to Australia as aide-de-camp to the late 
Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South 
Wales, and became a partner with Mr. 
(now Sir Arthur) Hodgson in squatting 
ventures in the Moreton Bay district. 
He was one of the early explorers of what 
is now the colony of Queensland. In 
1859 he explored the country between 
the parallels of 19° and 20? a, and 
greatly extended the knowledge of the 
country which Leichardt, Mitchell, 
Kennedy, and Gregory had primarily, 
opened up. In 1862 he made a second 
journey, and traced an opening from the 
Valley of Lagoons to Rockingham Bay 
in Queensland. Mr. Dalrymple, after 
whom the town of Dalrymple was named, 
sat in the Legislative Assembly of New 
South Wales before Queensland was 
severed from New South Wales, and soon 
after separation was effected entered the 
Legislative Assembly of Queensland, and 
became Colonial Secretary in Mr. (now 
Sir Robert) Herbert's second ministry in 



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July 1866; but did not remain in the 
Government when it was reconstructed 
under Mr. Macalister (who took the port- 
folio of Colonial Secretary) in the follow- 
ing month. He died on Jan. 22nd, 1876. 

Daly, Sir Dominic, sometime Governor 
of South Australia, was the third son of 
Dominic Daly by his wife Joanna Harriet, 
eldest daughter of Joseph Blake, of 
Aidfry, co. Oalway, and sister of the 1st 
Lord Wallscourt. He was born at Ardfry 
on August 11th, 1798, and was educated 
at Oscott Roman Catholic College, near 
Birmingham. He went to Canada in 
1822 as private secretary to Sir Francis 
Barton, and in 1825 was appointed Assist- 
ant-Secretary to the Government of Lower 
Canada. Two years later he was ap- 
pointed Provincial Secretary for Lower 
Canada; and upon the union of the 
Canadas, in 1840, became Provincial 
Secretary for the united provinces and 
member of the Board of Works with a 
seat in the Council. He retired from 
the latter post in 1846,. and from the 
former in 1848, but continued to represent 
the county of Megantic in the Canadian 
parliament. Subsequently returning to 
England, he was, in Oct. 1849, placed 
on the Commission of Inquiry into the 
the New and Waltham Forest rights. Sir 
Dominic was Lieut.-Governor of Tobago 
from 1852 to 1854, when he was appointed 
Lieut-Governor of Prince Edward Island, 
and was knighted by patent in 1856. He 
left Prince Edward Island in 1859, and 
assumed office as Governor-in-Chief of 
South Australia in March 1862. His 
administration, which only terminated 
with his death on Feb. 19th, 1868, was 
highly popular with all classes, and 
though a Roman Catholic, with the re- 
presentatives of all the religious bodies. 
During his rtgime H.R.H. the Duke of 
Edinburgh visited the colony, and fthe 
Northern Territory was included within 
its limits. Sir Dominic married, on May 
20th, 1826, Caroline Maria, second daugh- 
ter of Ralph Gore, of Barrowmount, co. 
Kilkenny, who survived her husband, 
and died at Glenelg, South Australia, on 
July 16th, 1872, aged seventy-one years. 

Daly, Dominiek Daniel, nephew of Sir 
Dominic Daly (£.v.), went to South Aus- 
tralia in 1865 as aide-de-camp to his 
uncle, who was then Governor of the 
colony. He was appointed Surveyor 
under the South Australian Government 



in 1866, and took part in the Northern 
Territory Expedition from 1868 to 1870. 
From Feb. 1874 to March 1875 he was 
employed in the Engineer-in-Chief s De- 
partment, and was then appointed Sur- 
veyor for the Native States in the Malayan 
Peninsula, He died on July 15th, 1889, 
in Borneo. Mr. Daly married Harriett, 
daughter of Benjamin Douglas, formerly 
Collector of Customs in South Australia, 
and afterwards Government Resident of 
the Northern Territory. She has written 
several works. 

Dampier, Alfred, was born in London 
in 1847, and educated at the Charter- 
house. He began his professional career 
at Stratford-on-Avon, and subsequently 
travelled with a company through the 
chief provincial towns of England and 
Scotland. In 1872, while playing in 
Manchester, he was engaged by Mr. H. R. 
Harwood, then one of the managers of 
the Theatre Royal, Melbourne, whither 
he proceeded ; and in the following year 
made his dShtt in Australia as Mephi- 
stopheles in his own version of Goethe's 
Faust. After a three years' engagement 
in Melbourne, during which period he 
appeared successfully in Hamlet, Othello, 
Iago, Richard III., Jaques, and other 
leading parts, Mr. Dampier visited 
Sydney, Adelaide, and New Zealand, 
and thence proceeded to America and 
London, where, at the Surrey Theatre, 
he produced, among other pieces, the 
drama All for Gold, by Mr. F. R. Hop- 
kins, the Australian dramatist. During 
his various engagements in Australia, 
America, and England, Mr. Dampier's 
daughters, Rose and Lily, came into 
great prominence by their acting in a 
dramatic version of Helen* $ Babie$ t written 
by Mr. Garnet Walch, of Melbourne. 
Mr. Dampier returned to Australia, and 
became lessee of the Alexandra Theatre, 
which he rechristened the Australian, 
and there produced with great success a 
drama founded on Rolf Boldrewood's 
41 Robbery under Arms," written by Mr. 
Garnet Walch and himself, and in which 
he appeared as the hero, Captain Star- 
light. In 1868 Mr. Dampier married 
Eatherine Alice, daughter of T. H. Russell, 
of Birmingham. 

Dangar, Hon. Henry Gary, M.L.C., 
M.A., second son of Henry Dangar, of 
Neotsfield, N.S.W., was educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 



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graduated MJL in 1857. He entered at 
the Inner Temple in August 1849, and 
was called to the bar in June 1854. He 
was nominated to the Legislative Council 
of New South Wales in 1883. Mr. Dangar 
married Lucy, daughter of Hon. John 
Lamb, M.L.C., of New South Wales, 
formerly Commander R.N., and Emma, 
his wife, daughter of John Robinson, of 
London. 

Darley, Hon. Sir Frederick Matthew, 
Chief Justice of New South Wales, son of 
the late Henry Darley of county Wicklow, 
Ireland, was born on Sept. 18th, 1830, and 
educated at Dungannon College, and 
at Trinity College, Dublin, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1851. He was called 
to the Irish bar in Jan. 1853, and went 
the M unster Circuit Having determined 
to try his fortunes in Australia, he went 
to New South Wales, and was admitted 
to the bar there in June 1862. In Sept. 
1868 he was called to the Legislative 
Council Having practised at the bar 
with success, he was made Q.C. in 1878. 
From Nov. 1881 to Jan. 1883 Sir Frederick 
was Vice-President of the Executive 
Council, and represented the Parkes 
Government in the Legislative Council. 
Upon the death of Sir James Martin in 
Nov. 1886 he was offered the position of 
Chief Justice ; this he refused, whereupon 
Sir Julian Salomons was appointed to 
that office. On his resignation, however, 
before he was sworn in, the position was 
again pressed upon Sir Frederick, who 
Anally accepted the office, and was 
knighted in April 1887. 8ir Frederick 
was married at Hunsdon, Hertfordshire, 
England, on Dec. 13th, 1860, to Miss 
Lucy Forest Browne. 

Darling, Sir Charles Henry, K.C.B., 
third Governor of Victoria, was the eldest 
son of Major-General Henry Charles 
Darling, Lieut-Governor of Tobago from 
1833 to 1845, by his marriage with the 
eldest daughter of Charles Cameron, 
Governor of the Bahamas. He was the 
nephew of Sir Ralph Darling, Governor 
of New South Wales from 1825 to 1831, 
and was born in Nova Scotia in 1809. 
He was educated at Sandhurst Military 
College, whence he obtained an ensign's 
commission without purchase in the 57th 
Regiment of Foot in Dec. 1825. In 1827 
he was appointed assistant private secre- 
tary to his uncle, the then Governor of 
New South Wales, and in 1830 became 



his military secretary. When Sir Ralph 
Darling retired in 1831, his nephew re- 
entered the senior department of the 
Sandhurst Military College, and in 1833 
was appointed on the staff of Sir Lionel 
Smith, whom he served as military secre- 
tary in the West Indies from 1833 to 
1836, and in Jamaica from 1836 to 1839. 
Sir Charles Darling was made captain in 
1839, and retired from the army in 1841. 
Two years later he was appointed by 
Lord Elgin, then Governor of Jamaica, 
Agent-General for Immigration and 
Adjutant-General of Militia on that island. 
Subsequently he was the Governor's secre- 
tary till 1847, when he was appointed 
Lieut-Governor of St. Lucia, and in 
1851 Lieut.-Governor of the Cape Colony 
during the temporary absence of Sir 
George Cathcart, on whose permanent 
departure he acted as administrator from 
May to Dec. 1854, during which period 
parliamentary government was estab- 
lished in the colony. Sir Charles Darling 
was then appointed Governor of Antigua 
and the Leeward Islands, but never took 
up the appointment, as on his return home 
he was sent to administer the government 
of Newfoundland, where he inaugurated 
responsible government, and acted as 
Governor until Feb. 1867, when he was 
appointed Governor of Jamaica. In 1863 
he was nominated successor to Sir Henry 
Barkly as Governor of Victoria, and 
assumed office on Sept. 11th of that year. 
He unfortunately arrived on the eve 
of the most embittered crisis which 
ever disturbed the politics of the colony. 
The facts of "the deadlock," as it was 
called, will be found fully narrated in 
the notice of Sir James MKDulloch, and 
need not be recapitulated here. Suffice 
it to say that Sir Charles Darling went 
heart and soul with his Ministry and the 
majority in the lower house in their 
contest with the upper chamber over the 
rejection of the Protectionist tariff both 
in its separate form, and as a M tack " to 
the Appropriation Bill of the year. A 

Srotest was sent home by the Legislative 
ouncil, and at the end of 1865 a 
petition was sent to the Queen protesting 
against the Governor's conduct, signed 
by twenty-two out of the forty-five 
executive councillors of the colony. In 
commenting on this petition in a despatch 
to Mr. Cardwell, the then Colonial 
Secretary, Sir Charles Darling made a 

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fierce attack on the signatories, accusing 
them of " a treacherous conspiracy against 
the Governor* and intimating that bat 
for liability to misapprehension he would 
"have suspended them all from office 
until her Majesty's pleasure was known." 
He then incautiously declared it " im- 
possible that the -relations between the 
petitioners and myself can, in the face 
of this conspiracy, be such as ought to 
subsist between the Governor and gentle- 
men holding the commission of an 
executive councillor, whether occupying 
or not responsible office ; and it is at least 
to be hoped that the future course of 
political events may never designate any 
of them for the position of a confidential 
adviser of the Crown, since it is im- 
possible their advice could be received 
with any other feelings than those of 
doubt and distrust" A little later, and a 
despatch was received from Mr. Cardwell 
plainly intimating that the Governor's 
conduct in assenting to the devices of his 
Ministry for obtaining money without 
the assent of Parliament had been incon- 
sistent with the policy announced by 
himself of rigid adherence to the law. 
The despatch did not, however, go beyond 
censure. A second, received in April 
1866, in reply to that of Sir Charles 
Darling above quoted, however, contained 
the mandate of dismissal, Mr. Cardwell 
pointing out with a cogency which dt was 
impossible to dispute that Sir Charles 
Darling had precluded himself by his 
conduct from acting freely with those 
whom the course of parliamentary pro- 
ceedings might present to him as con- 
fidential advisers. " It is your own act 
now," Mr. Cardwell insisted with merci- 
less logic, "which leaves me no alter- 
native. You force me to decide between 
yourself and the petitioners. It must be 
evident to yourself that you occupy a 
position of personal antagonism. ... It is 
Impossible after this that you can with 
advantage continue to conduct the govern- 
ment of the colony." On the other band, the 
Legislative Assembly passed a resolution 
asserting that the country was " greatly 
beholden to him for his steady adhesion 
to the principles " of responsible govern- 
ment. They further decided to vote a 
solatium of £20,000 to Lady Darling by 
way of compensation to the Governor for 
his forfeiture of the pension which he 
would lose by his recalL Sir Charles 



Darling declined to permit any member 
of his family to receive a gift pending the 
signification of the Queen's pleasure. In 
the meantime, on May 5th, 1866, Sir 
Charles Darling left Victoria, a de- 
monstration of his sympathisers being 
made on his departure. A vast crowd 
turned out to bid him farewell with every 
mark of respectful regret. On his arrival 
in England, Lord Carnarvon, who had 
replaced Mr. Cardwell, declined to allow 
him to accept the proffered gift, intimat- 
ing that if he did so, he must not look for 
anything further at the hands of her 
Majesty's Government. Sir Charles took 
the hint, and resigned, and a series of 
rejections and "tacks" now ensued on 
the proposed vote of £20,000 more 
insurmountable and irritating, if possible, 
than those which had arisen in reference 
to the tariff. Later on Sir Charles Darling 
made his peace with the Colonial Office, 
and withdrew his resignation, withdraw- 
ing also his acceptance of the much- 
debated gift The cause of contention 
between the Houses was thus removed, 
and almost immediately after came the 
news of Sir Charles Darling's death, 
whereupon the grant was "untacked," 
and an annuity for life of £1,000 a year 
conferred on Lady Darling, together with 
a lump sum of £5,000 for the education 
of her children. Sir Charles Darling, who 
was created K.C.B. in 1865, died at 
Cheltenham on Jan. 25th, 1870. He was 
thrice married, his third wife, who is still 
in receipt of the £1,000 a year pension 
from Victoria, being Elisabeth Isabella 
Caroline, the only daughter of Christopher 
Salter, of Stoke Poges, Bucks, to whom he 
was married in 1851. 

Darling, Hon. John, M.L.C., was mem- 
ber for West Adelaide in the Legislative 
Assembly of South Australia in 1870-1 
and 1875-6, and for Yatala in 1878-81 ; 
and was Commissioner of Public Works 
in the Downer Ministry from June to 
Oct 1885. In May 1888 he was elected 
to the Legislative Council. 

Darling, Lieut. -General Sir Ralph, 
G.C.B., seventh Governor of New South 
Wales, was the son of Christopher Dar- 
ling, who was promoted from Sergeant- 
Major to the adjutancy of the 45th Foot 
in 1778, and was afterwards Quarter- 
Master of that regiment. Sir Ralph, 
who was born in 1776, was employed in 
| the Custom House at Grenada. In May 



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1793 he was appointed Ensign in the 
45th Foot, and was engaged in suppress- 
ing the negro insurrection in Grenada. 
In 1795 he became Lieutenant, and was 
Adjutant of the 15th Foot at Martinique, 
where, in August 1796, he was appointed 
Military Secretary to Sir Ralph Aber- 
oromby. After seeing a variety of 
service, he commanded a regiment at 
the battle of Gorunna, and was Deputy- 
Adjutant-General in the Walcheren ex- 
pedition. He became brevet-Colonel in 
1810, Major-General in 1813, and in 1815, 
when on the Horse Guards' staff, took the 
extraordinary step of writing to the Duke 
of Wellington, asking for a command 
in the army in Belgium. This elicited 
a characteristic reply from the Duke. 
He commanded the troops in Mauritius 
from 1818 to 1823, and in May 1825 was 
gazetted Lieut.-General. In the same 
year he was appointed to succeed Sir 
Thomas Brisbane as Governor-in-Chief 
of New South Wales and its dependencies. 
He was sworn in at Sydney on Dec. 19th, 
1826. On his way out from England he 
called at Van Diemen's Land, which 
until then had been a dependency of 
New South Wales, and on Dec. 3rd 
proclaimed its independence as a separate 
colony. His first task on his arrival 
in Sydney was to re-organise the Civil 
Service, and he thus commenced by 
creating illfeeling and discontent. Ac- 
cording to Blair, he was precise and 
methodical, his habits being painfully 
careful, and exhibiting that sort of 
diligence which takes infinite trouble 
and anxiety over details to the neglect 
of larger and more important matters. 
He had not been long in the colony 
before he embroiled himself with the 
press, and became involved in mostly 
bootless prosecutions for libel. The Joint 
Stock Company mania came on the top 
of other troubles. A drought of three 
years ensued ; a financial crash followed, 
the value of cattle falling from pounds 
to shillings. The Governor reduced the 
compulsory scale of rations issued to 
assigned servants in consequence of the 
scarcity, and of course became still more 
unpopular. The feeling against him was 
intensified by his conduct towards Sudds 
and Thompson, two soldiers who com- 
mitted a theft in order, as they thought, 
to better their condition, which they 
regarded as worse than that of convicts. 



Darling subjected them to rigorous 
military punishment, and Sudds died 
in confinement whilst cruelly fettered. 
These circumstances produced immense 
excitement. Wentworth, the leader of 
the popular party, drew up an impeach- 
ment, which he caused to be formally de- 
livered at Government House, and openly 
threatened never to lose sight of so great 
a criminal until he had brought him to 
justice. The case was repeatedly brought 
before the House of Commons ; but it was 
not until 1835, four years after Darling's 
return to England, that a Committee of 
Inquiry was granted. When at length it 
was obtained (Mr. Gladstone being one 
of the members), the evidence for the 
prosecution fell through, and Darling was 
honourably acquitted. He was knighted 
soon afterwards, and in England public 
sympathy was entirely with him, though 
he was never again officially employed. 
After a prolonged struggle with Darling's 
military despotism, the colonists succeeded, 
in 1829, in securing the boon of trial 
by jury. Previously, military juries were 
the only tribunals before which all penal 
offences were tried. The Executive 
Council of New South Wales was en- 
larged, under Darling's rule, into a Legis- 
lative Council of fifteen members, but 
with secret proceedings. This body it 
was that granted trial by jury. A period 
of extreme depression, and almost uni- 
versal bankruptcy, was succeeded by a 
period of prosperity, and during the last 
three or four year of Darling's rule the 
colony made rapid progress. The differ- 
ences between the Governor and the 
principal colonists became so acrimonious, 
that in Dec 1827 he resigned his pat- 
ronage of the Turf Club in consequence 
of some speeches which were made at a 
dinner given by the Club. In these, severe 
remarks were uttered in reference to the 
Governor's administration ; and to crown 
the insult, when the Governor's health 
was drunk the musicians played the air, 
" Over the hills and far away." Darling 
was recalled from his administration of 
the colony, and embarked for England on 
Oct 2l8t, 1831, no demonstration, either 
of regret or joy, being made at his de- 
parture. Darling did not re-enter the 
Colonial service, but continued his military 
career, and became successively Colonel 
of the 90th, 41st, and 49th Regiments of 
oot. He died at Brighton, England, on 



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April 2nd, 1858. Sir Ralph Darling 
married Elizabeth, second daughter of 
Colonel John Dumaresque, and sister of 
Lieut.-Colonel Henry Dumaresque, Chief 
Commissioner of the Australian Agricul- 
tural Company in New South Wales. 

Barrel, George, Australian actor, dra- 
matist and manager, began his pro- 
fessional career with Simonson's Opera 
Company in New Zealand ; but, on 
migrating to Melbourne, took to the 
regular dramatic profession, earning some 
distinction as a juvenile supporter of the 
once idolised Walter Montgomery. He 
married Mrs. Robert Hair (tUe Fanny 
Cathcart), the admirable tragedienne, 
and subsequently visited professionally 
America and England, where, at the 
Grand Theatre, Islington, he produced 
his play The Sunny South. Mr. Darrel 
is the author of a number of Australian 
melodramas, including The Struggle for 
freedom, Transported/or Life, Book from 
the Grave, The Forlorn Hope, The Sunny 
South, The Squatter, The Soggarth, etc., 
and at least half a dozen dramatisations 
of popular novels. Mr. Darrel's first 
wife died some years ago at Melbourne, 
where she was held in great esteem ; and 
he has since married a young actress 
belonging to one of his New Zealand 
companies, who has appeared in many of 
his more recent productions. 

Darvall, Hon. Sir John Bayley, K.C.M.G., 
Q.C., MA., was the second son of Captain 
E. Darvall of the 9th Dragoons, and was 
born at Nunnington Hall, Yorkshire, and 
educated at Eton and Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated in 1833, 
and was admitted to the degree of M.A. 
in 1837. He was called to the bar at the 
Middle Temple in 1838, and a year 
later went to New South Wales, where 
he practised at the bar till 1867, being 
made Q.C. in 1853. He was appointed 
a nominee member of the Legislative 
Council of New 8outh Wales in 1844, 
and in 1848 was elected for Bathurst. 
He joined in the opposition to the mea- 
sure conferring responsible government 
on New South Wales, owing to dis- 
approval of Wentworth's scheme for a 
non-elective Upper House. In 1861 
he was appointed a life member of 
the Legislative Council, but resigned 
his seat, and subsequently represented 
the electoral districts of West Maitland 
and Sydney in the Legislative Assembly. 



In April 1856 he was appointed a member 
of the Executive Council as one of the 
first responsible ministry, but did not 
assume office as Solicitor-General till the 
following June, and resigned with his 
colleagues in August. He was Solicitor- 
General in the Parker Ministry from Oct 
1856 to May 1857, and Attorney-General 
from May to Sept. 1857. He held the 
same post under Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
Charles Cowper from August to Oct. 
1863, and from Feb. to June 1865. In 
1850 Sir John Darvall was appointed a 
member of the first Senate of the Uni- 
versity of Sydney, and in the next year 
refused a judgeship in Victoria. He was 
a strenuous opponent of the separation 
of Queensland from New South Wales in 
1859-60. In 1867 he returned to England, 
and was created C.M.G. in 1869 and 
K.C.M.G. in 1877. He died in London 
on Dec. 28th, 1883. 

Davenport, Sir Samuel, E.C.M.G.,LL.D., 
J.P., fourth son of George Davenport, 
banker, Oxford, and of Great Wigeton, 
co. Leicester, by Jane Devereux, his wife, 
daughter of Joseph Davies, of Mineweare, 
co. Pembroke, was born at Shirburn, Ox- 
fordshire, on March 5th, 1818, and came 
to South Australia in 1842, whither his 
elder brother, George Francis Daven- 
port, had preceded him. He was 
appointed one of the four nominee 
members of the Legislative Council on 
May 5th, 1846, and was a nominated 
non-official member of the enlarged 
Legislative Council when the Constitution 
Act was passed (Jan. 2nd, 1856), but re- 
signed on August 19th, 1856. He was an 
elected member of the new Council from 
March 9th, 1857, to August 30th, 1866, 
when he resigned. Sir Samuel was Com- 
missioner of Public Works in the first 
ministry formed after the concession 
of responsible government, and acted 
as its representative in the Legislative 
Council from March 20th, 1857, to 
August 21st in the same year. He re- 
sumed office as Commissioner of Public 
Works in Mr. (afterwards Sir) R. Torrens* 
Ministry, Sept. 1st to Sept. 30th, 1857. 
He was Executive Commissioner for 
South Australia at the International 
Exhibitions held in London in 1851, 
Philadelphia in 1876, Sydney in 1879, 
Melbourne in 1880. He was knighted in 
1884, and was President of the South 
Australian Commission to the Colonial 



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and Indian Exhibition held at South 
Kensington in 1886. For his services at 
the latter he was created K.C.M.G., and 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from Cambridge University. He was 
Executive Commissioner and Trustee of 
the Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition in 1887, 
and a member of the South Australian 
Commission for the Melbourne Cen- 
tennial Exhibition in 1888. He married, 
on June 1st, 1842, Margaret Frazer, only 
daughter of William Lennox Cleland, 
barrister, Calcutta, and his wife Harriett 
Erekine Fullerton. Sir Samuel is Pre- 
sident of the South Australian branch 
of the Royal Geographical Society of 
Australasia. In June 1891 he was an 
unsuccessful candidate for a seat in the 
Legislative Council 

Davidson, Rev. John, was born at 
Burntisland, Scotland, in 1834, and 
educated for the ministry. Having gained 
a considerable repute as a preacher, he 
was invited to assume the pastorate of 
Chalmers Church, Adelaide. Accepting 
the call, he arrived in South Australia 
in June 1870, and was connected with 
Chalmers Church till 1877, when he as- 
sociated himself with the Adelaide Union 
College. When Sir W. W. Hughes agreed 
to endow the Adelaide University with 
£20,000 for two professorships, he stipu- 
lated that Mr. Davidson should fill the 
first chair of English Language and 
Literature and Mental and Moral Phi- 
losophy. Accordingly, when the Uni- 
versity was constituted, in 1874, Mr. 
Davidson assumed the duties of the 
position. He died on July 22nd, 1881, 
leaving a widow, the daughter of the late 
Hugh Miller the famous Scotch geologist 
and writer. Mrs. Davidson, who died at 
Adelaide in Dec. 1883, was tbe author 
of "Isabel Jardine's History" (1867), 
"Christian Osborn's Friends" (1869), 
and contributed to the Adelaide news- 
papers and Chambers' $ Journal, 

Davidson, William Montgomery Daven- 
port, J.P., Surveyor-General, Queensland, 
was born at Richmond, Surrey, in 1830. 
He was educated at the Moravian School 
in Yorkshire, and afterwards at tbe 
Stockwell Grammar School, which is 
connected with King's College, London. 
Mr. Davidson then went to the College 
of Civil Engineers, where he took his 
diploma. He left England for Tasmania 
in 1852, going over to Victoria the same 



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120 



year. He returned to Tasmania in 1864, 
and was appointed Inspecting Surveyor 
for the southern part of the island. In 
response to an invitation from Mr. A. C. 
Gregory, who was then Surveyor-General, 
he went to Queensland in 1861, and was 
appointed Staff Surveyor. In 1868 he 
became District Surveyor, a position he 
held until June 1st, 1876, when he ac- 
cepted the post of Deputy-Surveyor- 
General. In Dec. 1889, on the resignation 
of Mr. Tully, Mr. Davidson exchanged 
this position for that of Surveyor-GeneraL 
He is a J.P. for Queensland. 

Daviet, Hon. David Mortimer, M.L.A., 
was born at Blaina, Monmouthshire, 
Wales, and was educated for the ministry 
at the Brecon Independent College, in 
that principality, but, his views having 
undergone a change in regard to some 
important religious doctrines, he resigned 
his charge, and entered on agricultural 
pursuits. He emigrated to South Aus- 
tralia, arriving at Adelaide in 1866, and 
removed thence to Ballarat, in Victoria, 
the next year, where he engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, in the Buninyong 
district. Mr. Davies was elected a 
member of the Legislative Assembly for 
Grenville in 1877, and still represents 
the constituency. He is a strong Liberal 
and Protectionist, and was Government 
whip during the Berry rMme. In 
Oct. 1887 he joined the GilUes-Deakin 
Cabinet, but held no portfolio till June 
1889, when he became Commissioner of 
Public Works and Vice-President of the 
Board of Land and Works. From June 
to Nov. 1890 he was Minister of Mines 
in the same Government, resigning with 
his colleagues at the latter date. 

Davies, Hon. John, C.M.G., M.L.C., J.P., 
son of the late John Davies, of New 
South Wales, was born in Sydney on 
March 2nd, 1839. Starting in business 
as an ironmonger and general black- 
smith, he commenced to take an active 
part in politics on the Liberal side as 
soon as he was of age, and in Dec 1874 
he was returned to the Assembly for 
East Sydney, which constituency he 
continued to represent until his appoint- 
ment to the Legislative Council in Dec. 
1887. He was Postmaster-General in the 
Robertson Government from August to 
Dec. 1877. Mr. Davies was acting British 
Commissioner at the Sydney International 
Exhibition in 1879, and was created 

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[Dav 



C.M.G. in the following year, when he 
was a Commissioner for New South Wales 
to the Melbourne International Exhi- 
bition; as also for the Amsterdam Exhi- 
bition in 1882, and the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition in 1886. Mr. Davies, who was 
President of the Royal Commission on 
Friendly Societies, married, in 1861, Miss 
Elisabeth Eaton. 

Dmries, Hon. John Hark, M.L.C., ex- 
Minister of Justice, Victoria, is the son of 
the late Ebenezer Davies by his marriage 
with Ruth, daughter of Mark Bartlett, 
of Bracknell, Berks, and elder brother 
of the Hon. Sir Matthew H. Davies 
(f.r.). He has been in practice in Mel- 
bourne as a solicitor since 1863, and 
was elected to the Legislative Council 
for the South Yarra Province in 1889. 
On the formation of the Munro Govern- 
ment in Nov. 1890, Mr. Davies accepted 
the position of Minister of Justice, and 
was sworn of the Executive Council. 
Twelve months later he resigned, owing 
to inability to support the one man one 
vote policy of the Cabinet. He, however, 
resumed office when the measure was 
dropped, but finally retired in Feb. 
1892, when the Ministry was recon- 
structed under Mr. Shiels. 

DaviMtHon. Sir Katthow Henry,M.L.A., 
ex-Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, 
Victoria, is the son of Ebeneser Davies 
and Buth his wife, daughter of Mark 
Bartlett, of Bracknell, Berks, England, 
and grandson of the Rev. John Davies, 
of Trevecca College, South Wales. He 
was born at Geelong in 1850, and edu- 
cated at the Geelong College, and matri- 
culated at the Melbourne University in 
1869. He was admitted a solicitor of 
the Supreme Court of Victoria in 1876, 
and married Elizabeth Locke, eldest 
daughter of the Rev. Peter Mercer, D.D., 
of Melbourne, Presbyterian minister. For 
five years he was hon. secretary to 
the Council of the Law Institute of 
Victoria, and is a J.P. for the central 
bailiwick. He was mayor of the city of 
Prahran in 1881-2 ; represented the 
electoral district of St. Eilda in the 
Legislative Assembly from 1883 to 1888 ; 
was a member of the Royal Commission 
on Transfer of Land and Titles to Land 
in 1885; was sworn of the Executive 
Council in Feb. 1886, and held a portfolio 
in the Gillies-Deakin Government as a 
Minister without responsible office from 



that date till Oct 1887. Sir Matthew 
visited England in connection with the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition while a 
member of the Victorian Government, 
1886-7. He was Chairman of the Royal 
Commission on Banking in 1887, and 
was elected Speaker of the Legislative 
Assembly in Oct. 1887. He was Chair- 
man of the Royal Commission on the 
Electric Lighting and Ventilation of the 
Parliament Houses in 1888; Executive 
Commissioner and a Vice-President of 
the Centennial International Exhibition, 
held in Melbourne in 1888; was re- 
turned unopposed for the electoral dis- 
trict of Toorak in 1889, and unanimously 
re-elected Speaker in the same year. He 
was knighted in 1890, and he gave the 
munificent sum of £10,000 to the Imperial 
Institute and other public objects in the 
Jubilee year of the Queen's reign. Sir 
Matthew Davies held the Speakership up 
to the General Election in April 1892, 
when he retired from Parliament. 

Davies, Rowland Lyttleton Archer, son 
of Ven. Rowland Robert Davies, at one 
time Colonial Chaplain of Tasmania, and 
subsequently Archdeacon of Hobart (who 
came of a Mallow family, and died in 
1880), was born at Longford, Tas., on 
March 28th, 1837 He was sent to 
England for his education, and returned 
to Tasmania in 1859. Mr. Davies, who 
at a very early period cultivated the 
belles lettres, married in Jan. 1875, 
and died on July 11th, 1881. After his 
death a selection from his literary pro- 
ductions was published, under the editor- 
ship of his English tutor: "Poems and 
other Literary Remains," edited, with 
biographical sketch, by Charles Tomlin- 
son, F.R.8. (Stanford, 1884). 

Davis, Hon. George, M.L.C., Minister 
of Defence, Victoria, emigrated to that 
colony at an early age, and took a pro- 
minent part in municipal affairs in 
Emerald Hill, one of the suburbs of 
Melbourne. Subsequently he removed to 
Gippslandand embraced pastoral pursuits, 
taking a keen interest in horse-breeding 
and racing. Having unsuccessfully con- 
tested the North Gippsland electorate, 
he was returned to the Upper House for 
the Gippsland province in Sept. 1888. 
When the Munro Government was recon- 
structed under Mr. Shiels, Mr. Davis, who 
is looked on as one of the leaders of the 
country party in Parliament, accepted a 



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position in the Cabinet, and was sworn in 
as Minister of Defence in March 1892. 

Davis, James Davidson, is deserving 
of mention as the author of the first 
" Bibliography of New Zealand " (Lyon 
& Blair, Wellington, N.Z.). It is admira- 
bly compiled and annotated, affording 
evidence of painstaking research and 
scholarly tastes. Mr. Davis was a native 
of Hastings, England, and emigrated for 
the benefit of his health. He obtained 
an appointment on the staff of the Auck- 
land Star and entered as a student of 
the University College of that city. Con- 
sumption, however, cut off a promising 
career in 1887. Mr. Davis was author of 
a brochure upon " Social Life in England 
in the Sixteenth Century." 

Davy, Edward, son of Thomas Davy, 
a surgeon practising at Ottery St. Mary, 
Devonshire, and Elizabeth (Boutflower) 
his wife, was born at Ottery on June 16th, 
1806, and was brought up to the medical 
profession, becoming M.R.C.S. in 1829. 
Having been deceived into buying a 
chemist's business in the Strand, London, 
under the idea that he was purchasing a 
medical practice, he made the best 
of his disappointment, and traded as an 
operative chemist under the style of 
" Davy & Co.," dealing mostly in scien- 
tific apparatus of his own invention, such 
as "Davy's blowpipe" and "improved 
mercurial trough." He also patented 
" Davy's diamond cement," for mending 
glass and china. In 1836 he published 
•• An Experimental Guide to Chemistry.'' 
He also commenced experiments in 
electric telegraphy, which entitle him 
to be regarded as one of the pioneers of 
the science, inventing the '• relay," or, as 
he called it, the " electric renewer." In 
1836 he issued "Outline of a New Plan of 
Telegraphic Communication." The next 
year he laid down a mile of copper wire 
around the inner circle of Regent's Park, 
by means of which many successful 
results were developed. In May of this 
year he opposed the grant of a patent to 
his rivals, Cooke and Wheatstone, but 
failed in the attempt. In 1837, too, a 
working model of his improved apparatus 
was shown at the Belgrave Institution 
and at Exeter Hall, where his invention 
of the needle telegraph excited much 
attention. In 1838, despite much opposi- 
tion, he succeeded in patenting his 
"electro-chemical recording telegraph." 



Fortune and fame seemed now to await 
him, but he chose this very juncture to go 
to Australia as medical superintendent of 
an emigrant ship, sailing on April 15th, 
1839. During his absence his schemes 
collapsed, and. his invention being bought 
up by the old Electric Telegraph Company, 
was quietly allowed to drop. In Aus- 
tralia Mr. Davy started farming and then 
turned to journalism, contributing to the 
Melbourne Argut from 1843 to 1846, and 
was then engaged as editor of the Ade- 
laide Examiner. From 1848 to 1851 he 
managed some smelting works at Yatala, 
in South Australia. He took charge of 
the Government Assay Office in Adelaide 
in 1852, and was then tempted away 
to Melbourne to take charge of a similar 
establishment, where he was paid £1,600 
a year. The latter engagement only 
lasted from July 1853 to Dec 1854, 
when the post was abolished in a fit 
of Government economy. He again tried 
farming, but could not make it pay. He 
then reverted to his original calling, and 
practised as a surgeon at Malmesbury, in 
Victoria. At the close of his career the 
Society of Telegraph Engineers and 
Electricians made him an honorary 
member (Nov. 1884). He died on Jan. 
27th, 1885, at Malmesbury. Justice was 
done to him in his lifetime by Mr. Fabie ; 
and since his death his nephew, H. Davy, 
M.D., has published a memoir of him. 

Dawes, Bight Bev. Nathaniel, M.A., 
Coadjutor Bishop of Brisbane, was born 
on July 24th, 1843. He was educated 
at Montpelier College, Brighton, and 
St. Alban Hall, Oxford, where he graduated 
B.A. (3rd class in theology) in 1872, and 
M.A. in 1875. He was ordained deacon 
in 1871 and priest in 1872, and was curate 
of St. Peter's, Vauxhall, from 1871 to 
1877; evening lecturer at St. Leonard's, 
Streatham, from 1874 to 1877; vicar of 
St Mary's, Charterhouse, from 1877 to 
1886, in which year he went to Australia, 
and acted as rector of St Andrew's, in 
South Brisbane, and Archdeacon of that 
city. He was consecrated Coadjutor 
Bishop of Brisbane in Sydney on May 1st, 
1889, by the Primate, Dr. Barry, being 
the first bishop consecrated in Australia. 

Dawson, James, was born at Bonny, 
town, Linlithgow, Scotland, and arrived 
in Melbourne, Vict., in May 1840. He took 
up a station on the Yarra, but after three 
or four years removed to the Port Fairy 



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district, where he continued squatting. 
He is author of " Australian Aborigines/' 
published in 1881 (Robertson, Mel- 
bourne). 

Day, William Henry, is the son of the 
late Captain John Day, 49th Regiment, 
by Emily, only daughter of Jan Caspar 
Hartsinck. Mr. Day, who is a brother 
of Mr. Justice Day, was born on May 
13th, 1828, and educated at St. Gre- 
gory's College, Downside, Bath. In Dec. 
1854 he arrived in Melbourne, and went 
to Queensland in the following year. 
From 1859 to 1862 he was a clerk in the 
Colonial Secretary's office, and afterwards 
clerk of Petty Sessions until 1874, when he 
was appointed Acting Police Magistrate. 
In 1883 he received the appointment of 
Water Police Magistrate, and also became 
Second Police Magistrate in 1884. He 
was a member of the Education Board 
when it was first established, and has 
been Police Magistrate of South Brisbane 
since 1888. He married Margaret Ellen, 
only daughter of the late Captain Tom 
Buttanshaaw, R.N., a pioneer colonist; 
and Mrs. Henry Day has contributed in 
prose and verse to various Queensland 
papers. 

Win, Hon. Alfred, M.LJL, J. P., ex- 
Chief Secretary of Victoria, is the son 
of William Deakin, a well-known coach 
proprietor in the early days of the colony, 
and an emigrant from England, his 
mother being the daughter of a farmer 
in Monmouthshire. He was born at 
Fitzroy, Melbourne, on August 3rd, 1856, 
and educated at the Church of England 
Grammar School, under Dr. Bromby, and 
at the Melbourne University, but did not 
graduate. He was called to the Victorian 
bar in 1877, and adopted the profession 
of journalism, being connected with the 
editorial department of the Melbourne 
Age and Leader from 1878. He was 
elected to the Assembly for West Bourke 
in Feb. 1879, as a supporter of the 
second Berry Ministry, defeating Mr. 
R. Harper by fifty-six votes. There was 
one drawback to this gratifying success, 
that at Newham, an inconsiderable poll- 
ing place, a complete poll was not taken. 
The result could not in any case have 
been altered, as if all the votes bad gone 
to his adversary they would not have 
exceeded at the outside thirty. 8till, 
Mr. Deakin felt it a matter of principle, 
as a Liberal, that a full ballot should! be 



taken ; and so, after taking his seat and 
moving the address in reply to the Vice- 
regal speech when the House met in 
July, he, without any consultation with 
supporters or opponents, resigned his 
seat, much to the chagrin of a good many 
of the former, who thought his conduct 
Quixotic. At the election which ensued 
he again had Mr. Harper as an opponent, 
and after one of the severest contests on 
record was defeated by fifteen votes on a 
total poll of 4000. The strain had been 
so severe that, in order to recruit his 
health, Mr. 'Deakin went on a trip of some 
months to Fiji and the South Sea Islands. 
On his return he recurred to politics, and 
at the general election in Feb. 1880 
again stood f orWest Bourke ; but although 
he polled a larger vote he was thirteen 
behind Messrs. Harper and Stoughton. 
Five months later, Mr. Service, who had 
succeeded Mr. Berry, was beaten on his 
Reform Bill, and appealed to the country, 
when Mr. Deakin once more wooed the 
suffrages of West Bourke ; this being the 
fourth time within eighteen months. On 
this occasion he was returned at the 
head of the poll along with Sir Bryan 
O'Loghlen, and continued to represent 
the district until 1889, when he was 
returned for Essendon and Flemington. 
Mr. Deakin married Pattie, eldest daughter 
of Hugh Junor Browne of Melbourne, on 
April 3rd, 1882. He was Commissioner 
of Public Works from March 8th to 
Nov. 13tb, 1883 ; Commissioner of Water 
Supply from March 8th, 1883, to Feb. 18th, 
1886, and Solicitor-General from Nov. 13th, 
1883, to April 23rd, 1884, in the Service- 
Berry Coalition Government. In 1883 
he carried an amending Water Conserva- 
tion Act, which was the first measure 
passed in Australia providing for public 
irrigation on a large scale, and became 
President of the Royal Commission on 
Irrigation and Water Supply. In the latter 
capacity be visited America, with the view 
of investigating the various systems of 
irrigation in force in that country, and 
on his return prepared a report, of which 
10,000 copies were, at the request of agri- 
cultural societies, distributed throughout 
the colony, and the recommendations of 
which have been endorsed by some of 
the highest authorities in England and 
elsewhere. In the same year Mr. Deakin 
became sponsor for another ameliorative 
measure, which, though mainly based 



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upon the provisions of the English 
Factory Acts, is in some respects greatly 
ahead of them in providing for the ef- 
fective protection of women and children. 
Towards the end of 1885 the Coalition 
Government was dissolved by the resigna- 
tions of Messrs. Service, Berry, and 
Kerferd. Mr. Deakin was then, by a 
unanimous choice, elected to succeed 
Mr. (now Sir) Graham Berry, who went 
home as Agent-General, in the leadership 
of the Liberal Party. In this capacity 
he formed a junction with Mr. Gillies* 
following, assuming (Feb. 18th, 1886) 
the post of Chief Secretary and Com- 
missioner of Water Supply in that gentle- 
man's cabinet. The new Government, in 
the absence of contentious topics, went 
to the country on Mr. Deakin's irrigation 
policy, which was endorsed by a decisive 
majority. In view of this result, Mr. 
Deakin, in June 1886, submitted to the 
Assembly a measure which, in addition 
to an alteration of the law of riparian 
rights, provided for the carrying out of 
a national system of irrigation, under 
which the Government were to con- 
struct head works, the task of distri- 
bution being allotted to the local bodies, 
who were ultimately to be reimbursed 
by the private beneficiaries, and in 
their turn to reimburse the central 
Government. The measure was adopted 
in its main features, and a loan floated 
to effectuate its provisions, which have 
been largely availed of in various parts 
of the colony. Perhaps the most im- 
portant outcome of the irrigation policy 
launched under Mr. Deakin's auspices 
was the arrangement entered into with 
Messrs. Chaffey Brothers for the sale to 
them of 250,000 acres on the Murray 
frontage at Mildura for the formation 
of an irrigation settlement. Mr. Deakin 
was senior delegate for Victoria to the 
Colonial Conference held in London 
in 1887, and took a prominent and 
successful part in its proceedings; he, 
however, declined the honour of knight- 
hood (K.C.M.G.) which was offered 
him during its sittings. Mr. Deakin 
visited Egypt and Italy, and wrote a 
second report on irrigation. He was 
Victorian delegate to the Chinese Con- 
ference in 1888, member of the Federal 
Council, session 1889, and was one of the 
two delegates of Victoria to the Federa- 
tion Conference in Melbourne in 1890; 



being also one of the seven delegates of 
the colony to the Federation Convention 
of 1891. Mr. Deakin was appointed First 
Minister of Health in 1890 and Solicitor- 
General, taking the place of the Hon. 
H. J. Wrixon, Attorney-General, during 
his absence in England in that year. Mr. 
Deakin resigned office in Oct. 1890 along 
with the rest of his colleagues, and was 
joint leader of the Opposition until the 
dissolution in April 1892, prior to which 
he had intimated his intention to take 
up an independent rSle, apart from any 
party trammels. Mr. Deakin is now 
devoting the major part of his attention 
to the practice of his profession, and was 
leading counsel for the defence in the 
Deeming murder trial in April 1892. He 
visited India to study its irrigation 
systems in 1891. 

De Boos, Charles, was born in London 
on May 24th, 1819, and educated at 
Addiscombe. He served in the British 
Legion during the Carlist war in Spain 
from 1835 to 1837, and emigrated to 
Australia in 1839. Having been Govern- 
ment shorthand writer in Victoria from 
1861 to 1866, he became connected with 
the press, and removed to Sydney. Mr. 
De Boos was the author of numerous 
works, and was appointed Warden of the 
New South Wales Goldfields in Deo. 1874. 
He afterwards retired on a pension. 

Deering, Samuel, J. P., Assistant Agent- 
General for South Australia, son of the 
late William Deering, of Gravesend, 
Kent, was born at Andover, Hants, on 
Oct. 11th, 1835. He was clerk in the 
Census Office, London, in 1851, and 
emigrated to South Australia, arriving 
at Adelaide on Sept. 1st, 1853. He has 
held the following appointments under 
the South Australian Government : clerk 
in the Audit Office, 1855; chief clerk, 
1859 ; clerk of Executive Council, 1863 ; 
aide-de-camp to Sir D. Daly, Governor- 
in-Chief, 1867; captain Volunteer Mili- 
tary 8taff, 1867; aide-de-camp to the 
Right Hon. Sir James Fergusson, Bart., 
Governor of South Australia, 1869 ; also 
clerk to the Court of Appeals, Jan. 1869 ; 
resigned the foregoing appointments on 
being made Secretary to the Attorney- 
General, July 1869; secretary to the 
Commissioner of Crown Lands, Nov. 
1870; a magistrate of the Province, 
Feb. 1874; a commissioner in London 
for taking affidavits in the Supreme Court 



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of South Australia, August 1874 ; and was 
appointed Assistant Agent-General and 
Assistant Emigration Agent in London 
in August 1874. Mr. Deering acted as 
Secretary to the Adelaide Commission 
for the Melbourne Exhibition of 1866-7, 
and for the Paris Universal Exhibition 
of 1867. He was a member of the Com- 
mission in London for the Adelaide 
Jubilee Exhibition of 1887, and was 
acting Agent-General for South Australia 
from June 1891 to Feb. 1892, whilst Sir 
Arthur Blyth was disabled by illness and 
pending the arrival of Sir John Bray, 
after the former's death. 

Deflell, George Hibbert, M.A., third son 
of John Henry Deffell, of London, was edu- 
cated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he took his MA degree. He 
entered at the Inner Temple in Jan. 1839, 
and was called to the bar in Nov. 1846. 
He was appointed Commissioner of the 
Court of Claims in New South Wales in 
1856, Master in Equity of the Supreme 
Court of that colony in 1857, and Chief 
Commissioner of Insolvent Estates in 
July 1865. In 188$ he was appointed 
Judge in Bankruptcy, and Puisne Judge 
of the Supreme Court of New South 
Wales. He retired from the bench in 
the following year. 

Heighten, Edward, J. P., was appointed 
Under Secretary of the Works and Mines 
Department of Queensland in Jan. 1877, 
and held the post till Dee. 1888, when he 
retired on a pension. 

de Labilliert, Francis Peter, is of 
Huguenot origin, his family having occu- 
pied a prominent position amongst the 
nobility of Langnedoc as far back as 
the thirteenth century. Capt. Peter de 
Labilliere, who was naturalised by Act 
of Parliament in 1701, served under 
William IIL in Ireland and the Nether- 
lands, and in the British army in Spain. 
His grandson, Peter de Labilliere, emi- 
grated to Port Phillip in 1839, taking with 
him his son, Charles Edgar, the father of 
the subject of the present notice, by his 
marriage with Miss Hannah Balle, which 
was solemnised at St. Mark's, Dublin, 
July 4th, 1839. They made the voyage 
by the Westminster, the second ship 
which sailed from England direct for 
Port Phillip, and landed in Melbourne in 
Dec. 1839. Mr. Charles Edgar de Labil- 
liere engaged in pastoral pursuits at 



Tallook Yale, near Bacchus Marsh, and 
died in London on Nov. 2nd, 1870. The 
subject of this notice, who was his only 
son, was born in Melbourne on August 
1 3th,1840, went to England with his father 
in 1859 ; entered at the Middle Temple on 
Nov. 7th, 1860 ; called to the bar on June 
6th, 1863; married at St. Saviour's, Pad- 
dington, on Oct. 9th, 1867, Adelaide, eldest 
daughter of the late Rev. Edward Raven- 
shaw, rector of West Kington, Wilts. He 
has always taken a deep interest in the 
relations of the mother country and the 
colonies, and was one of the very earliest 
advocates of Imperial Federation, deve- 
loping his views on the question in a 
succession of papers, the first at the 
Social Science Congress at Bristol, in 
1869, on " The Future Relations of Eng- 
land and her Colonies " ; the second at 
the Colonial Conference, Westminster 
Palace Hotel, in 1871, of which he was 
hon. secretary, on ** Imperial and Colonial 
Federalism"; the two next before the 
Royal Colonial Institute, in 1875 on 
"The Permanent Unity of the Empire"; 
and in 1881 on " The Political Organisa- 
tion of the Empire." He again opened 
the question before the Social Science 
Congress at Birmingham, in 1884, and 
before the conference arranged by the 
Royal Colonial Institute at the Colonial 
Exhibition of 1886. He also combated 
the views of Mr. Goldwin 8mith and other 
advocates of disintegration, in an article 
on " The Contraction of England, and its 
Advocates," in the National Review, in 
1884. In that year also, on his sugges- 
tion, the first steps were taken to found 
the Imperial Federation League, he being 
hon. secretary to the provisional com- 
mittee, and afterwards, jointly with 
Mr. Arnold Forster, to the League, on its 
establishment. From 1874 to 1881, as a 
member of the council of the Royal 
Colonial Institute, he assisted Sir Fred. 
Young in the honorary secretarial work* 
of the society before it was in a position 
to maintain a paid staff. As appears by 
the correspondence laid before Parliament 
in 1876, he was the first to suggest the 
annexation of Eastern New Guinea, in 
a long letter addressed in 1874 to the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, a 
copy of which was sent, with a covering 
despatch, by the late Earl of Carnarvon 
to each of the governors of the Australian 
colonies. In 1878 his '* Early History of 

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the Colony of Victoria " appeared, in two 
volumes. It corrected the previously 
received date of the discovery of Port 
Phillip Bay, and brought to light many 
facts and documents which had been 
forgotten, or never before made public. 
Mr. de Labilliere resides at Harrow. 

Deniehy, Daniel Henry, a brilliant but 
eccentric litterateur and publicist, was 
the son of Daniel Henry Deniehy, and 
was born in Kent Street, Sydney, N.8.W., 
in 1828. Having been educated at a 
private school and at the old Sydney 
College, he continued his reading in 
French and Italian literature. In his 
fifteenth year his parents took him to 
England with the intention of placing 
him at college at Oxford ; but his age 
and diminutive appearance prevented his 
immediate reception, and he was left in 
charge of a tutor, with whom he read 
classics for some months. Weary of his 
isolation, he visited hisrelatives in Ireland, 
and became acquainted with some of the 
leading members of the Young Ireland 
party, in whose enthusiasm he partici- 
pated. On his return to Sydney he be- 
came articled clerk to Mr. N. D. Stenhouse, 
a man of great literary acquirements and 
generosity of disposition. During the 
time of his clerkship Deniehy contri- 
buted sketches, verses, and criticisms to 
various newspapers, all of which were 
received with favour on account of their 
freshness and vigour of style. At this 
period he was an unwearied student of 
the best authors both English and foreign, 
and in 1853 he delivered a series of 
lectures on modern literature at the 
Sydney School of Arts. He also met with 
popular acceptance as a speaker on the 
great political topic of the day, the 
Constitution Bill. In 1856 he was re- 
turned to the Legislative Assembly of 
New South Wales for Argyle, and soon 
gained a reputation for debating power. 
He was returned by the electors of East 
Macquarie in 1858, and kept his seat till 
after the passing of the Reform Bill in 
the following year, when he voluntarily 
withdrew from public life. During his 
Parliamentary career he invariably took 
the Liberal side, and was one of the 
authors of the selection clauses of the 
Robertson Land Bill, which is regarded 
as the Magna Charta of agricultural 
settlement in New South Wales. Mean- 
'me he practised at Goulburn as an 



attorney, but the time he devoted to his 
Parliamentary duties seriously interfered 
with his business. In 1858 he returned 
to Sydney and devoted himself to litera- 
ture, contributing essays, critical and 
sesthetical, to the newspapers. In 1860 
he became one of the founders of the 
Southern Cross, to which he contributed 
brilliant papers on some of the most 
distinguished writers of the century. On 
the invitation of Sir Charles Gavan 
Duffy and others in Victoria, he went 
in 1862 to Melbourne, where for nearly 
two years he edited the Victorian news- 
paper, a Roman Catholic organ, which 
has been asserted to be one of the most 
vigorously written political journals ever 
published in Australia. It succumbed, 
however, to bad management, and 
Deniehy returned to Sydney broken in 
health and hopes. He contributed ad- 
mirable critical essays to the Sydney 
Morning Herald at this time (1864-65). 
In the latter year, acting on the advice 
of his friends, he removed to Bathurst, 
N.S.W., where he renewed the practice of 
his profession, but under depressing 
circumstances. He died in the hospital 
of that city on Oct. 22nd, 1865. Deniehy 
married in 1855 Adelaide Eliza, only 
daughter of John Cassima Hoalls, 
of Kellsthorpe, Notts, England, and 
grand-niece of Lord Gough. This lady, 
who survived him, was disinherited by 
her father for what he regarded as an 
unsuitable alliance, contracted without 
his consent. In 1884 the "Life and 
Speeches of Deniehy" were edited by 
E. A. Martin and published by George 
Robertson, of Melbourne and Sydney. 

Denison, Kajor-Cta&eral Sir William 
Thomas, R.E., K.C.B., successively Gover- 
nor of Tasmania and of New South Wales, 
was the son of John Denison (formerly 
Wilkinson), of Ossington, Notts, who suc- 
ceeded to the fortune made by his uncles 
as manufacturers in Leeds, and was for 
nine years a member of the House of 
Commons. Three of Sir William Denison *s 
brothers rose to eminence, viz., John 
Evelyn, who, after being Speaker of the 
House of Commons, was created Viscount 
Ossington ; Edward, who became Bishop 
of Salisbury; and George Anthony, the 
well-known Archdeacon of Taunton. Sir 
William, who was born in 1804, and was 
educated at Eton and Woolwich, entered 
the Royal Engineers, of which he ulti- 



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mafcely became colonel, in 1826. In Oct. 
1846 he was appointed to succeed Sir J. 
Eardley Wilmot as Governor of Van 
Diemen's Land, where he arrived in Jan. 
1847. He entered on his administration 
under many difficulties, the bequest of 
his predecessor, and his reception by 
the colonists was not enthusiastic. Sir 
William Denisonhad had much experience 
of public works in England, and the 
object of Mr. Gladstone, the then Colonial 
Secretary, in sending him to Van Diemen's 
Land was the better disposal of the 
labour and the more effectual control of 
the prisoners ; and throughout his whole 
period of rule he held to his instructions 
on these points as the sole obligation 
binding on him. He attempted an ami- 
cable adjustment of the claims of the 
Legislative Councillors, including both 
those appointed by his predecessor, and 
also the "Patriotic Six" whom Sir J. 
Eardley Wilmot had dismissed. Out of the 
whole body it was left to his discretion 
to select six for his own council, which 
was then a purely nominated body. The 
whole number of the existing councillors 
were summoned to Government House 
to hear the English Minister's decision, 
and were requested to decide among 
themselves who should be the half-dozen 
to be retained. Mutual recriminations, 
however, arose, and knotty points of law 
were raised; so that in the end 8ir 
William Denison adjourned the Council 
to await special instructions from 
Downing Street or a royal warrant mak- 
ing a fresh and final nomination. The 
latter was only despatched from England 
in July. Thus during 1847 there was 
no Legislature sitting ; but at length the 
Gazette announced that the Queen had 
reinstated the " Patriotic Six," which was 
regarded as a great popular triumph. 
Sir William Denison's next trouble was 
a quarrel with the judges of the Supreme 
Court respecting the differential duties 
on which a revenue of £20,000 depended, 
and which the judges declared to be 
illegal There was also a dispute over 
the " Dog Act," which they declared void. 
The Governor, determined to resist their 
flat, removed a judge (Montagu) against 
whom there were charges of personal 
misconduct. The Governor also recom- 
mended the Chief Justice (Pedder) to take 
leave of absence; but this he firmly 
refused to do, and was strongly backed 



[Den 



by public opinion in this course. The next 
step of the Governor was to carry through 
the Council a Doubts Bill which set aside 
the ruling of the judges, and bound them 
to accept as law any ordinance which 
they did not declare to be repugnant to 
the Constitution or British law within 
fourteen days. For his conduct in these 
matters Sir William Denison was cen- 
sured by the Home Government ; but the 
removal of Judge Montagu from the 
Bench was confirmed. The struggle for 
constitutional government was earnestly 
carried on for years by the colonists, and 
at length the boon was gained and was 
cordially welcomed. It curtailed con- 
siderably the power of the Governor. 
The great anti-transportation struggle 
succeeded, and Denison took strongly the 
side opposed to the popular sentiment of 
the Australian colonies. This imprudent 
step involved him in years of trouble and 
angry contention, in the course of which 
his reputation for justice and fair dealing 
suffered severely* " His opposition to the 
colonial will on the subject," says West, 
"his injustice to the judges, and his 
sarcastic delineations of colonial character 
narrowed the circle of his friends." In 
1855, after the battle of the League had 
been fought and won, Denison was trans- 
ferred to New South Wales, with the title 
of Governor-General of Australia. His rule 
in the mother colony was free from any 
serious political complications, and he 
personally promoted many public works 
of a useful character, as indeed he had 
done in Tasmania. The fortifications of 
Sydney were planned by him, and bear 
his name. He was appointed Governor 
of Madras in 1861. On the death of Lord 
Elgin he acted as Governor-General of 
India pending the arrival of Sir John 
(afterwards Lord) Lawrence. In 1866, his 
term of rule having expired, he retired 
into private life, and died in England 
on Jan. 19th, 1871. He gave to the world 
bis experiences as a governor in two 
volumes, bearing the title of " Varieties 
of Viceregal Life." Sir William married 
in 1838 Caroline Lucy, daughter of the late 
Admiral Sir Phipps Hornby, E.C.B. He 
was promoted to be major-general, and 
was created E.C.B. in 1856. Despite the 
personal opprobrium under which Sir 
William Denison laboured during the 
major portion of his rule in Van Diemen's 
Land, the colonists on his leaving pre- 



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sented him with £2000 for the purchase of 
plate, which, after a long correspondence 
with Downing Street, the Colonial Office 
authorities ultimately permitted him to 
accept, contrary to the usual precedent. 
Sir William deserves credit for the care 
which characterised his initiation of re- 
sponsible government in New South 
Wales and for the conscientiousness which 
marked his nominations to the Upper 
Chamber when the bicameral system was 
instituted. In 1857, when the adminis- 
tration of Norfolk Island was vested in 
the Governor of New South Wales, he 
drew up an excellent code of government 
for the descendants of the mutineers of 
the Bounty. He also gave good advice 
to Governor Gore Browne, of New Zealand, 
which, had it been followed, might have 
prevented the war commenced at Waitara. 
Writing on the subject to Sir Roderick 
Murchison in 1860, he gave it as his 
opinion that the " treatment of the 
natives by the whites had been such as 
would naturally induce the conduct 
which was designated rebellion," and 
added, " To tell you the truth, I believe 
it was intended that such should be the 
result." In New South Wales, even after 
the inauguration of responsible govern- 
ment, he allowed himself no inconsider- 
able discretion in dealing with the advice 
tendered to him by his Ministers. In 
1858 he would not allow the Upper 
House to be 4< swamped. w When urged by 
Mr. Cowper, as Mr. Busden narrates, to 
dissolve the Legislative Assembly in 
1860 and to allow the public payments 
to be met by payments unwarranted by 
law, he declared that after a oertain 
date he would sanction no disbursements 
unauthorised by regular Appropriation 
Acts. When, after correspondence about 
the issue of a Crown grant (promised 
long before by a previous Governor), he 
received instructions to issue it, and 
Mr. Cowper (then Colonial Secretary in 
the Robertson Ministry) refused to affix 
the public seal, the resolute Governor 
desired the Secretary to hand the seal to 
him, and with his own hand sealed the 
grant The Ministry resigned in con- 
sequence, but immediately reconstructed 
themselves under Cowper ; and a vote of 
censure on the Governor mooted in the 
Assembly after his departure to Madras 
was shelved by the passing of the 
previous question. Sir William Deni- 



son's " Varieties of Viceregal Life n was 
published in London in 1870. 

Denniston, His Honour John Sdwart, 
Puisne Judge, New Zealand, is the eldest 
son of Thomas Denniston, of Invercargill, 
N.Z., by his marriage with Helen French, 
daughter of the late Gabriel Walker, of 
Glasgow. He was born in 1845 and 
educated at Greenock Academy, Blair 
Lodge, and at Glasgow University 
Returning to New Zealand, he was 
admitted to the Bar there in 1874, and 
appointed a Puisne Judge of the Supreme 
Court of that colony in Feb. 1889. He 
married in 1877 Mary Helen, daughter of 
the late Hon. John Bathgate, M.L.C. 

Do Quineey, Lieut -Col. Paul Frederick, 
son of Thomas de Quineey, the great 
English writer, was born at Grasmere, 
Westmoreland, on Nov. 26th, 1828, and 
was educated at the High School, Edin- 
burgh, and at the Lasswade School, near 
that city. He entered the army in 1845 
as ensign in the 70th Regiment, and 
served with distinction in India from 
1846 to 1860, when, having become 
successively captain and major of brigade 
on the permanent staff of the Bengal 
Presidency, he was ordered with his 
old regiment, which he had rejoined 
after serving with several others, for 
active service in New Zealand. Colonel 
de Quineey arrived in that colony in 
May 1861, served there for a time, com- 
manded 4he 1st Company Transport 
Corps, and then rejoined his regi- 
ment; but seeing no prospect of re- 
turning to India without sacrificing his 
position, sold out, and turned his atten- 
tion to farming, with the unsatisfactory 
results usually experienced by military 
men. In 1863, the war breaking out, 
and the Auckland Militia being called 
out fpr active service, he was appointed 
to the command of the left wing of the 
3rd Battalion Artillery, with a captain's 
commission and without pay, and em- 
bodied it on those terms. Major-General 
Galloway, under whom he had served in 
India, on being appointed to the com- 
mand of the colonial forces selected 
Captain de Quineey as his military 
secretary, to which appointment he was 
gazetted with the rank of major, and 
soon afterwards he was gazetted to a 
lieutenant-ooloneksy. On General Gallo- 
way leaving the colony in 1864, he was 
succeeded in the command by Colonel 



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Haultain, Lieut.-Col. de Quincey con- 
tinuing as military secretary. Sub- 
sequent to the termination of the war in 
the Auckland province, he lived prin- 
cipally in the country till the year 1889, 
when, the office of Serjeant-at-Arms of 
the House of Representatives having be- 
come vacant, the appointment was con- 
ferred on him by the Speaker. 

Derham, Horn. Frederick Thomas, ex- 
Postanaster-General, Victoria, son of 
Thomas Plnmley Derham and Sarah his 
wife, is a native of Bristol, England, was 
born on Jan. 8th, 1844, and arrived in 
Victoria in 1866. He is a member of the 
well-known firm of Swallow & Derham, 
formerly Swallow k Ariell, biscuit manu- 
facturers, and was elected a member of 
the Legislative Assembly for Sandridge, 
now Port Melbourne, in Feb. 1883, being 
re-elected at the general elections in Feb. 
1886 and March 1889. He was sworn of 
the Executive Council on Feb. 20th, 1886, 
on his accepting the office of Postmaster- 
General in the Gillies-Deakin Govern- 
ment — a post which he held till August 
1890, when he resigned. Whilst at the 
head of the Victorian Post Office he was 
instrumental in introducing a number of 
valuable reforms. Mr. Derham married 
Miss Frances D. Swallow. At the general 
election in April 1892 Mr. Derham was 
defeated at Port Melbourne, and is now 
out of Parliament. 

Derrington, Edwin Henry, was mem- 
ber for Victoria in the Legislative 
Assembly of South Australia in 1872-3, 
and unsuccessfully contested Gumeracha 
in 1887. He was Commissioner of Crown 
Lands in the Ayers Ministry from Jan. to 
March 1872. Mr. Derrington was born 
in Birmingham, England, and for many 
years was connected with journalism in 
Victoria and South Australia. He resides 
at Kensington, S.A. 

Deshon, Edward. Auditor-General, 
Queensland, was born at Belgaum, 
Bombay Presidency, in 1836, and edu- 
cated at Bath Grammar School He be- 
came ensign in the 68th Light Infantry 
In June 1864, and was afterwards pro- 
moted to a lieutenancy, serving with his 
regiment at the siege and fall of Sebasto- 
pol from Nov. 1st, 1854, to the end of the 
war. Mr. Deshon was Instructor of Mus- 
ketry to the 68th Light Infantry from 
Nov. 1857 to Oct. 1861, and passed the 
competitive examination for admission 



to the Staff College in 1861. In that 
year he sold his commission, and went 
to Queensland in 1862, where he became 
manager of the Caboolture Cotton 
Company, and the following year was 
accountant to the Moreton Bay Savings 
Bank. From 1865 to 1872 Mr. Deshon 
served as Pay and Revenue Clerk in the 
Treasury, being appointed in the latter 
year travelling inspector in the Audit 
Office— a post which he filled until Jan. 
1st, 1879, when he became chief clerk 
of the Public Lands Department, and 
Under Secretary on Dec. 1st, 1882. On 
Jan. 1st, 1885, he received the appoint- 
ment of member of the Land Board, under 
the provisions of the new Land Act, and 
was appointed to his present office in 
Dec. 1889. 

Dei Vorax, Major Charles Hamilton, 
formerly a Major in the Bengal Staff 
Corps, was appointed Deputy Assistant 
Adjutant General of the Queensland 
Defence Force in Feb. 1884. In May 
1889 he received the additional appoint- 
ment of Extra Aide-de-Camp to his 
Excellency Sir Henry Norman, Governor 
of Queensland. He is now in India. 

Det Vo»ux,8ir George William, E..C.M.G., 
third son of the late Rev. Henry Des 
Vceux, and brother of Sir Henry Dal- 
rymple Des Vcbux, 5th Bart., of India- 
ville, Queen's County, was born in 1834, 
and educated at the Charterhouse and 
Balliol College*,* Oxford. He was called 
to the bar of Upper Canada in 1861 ; was 
Stipendiary Magistrate at British Guiana 
from 1863 to 1869 ; Administrator of the 
Government and Colonial Secretary of 
Lucia 1869-77 ; Lieut.-Governor of Trini- 
dad in 1877; Lieut.-Governor of Fiji 
from June 1878 to Sept. 1879, during the 
absence of Sir Arthur Gordon ; Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief of the Bahamas 
from May to August 1880 ; of Fiji from 
Jan. 1880 to Dec. 1886 ; of Newfoundland 
from 1886 to 1887 ; and of Hong Kong 
from 1887 to 1891, when he retired. In 
1880, whilst Governor of Fiji, Sir William 
was Assistant-High Commissioner for the 
Western Pacific, and from 1882 to 1885 
acting High Commissioner. He was 
created C.M.G. in 1877 and K.C.M.G. in 
1883. Sir William married, in 1877, 
Marion Denison, daughter of Sir John 
Pender, K.C.M.G. In 1883, whilst 
Governor of Fiji, Sir William attended 
the Intercolonial Conference held in 



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Sydney, out of which the Federal Council 
of Australasia sprang. 

de Winton, Major George Jean, F.R.G.S., 
son of Captain George de Winton, of 
Heywood Hall, D.L. for Somerset, by 
Emma Juliana, daughter of the late 
George Robinson, of Bath, and Rose Hill, 
Tonbridge, Kent, entered the army in 
the year 1841, at the age of seventeen, as 
an ensign in the 99th Regiment ; and in 
1843, with Lieutenant Elliot of the same 
regiment, embarked for Hobart Town in 
the barque Constant > in command of a 
convict guard. The surgeon superin- 
tendent was Dr. Stephen Hampton, R.N., 
afterwards Governor of Western Australia. 
Landing the prisoners at Hobart Town, 
the vessel proceeded to Sydney, and the 
detachment joined the headquarters 4 of 
the regiment at Parramatta. After serv- 
ing on detachment at Windsor, New- 
castle, and Port Macquarie, he was, on 
promotion, on the occasion of the pro- 
jection of a new penal settlement in 
North Australia, selected to command a 
detachment embarked in the Thoma* 
Lowry, the civil staff and another de- 
tachment having before left in the ship 
Lord Auckland. The Lord Auckland 
went ashore in Port Curtis, her passengers 
encamped on Facing Island, and thus it 
came about that Lieutenant de Winton 
was the first to land and encamp on the 
mainland on the spot which is now Port 
Gladstone. On the first night the natives, 
by a shower of spears, signified their dis- 
approval of the invasion of their territory. 
While taking precautions for repelling 
attacks, Lieutenant de Winton would not 
permit reprisals, being anxious to estab- 
lish friendly relations with the natives ; 
and in this, after a time, he succeeded, 
though on occasion at considerable 
personal risk. The Home Government, 
yielding to the strong opposition of the 
colonists of New South Wales to the 
formation of the projected penal settle- 
ment, it was abandoned, and the expe- 
dition returned to Sydney. Lieutenant 
de Winton was then sent in command 
of a detachment to Brisbane, being at 
the same time nominated on the com- 
mission of the peace. Brisbane was then 
little more than a collection of weather- 
board huts, its commerce represented by 
three or four general storekeepers, a 
fortnightly steamer from Sydney, with 
an occasional small sailing-vessel, sufficing 



to supply its wants and those of the 
district. Its government was repre- 
sented by the police magistrate, Captain 
Wickham, R.N., who had been a brother 
officer of Darwin in the Beagle, and the 
officer commanding the military detach- 
ment. Visiting the settlers and squatters 
on the Logan and the Darling Downs, 
Lieutenant de Winton was so impressed 
with the capabilities of the country to 
support a large population, that he, in 
letters to friends at home and to the 
London press, strongly advocated emigra- 
tion to Moreton Bay. One of the letters, 
drawing a comparison between the wages 
of artificers and agricultural labourers in 
the Moreton Bay district and those ruling 
at home, was widely published, and drew 
the attention of many to the growing 
importance of the rising colony. In 1848 
the detachment was withdrawn from 
Brisbane, and after a short period of 
service with the headquarters in Sydney, 
Lieutenant de Winton proceeded with a 
detachment of the regiment to Norfolk 
Island, remaining there for eighteen 
months, returning to the island for 
another two years, after an interval of 
service at Hobart Town. In 1853 Lien- 
tenant de Winton was invalided from 
the island, and granted two years' sick 
leave. A sea voyage to England having 
much restored his health, he applied for 
employment, and was selected to form a 
recruiting subdivision at Preston. In 
1854 Lieutenant de Winton was pro- 
moted, and went to command the depot 
of his regiment at Chatham, and sub- 
sequently to command a detachment at 
Harwich. The Crimean war being then 
raging, Captain de Winton volunteered 
for active service, and was appointed 
Brigade - Major of the British Swiss 
Legion. After the peace Major de Winton 
returned to England, and shortly after- 
wards retired from the army. Major de 
Winton was one of the secretaries to the 
National Society for Aid to Sick and 
Wounded in War in 1870-71, was Deputy 
Foreign Commissioner of the South Ken- 
sington Exhibitions in 1871-2, and was 
connected with other exhibitions abroad. 
His name is not unknown in the literary 
world, he having for some time edited 
Colburri* United Service Magazine, and 
being still an occasional contributor to 
the press. Major de Winton married at 
Brisbane, in 1848, a daughter of Mr. 



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Bib] 

Thomas White Melville Winder, of Win- 
dermere, Hunter River, New South Wales, 

Bibbs, Sir George Richard, K.C.M.G., 
M.L.A,, Premier of New South Wales, is 
the son of the late Captain John Dibbs of 
the East India Company's service, and 
has represented the Murrumbidgee in the 
Legislative Assembly for some years 
past He was Colonial Treasurer in the 
Ministry of the late Sir Alexander Stuart 
from Jan. 1883 to Oct. 1885, when he 
succeeded that gentleman, and was 
Premier till December following. From 
Feb. 1886 to Jan. 1887 he was Colo- 
nial Secretary in the Jennings Ministry, 
and formed another short-lived Adminis- 
tration in Jan. 1889, in which he was 
Premier and Colonial Secretary until 
March in the same year. Mr. Dibbs is 
a strong Protectionist. He was appointed 
one of the representatives of New South 
Wales to the Federation Convention held 
in Sydney in March 1891, although con- 
siderable objection was made to his 
appointment by Sir Henry Parkes, on the 
ground that he had expressed himself 
opposed to Federation under the Crown. 
In Oct. 1891, on the defeat of the Parkes 
Ministry, Mr. Dibbs once more became 
Premier of the colony, and succeeded in 
carrying a Protectionist tariff. In June 
1892 he visited England on an important 
financial mission, in which he appeared 
as the representative not only of New 
South Wales, but of Victoria, South 
Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. 
He was created K.C.M.G. in July. 

Dick, Hon. Thomas, is a native of 
Edinburgh, and was born there in 1823. 
Having gained commercial experience in 
London, he left that city for St. Helena, 
but after seven years 1 residence there 
resolved on removing to New Zealand, 
arriving in Otago, accompanied by his wife 
and family, on Nov. 26th, 1857. After 
some mercantile experience, Mr. Dick 
entered the political arena. Mr. Harris 
having resigned his seat as a member of 
the Provincial Council for Dunedin at the 
end of 1858, Mr. Dick was unanimously 
elected to succeed him in Feb. 1869. 
Daring the ensuing session of the Council 
an adverse vote caused the Executive to 
resign office, and a new one was formed 
by Mr. Reynolds, of which Mr. Dick was 
a member. A Bill having been passed 
considerably increasing tne number of 



[Bio 



members of the Council, early in 1860 a 
general election took place, and Mr. Dick 
was returned at the head of the poll for 
Dunedin, eleven candidates having been 
proposed, five to be elected. On the 
assembling of the new Council Mr. Dick 
occupied a seat on the Ministerial 
benches, which he, however, quickly 
resigned. It was not till 1862 that he 
again held an official position in the 
Council. At the opening of the session 
that year he proposed an amendment on 
the address in reply, carrying it by a 
small majority, and thereby relegating 
the Cutten- Walker administration to the 
Opposition benches, when he himself 
assumed office as Provincial Secretary. 
Another general election took place in 
May, 1863, when Mr. Dick was again re- 
turned at the top of the poll for Dunedin, 
retaining the position of Secretary at the 
opening of the new Council. He was 
however, shortly compelled to resign, but 
was again reinstated for a few months. 
He succeeded Mr. Harris as superin- 
tendent of the Otago province, in August 
1865, but was displaced by Mr. Mac- 
andrew in Feb. 1867, when his first term 
expired. Mr. Dick sat in the New Zea- 
land House of Representatives in 1861 
and 1862, but he was not a member of 
Parliament in 1863-4 and 5. In 1866 he 
was elected for Port Chalmers. After the 
first session he resigned his seat, and it 
was not till 1879, on the general election 
for the seventh Parliament of New Zea- 
land, that he again appeared on the 
scene as a Dunedin representative, in 
conjunction with Messrs. Oliver and 
Stewart. The result of the election of 
1879 placing the Hall Ministry in power, 
Mr. Dick joined the administration in 
1880, holding the portfolios of Colonial 
Secretary, Minister for Education, and 
Minister for Justice. Sir John Hall 
having resigned on account of ill-health 
in 1882, Sir F. Whittaker became the 
Premier, Mr. Dick occupying his old 
position, with the added responsibilities 
of Postmaster-General and Commissioner 
of Telegraphs. In 1883 Sir F. Whittaker 
retired, being followed by Major Atkinson 
as Premier, but the Governmentcontinued, 
with one or two alterations, the same as 
that formed by Sir John Hall in 1879. 
Mr. Dick consequently remained in office, 
confined, however, on this occasion to 
the responsibilities of Colonial Secretary 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



and Minister for Education. A dissolu- 
tion by effluxion of time occurring at the 
close of this session, and a rearrange- 
ment of electorates having been decided 
on, Mr. Dick offered himself as a can- 
didate for the new district of Dunedin 
West, having for his opponent his old 
colleague in the united electorate, Mr. W. 
D. Stewart, who after a severe contest 
won the seat by a small majority. At 
the general election in 1887, the contest 
for the representation of the district 
between the two gentlemen was renewed, 
ending with a similar result; so that 
Mr. Dick has since been excluded from 
public life. 

Dieken, Charles Shortt, C.M.G., F.R.G.S., 
second surviving son of late William 
Stephens Dieken, M.D., Deputy Inspector- 
General of Hospitals, Bengal, and 
Catherine Lamb, his wife, youngest daugh- 
ter of Captain Joseph Lamb Popham, R.N., 
and niece of Admiral Sir Home Popham, 
was born Sept. 18th, 1841, at Balasore, 
India, and educated at the Charterhouse. 
Entered the army as ensign 87th Royal 
Irish Fusiliers, July 1859; lieutenant 
1861 ; first-class certificate School of 
Musketry, Hythe, Nov. 1861 ; retired in 
1864, by the sale of commission, for 
the purpose of settling in Queensland. 
Arrived in Brisbane in August of that 
year, and at once proceeded north to 
Port Denison, and thence to the Suttor 
River, where he was engaged on a cattle 
station till shortly before he entered the 
native mounted police, in June 1866. In 
Oct. 1867 he was appointed clerk of petty 
sessions at Springsure ; police magis- 
trate, Springsure, July 1872; Gold 
Commissioner and police magistrate, 
Ravenswood, July 1874 ; police magis- 
trate and Gold Fields Warden, Charters 
Towers, May 1875 ; police magistrate, 
Townsville, Dec. 1878 to May 1880, when 
he was appointed secretary in the office 
of the Agent-General for Queensland, in 
London, which position he still holds. 
Student Middle Temple, Nov. 20th, 1880. 
Called to the bar June 6th, 1883. Hon. 
Secretary to the Queensland Commission 
in London, Colonial and Indian Exhibi- 
tion, 1866 ; is a magistrate of Queensland, 
and Captain (unattached) in the Defence 
Force. Married, August 25th, 1875, in 
Sydney, Emily Augusta, eldest daughter 
of the late Charles William Sheridan, of 
Becauba Station, Castlereagh River, New 



______ PHi 

South Wales. In May 1891 he was 
created C.M.G. 

Dickinson, Sir John Hodes, M.A., son 
of Nodes Dickinson, F.R.C.S., of London, 
Staff-Surgeon to Her Majesty's Forces, 
was born on the island of Grenada, West 
Indies, in 1806, and educated at Cains 
College, Cambridge, where he took his 
B.A. degree in 1829, and graduated M.A. 
in 1832. He was called to the bar at the 
Inner Temple in 1840, and four years 
later went to Sydney with the appoint- 
ment of Puisne Judge of the Supreme 
Court of New South Wales. He was 
knighted in 1860, and retired in Feb. 
1861 on a pension of £1050 per annum. 
He married, in 1844, Helen, daughter of 
Captain Henry Jauncey. He died at 
Rome on March 16th, 1882. 

Dickson, Hon, James Robert, M.L. A.,was 
born at Plymouth in 1832, and educated 
at Glasgow, and emigrated to Australia, 
where he engaged in mercantile pursuits 
in Victoria, and subsequently in Queens- 
land, of which colony he is now a resident 
He entered the Legislative Assembly of 
Queensland in 1873, and for a number of 
years represented Ennogera. He was 
Secretary for Public Works and Mines 
in the Macalister Ministry from May to 
June 1876, when the Government re- 
signed. He was a member of the Douglas 
Cabinet as Colonial Treasurer from June 
1876 to Jan. 1879, and filled the same 
post in the first Griffith Administration 
from Dec. 1883 to August 1887, when 
he resigned, owing to a difference of 
opinion with his colleagues on the subject 
of the land tax, of the incidence of which 
he disapproved. He also resigned his 
seat for Ennogera, in order to test the 
opinion of the electors, and was again 
returned, after a severe contest with Mr. 
Drake, who now holds the seat. At the 
general election in 1888 Mr. Dickson con- 
tested Toombul as an independent can- 
didate, but was defeated by Mr. Gannon. 
Mr. Dickson, who in 1887 received the 
Queens permission to bear the title of 
Honourable within the colony, revisited 
England in 1890. He is a director of 
several of the leading banking and finan- 
cial institutions of Queensland. In April 
1892 he was returned to the Assembly 
for Bulimba at a bye-election. 

Disney, Colonel Thomas Robert, R.A., 
formerly Commandant Victorian Forces, 
was born on Oct. 16th, 1842. He became 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



»ob] 

lieutenant &A. in 1861, captain in 1875, 
and major in 1882 ; was adjutant B.A. from 
July 1st, 1877, to Sept 10th, 1880, and 
served throughout the Abyssinian cam- 
paign in 1868, being present at the fall 
of Magdala, for which he received a 
medal. On Sept. 1st, 1883," he became 
commandant of the military forces of 
Victoria, with the local rank of Colonel. 
This post he held till Sept. 28th, 1888, 
when he returned to England. 

Doboon, Hon. Alfred, Solicitor-General, 
Tasmania, sixth son of the late John 
Dobson, of Hobart Town, Tasmania, 
solicitor and public notary, and previously 
of Gateshead, co. Durham, by his mar- 
riage with Kate, daughter of the late 
Richard Willis, member of the old Legis- 
lative Council of Tasmania, was born in 
1849, and became a student of the Inner 
Temple on April 20tb, 1872, being called 
to the English bar on Jan. 26th, 1875. 
Returning to Tasmania, he was called to 
the bar there on Sept. 10th, 1875, and 
was a member of the House of Assembly 
from 1877 to 1887. Mr. Dobson was 
Attorney-General in the Fysh Ministry 
from August 13th, 1877 (when he was 
sworn of the Executive Council), to Dec. 
20th, 1878, and was Speaker of the House 
of Assembly from July 1st, 1885, to May 
29tb, 1887, when he resigned his seat 
for Glenorchy on accepting the appoint- 
ment of Solicitor-General. 

Dobson, Edward, M.Inst.C.E., arrived 
in Canterbury, N.Z., in 1850, and was 
for many years Provincial Engineer. 
In 1854 he was a member of the 
commission to report on the Moor- 
honse Tunnel, between Christchurch and 
Lyttelton. Mr. Dobson — who was 
awarded, in 1870, the Telford gold medal 
of the Institute of Civil Engineers for 
44 A Memoir on the Public Works of the 
Province of Canterbury, New Zealand" 
— is the author of numerous works on 
engineering. 

Dobson, Hon. Frank Stanley, M.L.C., 
M Ju, LL.D., F.L.8., second son of John 
Dobson, of Hobart, by Mary Anne, daugh- 
ter of Matthew Atkinson, of Carr Hill, near 
Gateshead, and of Temple Sowerby, was 
born in Tasmania in 1835, and educated 
at Hutchins School, Hobart, and St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
6.A. in 1861 and LL.D. in 1870. Mr. 
Dobson entered at the Middle Temple in 
Jan. 1856, and was called to the English 



[Doc 



bar in April 1860, and to the Tasmanian 
bar on August 28th, 1861. Having taken 
up his residence in Australia, he was 
called to the Victorian bar on Sept 26th, 
1861. He was Law Lecturer at Mel- 
bourne University, of which he was made 
M.A. In 1865 he entered the Legislative 
Council of Victoria as member for the 
southern province, and held office as 
Solicitor-General in the O'Loghlen Minis- 
try from July 9th, 1881, to March 7th, 
1883. Mr. Dobson now represents the 
south-eastern province, and has for some 
years past been Chairman of Committees 
of the Legislative Council. He married, 
on June 8th, 1871, Edith Mary, younger 
daughter of John Carter, Q.C., who died; 
and he then married his present wife, 
Henrietta Louisa, daughter of the late 
W. S. Sharland, of New Norfolk, Tasmania. 
Dobson, Hon. Sir William Lambert, 
F.L.8., Chief Justice, Tasmania, brother of 
the preceding, eldest son of John Dobson, 
of Hobart Town, by Mary Anne, daughter 
of Matthew Atkinson, was born in 1833. 
He entered at the Middle Temple on Nov. 
7th, 1863, received a certificate of honour 
in May 1856, and was called to the 
English bar on June 6th, 1856. He was 
called to the Tasmanian bar on Jan. 22nd, 
1857, and married, in 1858, Fanny 
Louisa, daughter of Ven. William Henry 
Browne, LL.D., of Ballinvoher, co. Cork, 
Archdeacon of Launceston. He was 
appointed Crown Solicitor in 1859, and 
entered the House of Assembly in 1861, 
retaining bis seat till 1870. He was 
Attorney-General in the Weston Adminis- 
tration from Feb. 5th to August 2nd, 
1861, and in the Chapman Ministry from 
the latter date till Jan. 20th, 1863. He 
filled the same post in the Dry Ministry 
from Nov. 24th, 1866, to August 4th, 
1869, and in the Wilson Ministry from 
that date till Feb. 5th, 1870, when he 
was appointed Puisne Judge of Tasmania, 
becoming Chief Justice on the retirement 
of Sir Francis Smith (q.v.)> on Feb. 7th, 
1885. Sir Lambert, who is Chancellor of 
the University of Tasmania, was sworn 
of the Executive Council on June 6th, 
1861, and was created K.B. on August 
16th, 1886. He administered the govern- 
ment from Nov. 18th, 1886, till March 
11th, 1887. 

Booker, Hon. Joseph, M.L.C., second son 
of Robert Docker, of London, and Eliza 
(Perry) his wife, was born in 1802, and 



133 



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DICTIONARY OF AU&TRALASiAfe BIOCRARHV. 



Dod] 

became a surgeon in the East India Com- 
pany's service. He was married in 
April 1839 to Matilda, daughter of Major 
Thomas Brougham, H.E.I.C.S., of Pen- 
rith, Cumberland; and emigrating to 
Australia, was appointed a member 
of the Upper House in New South 
Wales, after being defeated as a can- 
didate for the Legislative Assembly. 
He was Postmaster-General in the first 
Martin Administration, from Jan. 1866 
to Sept. 1868, when he became Colonial 
Secretary, and retired with his colleagues 
in the following month. He was again 
Postmaster-General in Sir James Martin's 
second Ministry, from Dec. 1870 to May 
1872. Whilst holding office on the first 
occasion he introduced and carried through 
the Upper House Mr. (now Sir) Henry 
Parkes* Public School Bill in 1866. He 
was Minister of Justice and Public In- 
struction in the Robertson Ministry, 
from Feb. 1875 to March 1877 ; and again, 
under the same Premier, from August to 
Dec. 1877. He died on Dec. 9th, 1884. 

Doddi, Hon. John Stokell, C.M.G., Puisne 
Judge, Tasmania, was born in Durham, 
England, in 1848, and having emigrated to 
Tasmania, was admitted to the bar there 
in 1872. Having unsuccessfully contested 
South and North Hobart, Mr. Dodds suc- 
ceeded Mr. Fysh as the representative of 
East Hobart in, 1878, and held the seat 
till 1887, when he assumed his present 
judicial position. Immediately after his 
election he accepted the post of Attorney- 
General in the Crowther Administration, 
which took office in Dec. 1878. On their 
defeat in Oct. 1879, Mr. Giblin undertook 
the formation of a Coalition Government, 
Mr. Dodds and Mr. O'Reilly being selected 
as representatives of their party. The 
office of Treasurer was offered to and 
declined by Mr. Dodds, who was un- 
willing to take any portfolio other than 
that of Attorney-General. Mr. Giblin 
then waived his own personal wishes, 
and consented to Mr. Dodds retaining 
the Attorney-Generalship, he taking the 
Treasury. Ultimately, however, Mr. Dodds 
changed places with him, and held the 
office of Treasurer until the Coalition 
Government oeased to exist on Mr. Giblin 
resigning, in August 1884, to become a 
Judge of the Supreme Court. The Ad- 
ministration was then reconstructed, and 
Mr. Dodds resigned the Treasurership 
and became Attorney-General again. In 



[Bom 

1886, when Mr. Douglas proceeded to 
England as Agent-General, it was thought 
that Mr. Dodds would become Premier ; 
but the Governor, Sir George Strahan, 
was advised by Mr. Dodds to send for 
Dr. Agnew^who assumed that position. 
But the real work of guiding the ad- 
ministration, and of leading the House 
of Assembly, fell upon Mr. Dodds, who 
safely steered his party through a general 
election and a stormy session of Parlia- 
ment. When still Attorney-General, and 
whilst en route to England to represent 
the colony at the Colonial Conference 
held in London in 1887, he was appointed 
to the senior puisne judgeship, rendered 
vacant by the death of his old chief, 
Mr. Giblin. After attending the Con- 
ference, Mr. Dodds returned to Tasmania 
to assume the seat upon the bench to 
which he had been appointed in the 
previous February. In 1890, during the 
absence of Governor Hamilton, Mr. 
Dodds exercised for a short time the 
functions of Deputy Governor. 

Dodery, Hon. William, M.L.C., Chaii 
man of Committees, Legislative Council, 
Tasmania, was returned to the House of 
Assembly for Norfolk Plains in 1861, 
and was re-elected in Nov. 1862 and 
in Oct. 1866. In 1875 he resigned 
his seat in the Assembly, and in Marc 
1877 was elected to the Council fo 
Longford, now Westmoreland, and was 
re-elected in April 1883 and in May 1889. 

Domett, Alfred, C.M.G., formerh 
Premier of New Zealand, was the fourth 
son of Nathaniel Domett, and was born 
at Camberweil Grove, Surrey, on May 
20th, 1811. He was educated at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, where . he 
matriculated in 1829, but left the 
University without graduating. He 
then spent a couple of years in America 
and travelled extensively on the Con 
tinent, occupying his time in literar 
pursuits, and contributing verse to tl« 
magazines. He entered at the Mid<?' 
Temple, Nov. 7th, 1835, and was call' 
to the bar Nov. 19th, 1841. In May o 
the following year he went out to Nev 
Zealand, and settled in the Nelson tlis 
trict, becoming, in 1848, Colonial Sec- 
retary for the province of New Munster. 
In 1851 he was made Civil Secretary for 
the whole of New Zealand, but resigning 
the conjoint offices in 1853, he became 
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Resi- 



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DICTIONARY 6P AtfSTfeALASiAN filOGRAPHV. 



(Do* 



dent Magistrate of Hawke's Bay. He 
was elected to a seat in the House of 
Representatives for Nelson in 1855, and 
was re-elected in 1860. On August 6th, 
1862, Mr. Domett became Premier in 
succession to Mr. (afterwards Sir) William 
Fox. It was then the eve of the Waikato 
war, and the difficulties encountered in 
the House led to his resignation on 
Oct. 29th, 1863, when the Whitaker-Fox 
Ministry (commonly regarded as the 
•'War Ministry n ) came into office. Mr. 
Domett was then appointed Secretary for 
Crown Lands, and was allotted a seat 
in the Legislative Council, afterwards 
becoming Commissioner of Old Land 
Claims. He was appointed Registrar- 
General of Land in 1865, and in 1870 
Commissioner for Confiscated Lands. 
In 1871 he retired from his offices, and 
returned to England, where he lived till 
his death, which took place in London on 
Nov. 2nd, 1887. In 1880 he was created 
C.M.G. Mr. Domett was the author of 
several volumes of poetry, and enjoyed 
the friendship of Browning. He it is 
who was referred to by the latter in his 
poem beginning, "What's become of 
Waring, Since he gave us all the slip." 
Mr. Domett published "Venice : a poem," 

, 1839; "Narrative of the Wairau Mas- 
sacre," 1843; "Ordinances of New 

f Zealand, Classified," 1850 ; " Ranolf and 
Amohia; a South Sea Day Dream," 
1872, being an epic poem on a Maori 
subject ; " Flotsam and Jetsam : Rhymes 
Old and New," 1877. Mr. Domett was 
for some years a contributor to, and for 
a portion of the time editor of, the 
Nelson Examiner, the best of the early 
New Zealand newspapers. 

Don, Charles Jardine, was born at 
Cupar, Scotland, in June 1820, and 
apprenticed to a hand-loom weaver. He 

' took part in the Chartist movement in 
1842, and in 1853 emigrated to Victoria, 
' where he worked as a stonemason. He 
was returned to the Assembly for Col- 
tingwood in 1859 and 1861. Mr. Don, 
who was regarded as a working-class 
champion, and who was a strenuous 
advocate of the liberalisation of the 
land laws, died in 1867. 

Donaldson, Hon. John, M.L.A., was born 
at Terang, Victoria, and engaged in squat- 



ting pursuits, proceeding to New 8outh 
Walesi: "" m ' ~ m " '""' 



\ in 1876, and to Queensland in 1881. 
He was returned to the Assembly for 



Warrego in 1883, but now represents 
Bulloo. He was appointed Postmaster- 
General and Secretary for Public Instruc- 
tion in the McD wraith Ministry on June 
13th, 1888; and when the ministry was 
reconstructed under Mr. Morehead, on 
Nov. 30th in that year, continued to hold 
the same posts until Nov. 19th, 1889, 
when he succeeded Mr. Pattison as 
Colonial Treasurer. He resigned with his 
colleagues in August 1890, owing to the 
opposition of the Assembly to his finan- 
cial proposals. He was one of the 
Queensland delegates to the Federation 
Convention held at Sydney in March 
1891. 

Donaldson, Sir Stuart Alexander, was 
the son of Stuart Donaldson, and was 
born in London on Dec 26th, 1815. He 
emigrated to Sydney in 1840, and became 
a clerk in the firm of Dawes & Co., of 
which he was afterwards the head. In 
Sept. 1851 he fought a duel with Sir 
Thomas Mitchell, 8urveyor-General of 
New South Wales (?.#.). He was elected 
to the Assembly for Cumberland in 
1856, and formed the first Constitu- 
tional Ministry in New South Wales 
in June 1856, but resigned his posi- 
tion as Premier and Chief Secretary 
in August in consequence of a vote of 
want of confidence. He accepted office 
again as Colonial Treasurer under Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Henry Watson) Parker in 
Oct 1856, but on seeking re-election he 
was defeated for Sydney Hamlets. How- 
ever, the member for South Cumberland 
retired to make way for him, and he 
was elected on Nov. 4th, but retired with 
his colleagues in Sept. 1857, after their 
defeat on the Electoral Bill. In 1860 
he was knighted, and left the colony, 
which he twice revisited. Sir Stuart 
married in Feb. 1864, Amelia, seventh 
daughter of Frederick Cowper, of Carlton 
Hall and Unthank, Cumberland (who 
survived him), and died at Carlton Hall 
on Jan. 11th, 1867. 

Douglas, Hon. Adyo, M.L.C., is of Scotch 
descent. His grandfather, a naval officer 
of distinction, was Port Admiral at Yar- 
mouth, and subsequently at Chatham. 
Mr. Douglas's father was an officer in 
the British army, and married a Norfolk 
lady, the late Agent-General for Tasmania 
being born at Thorpe, near Norwich, on 
May 30th, 1815. Sprung of a naval stock, 
five of his uncles being post captains in 



135 



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DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Don} 

the royal Davy, Mr. Douglas was intended 
for the sea, but entered the legal profes- 
sion, and was articled to a firm of solicitors 
at Southampton, where, when admitted, 
he himself subsequently practised. When 
only twenty-three, however, Mr. Douglas 
emigrated to Tasmania, then and until 
1857 known as Van Diemen's Land. 
Arriving in the colony early in 1839, he 
was admitted to the local bar, but having 
a few months later visited Victoria (then 
the Port Phillip district of N.S.W.), Mr. 
Douglas decided to embrace pastoral 
pursuits in the young settlement. Taking 
a number of sheep with him he settled 
near the Saltwater ranges; close to what 
is now the flourishing town of Kilmore, 
but ultimately abandoned squatting and 
returned to Tasmania. In 1842 Mr. 
Douglas re-commenced the practice of 
the law at Launceston, and quickly 
achieved a leading position. He also 
turned his attention to public affairs, 
becoming a prominent member of the 
Anti-Transportation Association, and in 
1856 member for Launceston in the old 
Legislative Council. In that capacity he 
assisted materially in the formation of the 
new constitution of Tasmania, his efforts 
being mainly devoted to liberalising its 
basis. Mr. Douglas revisited England 
in 1857, and made a tour of the country in 
company with his friend, Sir Richard Dry. 
He was so much impressed with the 
advantages secured by what he saw of 
the extension of the railway system that 
on his return to Tasmania, where he was 
elected to the Assembly for Westbury 
in 1862, he vigorously championed the 
advent of the iron horse into his adopted 
country ; being the foremost, in spite 
of strenuous opposition, in securing the 
formation of the first Tasmanian railway, 
from Launceston to Deloraine, the first 
sod of which was turned by the Duke 
of Edinburgh in 1868. In August 1884 
Mr. Douglas somewhat reluctantly became 
Premier and Chief Secretary of the colony, 
and resigning his seat in the Lower House, 
was elected to the Legislative Council for 
South Esk. Mr. Douglas represented his 
colony at the Sydney Convention, and 
was responsible for the policy which 
led to the inclusion of Tasmania in the 
Federal Council of Australasia. The 
official representation of Tasmania in 
London having, after a good deal of 
irresolution, been decided on, Mr. Douglas 



[Don 



resigned the Premiership in March 1880, 
and became the first Agent-General of 
the colony. At the London Colonial Con- 
ference of 1887 Mr. Douglas was asso- 
ciated with the present Judge Dodds in 
the representation of the colony. At the 
close of the year Mr. Douglas resigned 
his position in London and returned to 
Tasmania. In July 1800 he was elected 
a member of the Legislative Council for 
Launceston. He was one of the delegates 
of Tasmania to the Sydney Federation 
Convention in March 1891. 

Douglas, Hon. John, C.M.G., son of 
Henry Alexander Douglas and Elisabeth 
(Dalziel) his wife, was born in London 
on March 6th, 1828, and after receiving 
his education at Rugby School and Dur- 
ham University, he emigrated to New 
South Wales in 1851, and received the 
appointment of a goldfields' commis- 
sioner, a post he gave up in order to 
follow pastoral pursuits. He sat as 
member for Darling Downs, and after- 
wards for Camden, in the New South 
Wales Parliament ; but in 1863 he settled 
in Queensland, and entered the Legisla- 
tive Assembly for Port Curtis. Mr. 
Douglas joined the Macalister Ministry 
in Feb. 1866, and was Postmaster-General 
from March to July of that year. He 
was called to the Legislative Council in 
the same year; but when, some months 
after Mr. Macalister's return to power, 
he was appointed Treasurer, he re-entered 
the Assembly as member for the Eastern 
Downs, afterwards resigning to take the 
leadership in the Council. He resigned 
the treasurership in May 1867, and was 
Secretary for Public Works till the 
August following. In the Lilley Ministry 
Mr. Douglas was Postmaster -General 
from Dec. 1868 to Nov. 1869, when he 
resigned on accepting the post of Agent* 
General, which he held till 1871, when he 
returned to Queensland, and was elected 
in 1876 for Maryborough. In June of 
the following year he accepted office as 
Secretary for Public Lands in the Thorn 
Ministry, and became Premier upon the 
resignation of Mr. Thorn in March 1877. 
In the following year he exchanged the 
portfolio of Lands for the Colonial Secre- 
taryship, and remained in power until 
Jan. 1879, when his Government was 
defeated, and he resigned. Subsequent 
to the assumption of a protectorate over 
a portion of New Guinea by the British 



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Dow] _ 

Government, he was a candidate for the 
poet of High Commissioner, but Sir Peter 
ficratchley s claims were preferred by 
the Imperial authorities. Mr. Douglas 
became Resident at Thursday Island in 
April 1886, and on the death of Sir Peter 
Scratchley he was appointed Special 
Commissioner for British New Guinea, 
which post he held for nearly three 
years, until the sovereignty of England 
was proclaimed. In 1889 he returned to 
Thursday Island, where he acts as Govern- 
ment Resident and police magistrate. 

Dow, Hon. John Lamont, M.L.A., ex- 
Minister of Lands and Agriculture, 
Victoria, son of the late David Hill 
Dow, was born at Kilmarnock, Ayr, 
Scotland, on Dec. 8th, 1837. He came 
to Victoria with his father and the 
other members of his family, landing 
at Geelong in 1848. Mr. Dow having 
learnt farming in the Barrabool district, 
took up pastoral country, in 1861, at the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, in Northern Queens- 
land, and had a chequered experience, 
through the depression in wool and the 
unhealthiness of the climate. In 1867 
he returned to Victoria, and, having 
adopted journalism, became agricultural 
editor of the Leader, the weekly journal 
published by the Age proprietary. Having 
had intimate opportunities of studying 
the anomalies of the land question, Mr. 
Dow lectured on the subject throughout 
Victoria, and the agitation which he 
initiated had very much to do with the 
subsequent imposition of a land tax, with 
the view of limiting the aggregation of 
large landed estates. In May 1877 Mr. 
Dow was returned to the Assembly as 
member for Kara Kara, and has ever 
since enjoyed the confidence of the same 
constituency. Having remained loyal to 
the democratic and protectionist policy 
which he avowed on entering politics, 
Mr. Dow was included, as one of the 
Liberal representatives, in the Coalition 
Government formed by Messrs. Gillies 
and Deakin in Feb. 1886. He then re- 
signed hie press appointments. Previous 
to this, in 1883, he visited America as the 
special correspondent of the Age and 
Leader, and embodied the result of his 
investigations into the agricultural con- 
dition of the country in a series of letters, 
which were ultimately republished in book 
form, under the title of " The Australian 
in America." In 1885, having been ap- 



[Dow 



pointed a member of the Victorian Irri- 
gation Commission, he accompanied the 
president, Mr. Deakin, in his official mis- 
sion to America to collect statistics on 
the subject ; and on this occasion contri- 
buted a series of letters to the Age and 
Leader, which had much to do with 
smoothing the path of the Coalition 
Government when the results of Mr. 
Deakin's investigations were in the 
following year embodied in practical 
legislation. Mr. Dow during his term of 
office elevated the portfolio of agriculture 
to the position of an independent depart- 
ment, establishing a scheme of technical 
agricultural education by means of ex- 
perts travelling through the colony, 
forming also a Forest Department and 
sections dealing with viticulture and 
pests inimical to vegetation, while a 
successful export trade in dairy produce 
and fruit was initiated under his ad- 
ministration. In the summer of 1890 
Mr. Dow, as a director of the Premier 
Permanent Building Society, became 
involved in the legal proceedings taken 
against the officers of the institution 
after its disastrous suspension of pay- 
ment, and insisted, contrary to the 
unanimous desire of his colleagues, who 
felt entire confidence in his integrity, 
on resigning his position in the Cabinet 
pending the result of the action taken. 
At the initiatory stage of the proceedings 
the prosecution were compelled to admit 
that there was no case against Mr. Dow, 
and to withdraw the indictment against 
him. He was at once invited to resume 
office, and did so, resigning with the 
rest of his colleagues in Nov. 1890. Mr. 
Dow married, in 1869, Marion Jane, 
second daughter of William A. Orr, of 
Toorak. Mr. Dew's younger brother, Mr. 
T. K. Dow, is also an eminent authority 
on agricultural matters. 

Bowling, Henry, son of the Rev. Henry 
Dowling, Baptist minister at Gloucester, 
England, in which city Mr. Dowling was 
born in the year 1810, was educated at 
the Free Grammar School, Colchester, 
and was afterwards apprenticed to the 
printing business. In 1830 he emigrated 
to Tasmania, and was for some time on 
the staff of the Hobart Town Courier, 
but in the following year he purchased 
from the late Mr. J. P. Fawkner the 
Launeeston Independent, and changing 
its name to the Latmeeston Advertiser, 



137 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOCRAPHV. 



[Dot 



conducted it for some years with much 
success. In 1839 Mr. Dowling proceeded 
to England, having received the appoint- 
ment of Immigration Agent for Tasmania, 
in which capacity he was the means of 
introducing into the colony many settlers 
whose names are now well known in 
Northern Tasmania. In 1842 he returned 
to Launoeston, and was for some years 
engaged in the printing and drapery 
business. He was one of the founders 
of the Launoeston Savings Bank, and in 
1844 was appointed manager of that 
institution. Mr. Dowling was always 
active in public affairs, and was specially 
prominent in the anti-transportation 
movement, and in the agitation for rail- 
ways. He was Mayor of Launoeston 
from 1867 to 1861, and in the latter year 
was elected to the House of Assembly as 
Member for Launoeston, but only held 
the seat for two years. In 1868 he 
accepted the secretaryship of the Laun- 
oeston and Western Railway Company, 
and held that position until the year 
1872, when this, the first of Tasmanian 
railways, was taken over by the Govern- 
ment. Amongst the works issued from 
Mr. Dowling's press may be mentioned 
an illustrated edition of the " Pickwick 
Papers " and West's " History of Tas- 
mania." He died at Launoeston, Sept. 
17th, 1885. 

Dowling, Hli Honour James Sheen, 
L.L.B., District Court Judge, New South 
Wales, is the eldest son of the late Sir 
James Dowling, sometime Chief Justice 
of New South Wales, by his first wife. 
Sir James Dowling's brother, Vincent 
George Dowling, was for many years 
editor of BcWt Life in London, and was 
the first to seize the miscreant Bellingham 
after he had assassinated Mr. Spencer 
Perceval, the Prime Minister of England, 
in the lobby of the House of Commons 
on May 11th, 1812. Judge Dowling was 
born in London on Dec. 2nd, 1819, and 
was taken to Australia by his father in 
1828. Returning to London in 1836, he 
entered at King's College, and graduated 
LL.B. in 1841. In Nov. 1836 he became 
a student at the Middle Temple, and was 
called to the Bar in Nov. 1843. He was 
appointed Attorney-General at Port 
Curtis in 1849, and subsequently went to 
Sydney, where he was appointed a police 
magistrate in 1851, Crown Prosecutor in 
'•57, and in 1861 District Court Judge, 



a position he still holds. Judge Dowling 
married on June 20th, 1849, Katherine 
Marion, fourth daughter of the late James 
Laidley, of Sydney, sometime Deputy 
Commissary-General. 

Downer, Henry Edward, M.P., J.P., 
brother of Sir John Downer (#.t?.),is a native 
of Adelaide, S.A., and for fifteen years 
held the position of stipendiary magis- 
trate and Commissioner of Insolvency. 
He is now in partnership with his brother 
Sir John as a legal practitioner in 
Adelaide. Mr. Downer has been M.P. 
for Encounter Bay in the South Australian 
Legislature since 1881. He was Attorney- 
General in the Cockburn Government 
from May to August 1890. 

Downer, Hon. Sir John William, 
R.C.M.G., M.P„ Q.C., formerly Premier 
of South Australia, was born in Adelaide 
on July 5th, 1844, and educated at St 
Peter's College in that city. He was 
admitted to the South Australian bar in 
1868, and belongs to one of the most 
prominent legal firms in the capital. Mr. 
Downer, who was made Q.C. in 1878, en- 
tered the Assembly in the same year as 
member for Baroasa, and still represents 
that constituency. He was Attorney- 
General under Mr. (now Sir) John Bray 
from June 1881 to June 1884. In this 
capacity he introduced and carried 
through the House a measure to allow 
persons charged with criminal offences 
to give evidence upon oath, and a 
Married Woman's Property Bill. In 
1883 he was one of the representatives 
of South Australia at the Sydney Con- 
vention, which save birth to the abortive 
Federal Council of Australasia. Mr. 
Downer took the leadership of the op- 
position during Mr. Bray's absence in 
Europe in 1885; and having carried a 
motion of want of confidence in the 
Cotton Ministry, assumed office in June 
1885 as Premier and Attorney-General. 
The accession of Mr. Bray, later in the 
same year, strengthened the Ministry, 
which carried a tariff, going a con- 
siderable way in a protective direction. 
In Jan. 1887 Mr. Downer left for Eng- 
land to attend the Colonial Conference 
as one of the delegates of South Aus- 
tralia. He attended all the sittings, 
and was entrusted by his Australian 
colleagues with the duty of presenting 
the case for an assimilation of the law 
of England with that of the colonies, 

38 



Sow] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



in regard to marriage with a deceased 
wife's sister. During his stay in Eng- 
land he was offered and accepted the 
distinction of K.C. M.O. Sir John Downer 
only returned to Adelaide to learn of the 
defeat of his Government, and the resigna- 
tion of his colleagues in June 1887 during 
his absence. He has not since taken 
office, but was appointed one of the 
delegates of South Australia to the 
Federation Convention held in Sydney 
in March 1891. Sir John, who was 
elected a member of the Council of 
the University of Adelaide in Nov. 
1887, married Elizabeth, daughter of 
J. Henderson. 

Downes, Xajor-General Major Francis, 
C.M.G., Commandant South Australian 
Forces, is the son of the late William 
Downes, of Dedham, Essex, and was born 
on Feb. 10th, 1834. He was educated at the 
Boyal Military Academy, Woolwich ; en- 
tered the Boyal Artillery in 1852, became 
lieut-colonel in 1877, colonel in 1882, 
and major-general (retired) in 1884. He 
served in the Crimean Campaign 1855 
(medal with clasps and Turkish medal) ; 
was Instructor in Fortifications at the 
Boyal Military College in 1858-9; com- 
manded Boyal Artillery at Mauritius in 
1863-5, and at St. Helena in 1869-71 ; was 
for five years Instructor to the Artillery 
School for Militia and Volunteer Officers ; 
and subsequently held the position of 
Commandant of the South Australian 
Military Forces from 18Y7 to 1885, being 
a Member of the Boyal Commission on 
Defences in 1881, and Secretary of De- 
fence for Victoria from 1885 to 1888. 
In March of the latter year, he was 
reappointed Commandant of the South 
Australian Military Forces. He married, 
in 1858, Helen, daughter of the late 
B. Chamberlin, of Catton, Norwich. 
Major-General Downes was created C.M.G. 
in 1885. 

DoyleJUffht &?• Jeremiah Joseph, D.D., 
first Roman Catholic Bishop of Grafton, 
N.8. W. This was one of the new dioceses 
created in 1887, and Dr. Doyle was con- 
secrated the first Bishop on August 28th 
of that year. 

Drake, Sir William Henry, K.C.B., 
son of John Drake, Deputy Com- 
missary-General, by Maria, daughter of 
George 8tory, of Silksworth Hall, county 
Durham, was born in 1812, and entered 
the War Office in 1831. He was Colonial 



[Dre 

Treasurer of Western Australia from 1838 
to 1848, and Commissary-General and 
Director of Supplies and Transports from 
1871 to 1877. He died on Jan. 28th, 
1882. 

Draper, Bar. Daniel James, was born 
in the parish of Wickham, Hampshire, 
England, in August 1810, and appren- 
ticed to a carpenter. At the age of twenty 
he became a local preacher amongst the 
Methodists. Becoming a regular minister 
in 1834, he married Bliss Webb, a farmer's 
daughter, and emigrated to Tasmania in 
1836, subsequently devoting himself to 
missionary work in Sydney. Leaving New 
South Wales, he settled in Adelaide in 
1846, and during his nine years 1 residence 
accomplished marvels in the way of 
chapel building, besides otherwise greatly 
promoting the extension of the body with 
which he was associated. In 1855 he 
became head of the Wesleyan denomina- 
tion in Victoria, and discharged the 
onerous duties of the position till March 
1865, when he took a trip to England to 
recruit his health. He secured his return 
passage in the ill-fated London, which 
sailed from Plymouth on Jan. 5th, 1866, 
and foundered on the 11th in the Bay of 
Biscay, when out of 239 souls on board 
220 perished. Mr. and Mrs. Draper were 
amongst the victims, the former bravely 
encouraging and exhorting his fellow- 
passengers to the last. The Draper 
Memorial Church in Adelaide commemo- 
rates the esteem in which he was held by 
the citizens. 

Drew, William Leworthy Ooode,C.M.G., 
son of Captain George Drew, R.N., was 
born at Broadstairs, Kent, on Oct. 14th, 
1826, and received his education at the 
Blue Coat School. After fourteen years 
in H.M.'s navy, five years as paymaster of 
H.M.S. Fantome on the Australian station, 
he settled in New South Wales in June 
1856, and was appointed secretary to the 
Railway Commissioners, and afterwards 
secretary to the Marine Board of that 
colony. He then entered the Union 
Bank, Sydney ; but his health failing he 
engaged in country pursuits. In Feb. 
1862, however, he accepted the Under- 
Secretaryship of the Treasury of Queens- 
land. In Oct. 1877 he was appointed 
Auditor-General of that colony — a post 
which he held till Dec. 1889, when he 
became Chairman of the Civil Service 
Board and of the Civil Service Investment 



139 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Dri] 

Board. M r. Drew, who has been Chairman 
of the Immigration Board, Brisbane, 
sinoe July 1883, was in 1856 made "Fleet 
Paymaster " by Queen's warrant. In 1891 
he was created C.M.G. 

Driver, Biohard, M.L.A., was born at 
Coolah, near Liverpool, N.S.W., on Sept. 
16th, 1829, and was admitted as attorney 
and solicitor of the Supreme Court of 
that colony in 1856, being subsequently 
appointed solicitor to the Corporation of 
Sydney. He was elected to the Assembly 
for West Macquarie in 1860, and after- 
wards successively represented Carcoar 
and Windsor. He carried the Game Act, 
and was Minister for Lands in the Parkes 
Government from March to August 1877. 
He died in Sydney on July 7th, 1880. 

Drury, Albert Victor, son of the late 
Rev. William Drury, and brother of Lieut.- 
Colonel Edward Robert Drury, C.M.G. 
(£.t?.), entered the Civil Service of Queens- 
land in March 1862, and was appointed 
clerk of the Executive Council in Jan. 
1867. He acted as private secretary to 
Sir Arthur R. Palmer, K.C.M.G., when 
Administrator of the Government from 
Oct. 1888 to May 1889. 

Drury, Liaut.-Colonal Edward Robert, 
C.M.G., J. P.,is a son of the late Rev. William 
Drury, MJL, sometime a master at Harrow 
School, and tutor to the late Prince Consort 
and his brother and to the sons of the 
King of the Belgians, by his wife Anne, 
daughter of Robert Nicholas, M.P., of 
Ashton Keynes, Wilts. He was born and 
educated at Brussels, and in 1862 emi- 
grated to Australia, entering the service 
of the Bank of Australasia in the following 
year. In 1860 he was appointed manager 
of that Bank in Brisbane ; and in 1872 he 
became general manager of the Queens- 
land National Bank,which appointment he 
still holds. Mr. Drury served in the first 
volunteer corps raised in Queensland in 
1854, and holds the rank of lieut.-colonel 
commanding the Field Artillery of the 
Queensland Defence Force, and has 
several times filled the position of Acting 
Commandant. His services in connec- 
tion with the force were favourably 
noticed by H.R.H. the Commander-in- 
Chief in 1883, and he was deputed by the 
Queensland Government to give evidence 
before the Royal Commission on the 
defence of British possessions, being 
created C.M.G. in 1885. Mr. Drury is 
consul for Belgium, and a J.P. of Queens- 



[Diy 



land. He married, in 1869, Barbara, 
daughter of the late John Grahame, of 
Sydney, N.S.W. 

Dry, Hon. Sir Biohard, formerly Speaker 
and Premier of Tasmania, was the son of 
an Irishman who was exiled to Van Die- 
men's Land in the early part of the century 
in connection with the United Ireland 
troubles. He was born at Elphin, near 
Launceston, Tasmania, on August 15th, 
1815, and at an early age succeeded to 
his father's estate at Quamby. Having- 
been appointed a member of the old 
Legislative Council, he became the leader 
of the party which sought to compel the 
Imperial Government to relieve the local 
Treasury of the expenses of the police 
and gaol system rendered necessary by 
the existence of convictism. This and 
the agitation for responsible government 
brought the non-official members of the 
council into collision with Governor 
Wilmot, who forced his financial measures 
through the Council with a high hand. 
The dispute came to a head in 1845, and 
after much unavailing opposition, Sir 
Richard Dry and five of his colleagues 
in the first instance absented themselves 
from the Legislative Council, so as to 
prevent the forming of a quorum, and 
ultimately resigned their seats in that 
body. Henceforward they were known 
as "the Patriotic Six," Sir Richard 
becoming the idol of the hour, and secur- 
ing a popularity which his exceptional 
qualities enabled him to retain to the last 
hour of his life. In 1848 the Patriotic 
Six were reappointed to the Council by 
the Queen's mandate. As the first native 
politician to take the leading part in 
championing the rights of his native 
land, Sir Richard Dry will always be an 
interesting figure in Tasmanian history. 
When the first instalment of representa- 
tive institutions was granted, in 1851, 
he was elected to the new Legislative 
Council for Launceston, and was chosen 
Speaker, a post which he retained till 
1855, when he retired from ill-health, the 
Council complimenting him by a request 
that he should sit for his portrait to be 
placed on the walls of the chamber in 
which he had played so high-minded a 
part. Sir Richard subsequently visited 
England, and was knighted in 1858. 
After his return to the colony he re- 
entered Parliament, and took office as 
Premier and Colonial Secretary in Nov. 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



DnC] 

1866, his term of power being ended by 
his death on August 1st, 1869. The 
"Dry Scholarship* 1 was founded in his 
honour in connection with the Tasmanian 
Scholarships by public subscription. Sir 
Richard married a daughter of George 
Meredith, of Cambria, Great Swan Port, 
who still survives. 

Du Cane, Sir Charles, K.C.M.G., formerly 
Governor of Tasmania, son of Captain 
Charles Du Cane, B.N., of Brazted Park, 
Witham, Essex, by his marriage with 
Frances, second daughter of Bev. Charles 
Prideauz Brune, of Prideauz Place, Pad- 
stow, Cornwall, was born at Byde, Isle of 
Wight, in 1825, and educated at the 
Charterhouse, and at Exeter College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. (fourth 
class in classics and mathematics) in 
1847 and M.A. in 1864. Sir Charles 
represented Maldon in the House of 
Commons from 1852 to 1853, when he was 
unseated on petition, and North Essex 
from March 1857 until Deo. 1868, and 
was a Civil Lord of the Admiralty from 
1866 to Pec. 1868, when he was appointed 
Governor of Tasmania, a post which he 
held from Jan. 1869 to March 1874, when 
he returned to England and was created 
K.C.M.G. in 1875, and appointed Chair- 
man of the Board of Customs, a position 
which he filled from 1878 till his death on 
Feb. 25th, 1889. Sir Charles married, in 
June 1863, Hon. Georgians Susan Copley, 
youngest daughter of Lord Lyndhurst. 

Duffltld, Walter, sometime Treasurer 
of South Australia, was member for En- 
counter Bay in the Legislative Assembly 
of that colony from 1857 to 1868 and 
from 1870 to 1871, and was Treasurer in 
the Hart Government from Oct. 1865 to 
March 1866, and in the Ministry of Mr. 
(now Judge) Boucaut, which succeeded 
it, from the latter date till May 1867. 
Mr. Daffield subsequently sat in the 
Legislative Council from 1873 to 1879, 
and died on Nov. 5th, 1882. 

Duffy, Eon. Sir Charles Gavan,K.C.M.G., 
sometime Premier of Victoria, was born 
in Monaghan, Ireland, where his father 
was a farmer, in 1816. In his twentieth 
year Mr. Duffy became sub-editor of the 
Dublin Morning Register, and entered as 
a law student at King's Inn. In 1839 
he became editor and proprietor of the 
Belfast Vindicator. He returned to 
Dublin in 1842, and, in conjunction with 
John Dillon and Thomas Davis, es- 



[Duf 



tablished the Nation. In 1844 Mr. Duffy 
was tried and convicted of sedition along 
with O'Connell ; the conviction, however, 
was set aside on appeal by the House 
of Lords. In 1846 O'Connell quarrelled 
with the Young Ireland party, of which 
the Nation was the organ, and they 
established the Irish Confederation, of 
which Mr. Duffy was one of the leaders. 
The famine in Ireland in 1848 and the 
example of the Continental revolutions 
of that period constrained Young Ireland 
to the advooaoy of extreme oourses. An 
Act was passed to control the Irish press, 
and under its provisions Mr. Duffy, John 
Martin, John Mitchell, andDr.O'Doherty, 
now of Queensland, were indicted for 
treason felony. In Mr. Duffy's case, 
after he had been four times successively 
arraigned, it was found impossible to 
procure a conviction, the juries disagree- 
ing at each trial. Subsequently, in 1852, 
he revived the Nation, which had been 
suppressed, conducting it on constitu- 
tional and anti-physical force lines. He 
also joined in starting the Tenant League, 
in which the Protestants of Ulster co- 
operated with the Catholics of the south, 
and which succeeded in sending fifty 
members to the Parliament elected in 
1852. Amongst the latter was Mr. 
Duffy, who was returned for New Boss, 
after a notable contest with Sir Thomas 
Bedington, Under-Seoretary for Ireland 
in the Government that had prosecuted 
him. He now worked in the House of 
Commons in association with Frederic 
Lucas and George Henry Moore, the 
founder of the independent Irish party 
in the House of Commons which sprang 
out of the Tenant League. After four 
trying sessions, the defection of a large 
section of that party induced him to 
resign his seat in Parliament; and in 
Nov. 1855 he emigrated to Australia. 
Mr. Duffy was reoeived with extraor- 
dinary enthusiasm by his fellow-country- 
men at the Antipodes. At a banquet in 
Melbourne, presided over by his subse- 
quent opponent Mr. (afterwards Sir John) 
O'Shanassy, he made his famous declara- 
tion that he was still an Irish rebel to 
the backbone and spinal marrow. Mr. 
Lang, the veteran Sydney publicist, 
pressed him warmly to take up his abode 
in New South Wales, but he adhered to 
his decision in favour of Victoria, where 
property valued at £5000 was purchased 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Daf 



and presented to him by his admirers in 
order to give him a qualification either 
for the Upper or Lower House of the 
Legislature. So great was the popular 
enthusiasm that the diggers at BaUarat 
pledged themselves to contribute an 
ounce of gold apiece to the presentation 
fund. He was elected to the first Par- 
liament of Victoria for Villiers and 
Heytesbury, his experience of the House 
of Commons enabling him to aid mate- 
rially in introducing the practice of that 
body into the new Assembly. In the 
first session he was chairman of a select 
committee on a federal union of the 
colonies, whose labours gave the original 
impulse to Mr. Darcy M'Gee in Canada 
some years later in founding the new 
Dominion ; • and he passed, against the 
determined resistance of the Government, 
the first Act of Parliament of Victoria, 
being one abolishing the property quali- 
fication for the popular branch of the 
Legislature. In the same session (March, 
1857) he became Commissioner of Pub- 
lic Works and chairman of the Central 
Road Board in the second responsible 
Government, Mr. (afterwards Sir John) 
O'Shanassy being Chief Secretary and 
Premier. This administration only lasted 
till April 29th, but in March 1858 Mr. 
O'Shanassy resumed office, with Mr. 
Duffy as Minister of Lands. In about a 
year a dispute arose with Mr. O'Shanassy 
and some of his colleagues on the policy 
and management of the public estate, 
and Mr. Duffy resigned office in March 
1859. On the defeat of the O'Shanassy 
Government in October of the same year, 
Mr. Nicholson, who succeeded him, 
offered Mr. Duffy and any one political 
friend he thought proper to select places 
in the new administration, but he de- 
clined to accept these terms unless a 
majority of the Cabinet were of his own 
way of thinking on the question of land 
law reform. In I860, on the defeat of 
the Nicholson Government, a new ad- 
ministration was proposed by a coalition 
between Mr. Heales and Mr. Verdon 
with Mr. Brooke and Mr. Aspinall, of 
which Mr. Duffy was designed to be 
Premier; but as the Governor, Sir Henry 
Barkly, refused to promise a dissolution 
in certain contingencies, Mr. Duffy de- 
clined to proceed, and the former 
Government were recalled. He returned 
to office, however, in Nov. 1861, as 



Minister of Lands in a coalition Ministry 
of which Mr. O'Shanassy, Mr. Haines, 
and Mr. Nicholson, each of whom had 
been Premier, were members, and next 
year he passed the well-known Land 
Act of 1862. He wrote a pamphlet illus- 
trating the new Act, entitled "Guide 
to the Land Law," of which three pub- 
lishers issued separate editions in the 
colony, and three others published sepa- 
rate editions in London. But the 
industrious classes whom the new law 
was intended to benefit hired themselves 
to the pastoral tenants to defeat it, and 
it was widely evaded, with the result of 
still further assisting the aggregation of 
large estates. On an attempt to amend 
the Act the Government were defeated, 
and Sir James M'Culloch came into office 
in June 1863, but Mr. Duffy, though 
displaced, supported all the land reforms 
proposed by the new administration. 
In 1864 he visited Europe for two years, 
and on his return speedily re-entered 
Parliament (in 1867) as member for Dal- 
housie. The Darling grant controversy 
was then commencing, and he took at 
the hustings the grounds which were 
finally adopted by nearly all parties — that 
the grant ought never to have been 
made, but that having been made, it 
ought to be sanctioned if sent in a sepa- 
rate Bill to the Council, on which it had 
been attempted to be forced in the shape 
of a tack to the Appropriation Bill. 
While a private member, Mr. Duffy was 
chairman of a Royal Commission which 
brought up a report that led to the ex- 
periment of payment of members being 
tried in Victoria, and chairman of a 
Royal Commission on the subject of 
federation of the Australian colonies, 
which recommended a permissive Act 
(which would enable two or more of the 
colonies to join together at their dis- 
cretion), a principle which was applied 
to the Cape of Good Hope and the 
South African colonies by the Imperial 
Government. In 1869, the M<Cultoch 
Government having been defeated on 
the motion of Mr. Robert Byrne, that 
gentleman invited Mr. Duffy to become 
Premier and form the new administra- 
tion; but the state of parties at the 
moment made the time inopportune, and, 
after a lengthy consultation with political 
associates, he declined to proceed. In 
1870 Mr. Duffy ventilated a project for 



142 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



the neutralisation of the colonies in case 
of the mother ooontry being involved in 
war, but it met with no very definite 
encouragement from any contemporary 
Australian statesman. In Jane of the 
next year, on the defeat of the fourth 
M'Culloch Government, Mr. Duffy at 
length became Premier. Daring his 
administration the whole country was 
for the tyrst time thrown open for selec- 
tion by the abolition of the reserves 
made in favour of the pastoral tenants, 
and the tariff was made more protective. 
In 1872 Mr. Duffy was chairman of a 
conference of Cabinet Ministers from all 
the Australian colonies to press on the 
Imperial Government the repeal of the 
law limiting inter-colonial legislation on 
fiscal subjects, an object which has 
since been effected in pursuance of that 
remonstrance. After a year the Govern- 
ment were defeated by a narrow majority 
nominally on an amendment moved by 
Mr. Ramsay, but really in consequence of 
certain alleged abuses of patronage, in- 
cluding the appointment of Mr. Cashel 
Hoey to the position of Secretary to the 
Agent-General's office in London. Lord 
Canterbury having refused him an appeal 
to the country, Mr. Duffy resigned in 
Jane 1872. A few months afterwards he 
was offered a companionship of St. 
Michael and St. George, which he re- 
spectfully declined In May 1873 he was 
knighted by patent, and in 1874 he made 
a second visit to Europe, his eldest son 
being elected for Dalhousie in his father's 
place. On his visit to Ireland he was 
invited to re-enter the House of Commons, 
a county member making way for him ; 
but he declined on the ground that he 
disapproved of the programme which had 
been substituted for the policy of the 
repeal party. On his return to Australia 
in 1875 Sir Charles was elected for North 
Gippsland, one of the largest consti- 
tuencies in Victoria, without his presence 
at the election being required. In return- 
ing thanks he stated the remarkable fact 
that during the twenty-four years since be 
first entered Parliament he had never lost 
an election. On the assembling of Parlia- 
ment in May, he was unanimously chosen 
Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, and 
discharged the duties of the post till 
Feb. 1880. In the meantime it was 
suggested that Sir Charles Duffy should 
accompany the embassy to England on 



P>^ 

the subject of reform of the Upper House 
in 1879. In the end, however, the project 
was abandoned, as it met with little 
popular favour, and Messrs. Berry and 
Pearson went alone. In 1880 Sir Charles 
Duffy, who had been created K.C.M.G. in 
1877, returned to Europe, and has since 
resided in the south of France. He is in 
receipt of a pension of £1000 a year from 
the colony of Victoria under an early act 
for the benefit of ex-Ministers which 
was quickly repealed. It is understood 
that Mr. Parnell was not favourable to 
the return of Sir Charles Duffy to public 
life as a member of the House of Commons 
and of the Irish Parliamentary party. It 
is to be doubted also whether Sir Charles 
Duffy could have rendered that un- 
questioning obedience to his leadership 
which he desired in his subordinate 
colleagues. Sir Charles Duffy was chair- 
man of the Trustees of the National 
Gallery of Victoria, and took an active 
share in projects for encouraging art, 
literature, and industrial enterprise in 
that colony. Since his return to Europe in 
1880, he has published " Young Ireland : 
a Fragment of Irish History, 1840-50 " 
(London, 1880) ; " Four Years of Irish 
History, 1846-49" (London, 1883), being a 
sequel to " Young Ireland " : the " League 
of the North and South" (London, 
1886), which contains a trenchant refuta- 
tion of John Mitchell's personal charges 
against him ; and written on colonial and 
Irish questions in the Contemporary 
Review, Nineteenth Century, National 
Review, Freeman's Journal, and other 
periodicals. Sir Charles Duffy married 
first, in 1842, Emily, daughter of Francis 
McLaughlin, of Belfast (who died in 
1846) ; secondly, in 1846, Susan, daughter 
of Philip Hughes, of Newry, who died in 
1878 ; and thirdly, in 1881, Louise, eldest 
daughter of George Hall, of Rockferry, 
Cheshire, who died in 1890. 

Duffy, Hon. John Gavan, M.LjV., 
eldest son of the above, was born in 
Dublin in 1844, and was educated at 
Stonyhurst. In 1869 he went to Victoria, 
where he took the Vice-Chancellor's prize 
for the best English essay at the Mel- 
bourne University. He is in practice as 
a solicitor in Melbourne, and has repre- 
sented Dalhousie in the Legislative 
Assembly since 1874. He is a moderate 
Liberal and Freetrader, and was Minister 
of Agriculture in Mr. Service's first 



143 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Dun] 

Government from March to August 1880. 
He was Postmaster-General in the Monro 
Government from Nov. 1890 to Feb. 1892, 
when he took office as Attorney-General 
tinder Mr. Shiels. In April 1892, how- 
ever, he resigned with a view of becoming 
a candidate for the Speakership of the 
Legislative Assembly. He was, however, 
defeated without a division, and was 
readmitted to the Shiels Cabinet as a 
Minister without portfolio in May 1892. 

Duncan, William Augustine, C.M.G., 
was born in Aberdeenshire in 1811, and 
educated for the ministry of the Scotch 
Church, but became a Roman Catholic, 
and was a student at the Soots Benedictine 
College, Ratisbon, and then at Blairs, 
Kincardineshire, where he renounced the 
intention he had formed of joining the 
priesthood. He married, and was a book- 
seller and publisher at Aberdeen. He 
emigrated to Sydney in 1888, and the 
next year was appointed editor and 
trustee of a new paper, the Australasian 
Chronicle, which was to be the organ of 
the Roman Catholic party. In 1843 Mr. 
Duncan started Duncan's Weekly Register. 
He was appointed Sub-collector of Cus- 
toms at Moreton Bay in 1856, and after 
his settlement at Brisbane was appointed 
Water Police Magistrate, Guardian of 
Minors, and Local Immigration Commis- 
sioner. In May 1859 he returned to 
Sydney, and was made a member of the 
National Board of Education and Collector 
of Customs. He was created C.M.G. in 
1881, when he resigned the position of 
Collector of Customs of New 8outh 
Wales, and died on June 26th, 1885. 

Dunne, Bight Rev. John, D.D., first 
Roman Catholic Bishop of Wilcannia, 
N.S. W. This was one of the new dioceses 
created in 1887, Dr. Dunne being conse- 
crated the first Bishop on August 14th, 
1887. 

Dunne, the Meet Rev. Robert, D.D., 
Roman Catholic Archbishop of Brisbane, 
was born near Clonmel, co. Tipperary, Ire- 
land, in 1833. He received his preliminary 
education at the Grammar School at Lis- 
more, and went thence to Rome, to pursue 
his ecclesiastical studies. He entered the 
Irish College in that city, and attended 
lectures at the Roman University. After 
a brilliant course he was ordained, in 
1855, a priest for the Archdiocese of 
Dublin. Returning to Ireland, he was 
appointed a professor in the Seminary of 



[But 



St. Lawrence OToole, one of the colleges 
of the Catholic University of Dublin. 
The President of this Seminary, the late 
Bishop O'Quinn, was appointed, in 1859, 
the first Bishop of Brisbane, and soon 
afterwards, in 1863, Dr. Dunne went oat 
to Queensland as a priest of the diocese 
of Brisbane. He officiated in Brisbane 
until 1868, when he was appointed pariah 
priest of Toowoomba, which office he 
held until 1881, when he left on a visit to 
Europe. In 1869 he was created a Doctor 
of Divinity by a brief of Rome. He 
returned from Europe at the close of the 
year 1881, and found letters from Rome 
appointing him Bishop of the Roman 
Catholic see of Brisbane, then vacant by 
the death of Dr. O'Quinn. Dr. Dunne was 
consecrated Bishop of Brisbane, by the 
late Archbishop Vaughan, in St. Stephen's 
Cathedral, Brisbane, on June 18th, 1882, 
and was created Archbishop of Brisbane 
in 1887, by papal brief. 

Button, Hon. Charles Boydell, J. P., was 
a member of the Legislative Assembly of 
Queensland and Secretary for Lands from 
Nov. 1883 to August 1887; Secretary for 
Works and Mines from the latter date 
till Dec. 1887; and from that date till 
June 1888 Secretary for Railways in the 
first Griffith Government. At the general 
election in 1888 Mr. Dutton was an un- 
successful candidate for the Leiohardt 
district. Mr. Dutton, who embraced Henry 
George's land nationalisation theories, and 
endeavoured as Secretary for Lands to 
give some approximate effect to them In 
legislation, is now a squatter in New 
South Wales. 

Dntton,Fraaeit8taeker ) C.M.G.,F.KG.8. v 
sometime Agent-General for South Aus- 
tralia, was the son of Henry Hampden 
Dutton, British consul at Cuxhaven, on 
the Elbe, and was born at Cuxhaven in 
1816, and educated at Hofwyl, near Berne, 
Switzerland. From his seventeenth to his 
twenty-second year he was employed as 
a mercantile clerk in Brasil and Rio 
Janeiro. In 1839 he joined his elder 
brothers, William Pelham and Frederick 
Hansborough, in New South Wales. The 
former temporarily resided in Portland 
Bay, when engaged in sealing, from 1828 
to 1 838 ; and thus disputed with the Hentys 
the honour of having formed the first 
permanent settlement in the Port Phillip 
district. The other brother, Mr. F. H. 
Dutton, went largely into squatting pur- 



144 



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DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY; 



[EM 



suits in South Australia, and died in 
London in 1890, possessed of the famous 
Anlaby estate in that colony, and of per- 
sonalty amounting to several hundred 
thousand pounds. The subject of this 
notice engaged in commercial pursuits 
in Victoria for two years ; and in 1841 
settled in South Australia, where his 
brother Frederick had preceded him. In 
1843, when acting as overseer to the late 
Captain Bagot, he discovered the Eapunda 
Copper Mine, and in 1845 visited England, 
when he sold his interest in the mine to 
the East India firm of Cockerall, Larpert 
& Co., who made arrangements for work- 
ing it Mr. Dutton was a member of the 
mixed Legislative Council from 1851 to 



1857, and of the Legislative Assembly 
from 1857 to 1866. He was Commissioner 
of Crown Lands and Immigration in the 
Hanson Ministry, from Sept. 1857 to June 
1859, and in the Ministry of which he 
himself was Premier in Jaly 1863. He 
formed his second Administration in 
March 1865, and remained in office till 
the following September, when he became 
Agent-General for South Australia in the 
United Kingdom. Mr. Dutton, who was 
an Associate of the Institute of Civil 
Engineers, and was created C.M.G. in 
Nov. 1872, died in London on Jan. 25tb, 
1877, whilst still occupying the position 
of Agent-General. He was the author of 
" South Australia and its Mines " (1846). 



E 



Eager, Hon. Geoffrey, J. P., the son of 
Richard Eager, who came of a good 
Irish stock, was born in Sydney in 1818, 
and educated at Cape's school. He was 
appointed to the Legislative Council in 
1859, and was Secretary for Public Works 
in Mr. Forstera Ministry, from Oct. 1859 
to March 1860. After resigning his seat 
in the Council he was elected for West 
Sydney in July 1863 ; and was Treasurer 
in Mr. (afterwards Sir) James Martin's 
first Ministry, from Oct. 1863 to Feb. 
1865. In 1865 he was re-elected for West 
Sydney, and was Treasurer in the second 
Martin Ministry, from Jan. 1866 to Oct. 
1868. He was appointed permanent Under 
Secretary to the Treasury in Feb. 1872, 
and retained the post till his death on 
Sept. 12th, 1891. 

Baton, Henry Francis, J.P., Under- 
Treasurer, Victoria, son of William 
Eaton and Esther (Haseldine) his wife, 
was born at East Bridgeford, Nottingham- 
shire, on Sept. 16th, 1831. He emigrated 
to Victoria with a view of going to the 
gold diggings, but sixteen days after his 
arrival in Jan. 1853, was appointed clerk 
in the office of the Colonial Storekeeper, 
Melbourne. Mr. Eaton was transferred 
to the Civil Commissariat in Feb. 1854, 
and inspected the accounts of the depart- 
ment at all the principal goldfields. He 
was appointed Accountant of the Govern- 
ment Stores in Feb. 1855, transferred 
to the Treasury in March 1865, appointed 
Accountant to the Treasury on Feb. 1st, 



1 1887, and Under-Treasurer of Victoria 
(permanent head of the Treasury) on 
I 8ept. 10th, 1889, which office he still 
I holds. Mr. Eaton is Chairman of the 
Police Superannuation Board, a Justice 
of the Peace, and a captain (retired) 
Victorian Volunteer Artillery. He married 
at St. Paul's Church, Kyneton, Victoria, on 
Jan. 17th, 1860, Miss Elizabeth Davy. 

Ebden, Hon. Charles Hotton, sometime 
Auditor-General and Treasurer of Vic- 
toria, was born in London in 1811, and 
when little more than twenty emigrated 
to New South Wales, where he took up 
pastoral country on the Murray and in- 
vested a large sum of money in stock 
and improvements. In 1836 he decided 
to explore the Port Phillip district in 
search of suitable sheep country. In the 
result he formed a station south of the 
Goulburn, in what is now Victoria, and 
later on at Carlsruhe. He formed the first 
crossing-place over the Murray at Albury, 
and the nine thousand sheep which he 
sent to Carlsruhe from his New South 
Wales station in March 1837 were the 
first sheep which came into Victoria 
overland. In July 1843 Mr. Ebden was 
returned at the head of the poll as one 
of the first four members sent by Port 
Phillip to the New South Wales Legis- 
lative Council, which was then the sole 
chamber, this election being the first for 
members of Parliament which ever took 
place in Australia. Mr. Ebden sat in 
the New South Wales Legislative Council 



J45 



DICTIONARY Of AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Edw] 

for the foil term of five years, bat 
declined to offer himself for re-election 
in 1848, on the ground that the represen- 
tation of Port Phillip at Sydney was a 
farce. Mr. Bbden was an active worker 
for separation from New South Wales, 
and having been in the meantime re- 
elected to the Legislative Council of New 
South Wales, he seconded the address 
in reply to the Governor's speech when, 
in March 1851, the Council was con- 
vened to arrange the preliminaries for 
conferring a distinct constitution on 
Victoria. After that was achieved later 
in the year, he was appointed Auditor- 
General of Victoria by Governor Latrobe 
in July. This post he held, together 
with a seat in the Legislative and Exe- 
cutive Councils, till Oct. 1862, when he 
resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Childers, afterward Chancellor of the 
Exchequer of the United Kingdom. Mr. 
Ebden .then revisited England, but re- 
turned to Victoria in 1866; and enter- 
ing the Assembly, was Treasurer in the 
second Haines Ministry from April 1857 
to March 1858. Mr. Ebden was chair- 
man of the St Kilda and Brighton 
Railway, but went back to England in 
1860. There he resided for six years, 
when he again visited Victoria, and died 
at the Melbourne Club in Oct 1867. 

Edwards, Xajor-0eneral Sir James 
Bevan, B.E., K.C.M.G., C.B., is the son of 
Samuel Price Edwards and Jane his 
wife, and was born on Nov. 5th, 1834, at 
Wimburn, Staffordshire. He married, in 
1868, Alice Anne, only daughter of Ralph 
Brocklebank, of ChildwaU Hall, Lan- 
cashire. 8ir Bevan, who entered the 
army in Dec. 1862, as second lieutenant 
in the Royal Engineers, and became 
lieutenant in Feb. 1854, was ordered 
to the Crimea in the following year, 
and for his services in the demoli- 
tion of Sebastopol docks received the 
British and Turkish medals. He served 
in India during the Mutiny, becoming 
captain in April 1859. For services at 
the siege and capture of Chandairee 
and Jhansi, the capture of Calpee, and 
actions at Betwa Koouch, Gowlowlee, 
and before Gwalior, he was mentioned 
in despatches, received the medal with 
clasp, and was appointed brevet-major in 
1860. He served in China in 1864-5 
with the late General Gordon, and 
received a gold medal from the Imperial 



[Sdi 



146 



Chinese Government. Sir Bevan becam 
major in the Royal Engineers in 1872 
brevet lieut-colonel in 1871, lieut-colonc 
in the Royal Engineers, brevet colon* 
and C.B. in 1877. He was employed ii 
1877, when war was imminent wit! 
Russia, on a confidential mission to th 
east end of the Mediterranean, on behal 
of the War Office and Admiralty. Ii 
1882 he was placed on half -pay, bu 
was employed as colonel on the stai 
commanding the Royal Engineers ii 
the Northern district from 1884 to 1885 
in February of which year he went i 
the same capacity with the expeditionar 
force to the Soudan, where, for service 
at the actions at Hasheen and Tama 
he was mentioned in despatches am 
received a medal with clasp. From 188. 
to 1888 he was commandant of th 
8chool of Military Engineering; an< 
having been promoted to major-genera 
in 1887, commanded the troops in Chin 
from 1889 to 1890. It was whilst sta 
tioned at Hong Kong that Genera 
Edwards received instructions to proceec 
to Australia and inspect the military 
forces of the several Australian colonies 
Arriving in July 1889, he visited eacl 
colony, and recommended a genera 
federation of the local forces for def eno 
purposes, his suggestions forming th 
basis of Sir Henry Parkes' subsequen 
action in favour of the political federa 
tion of the Australasian group. In adrti 
tion General Edwards furnished separat 
reports on the defences of each colon) 
and received the special thanks of th 
Secretary of State for the Colonies fc 
his valuable services. General Edward 
returned to England in 1890, and wa 
created K.C.M.G. on New Tear's Da 
1891. 

Edwards, Worley Basset, son of Chaxli 
Scatcherd Wilson Edwards and Cornel 
Allen (Waller), his wife, was born : 
London on Sept 5th, 1850, and went 1 
Otago, N.Z., with his parents in 18| 
Having embraced the practice of the laj 
he gained a leading position in the pi 
fession, and was appointed a judge of tj 
native land court, with the position 1 
a puisne judge of the Supreme Court 1 
New Zealand, in 1890 by the Atkinsj 
Government. When the Ballance Cabin 
came into power in 1891, they disputy 
the appointment as ultra vire$, but V 
New Zealand Court of Appeal decick 



o 



MCTIONARY OF AUstftALASIAM BlOGfcAMiV. 



[EM 



that the nomination was valid. The 
sase was carried to the Privy Council, 
ind in May 1892 the Judicial Committee 
gave a decision adverse to the legality 
)f the appointment, on the ground that 
Parliament had not previously been asked 
to provide Judge Edwards's salary. Mr. 
Edwards married at Wellington in June 
1886 Miss Mary A. Cutten. 

Egan, Hon. Daniel, M.LJL, was born at 
Windsor, New South Wales, in 1803, and 
ras foreman of the dockyards of Sydney 
intil the establishment was broken up, 
vhen be engaged in mercantile pursuits, 
fie was an alderman of the city of Sydney, 
ind Mayor in 1 853. Mr. Egan was elected 
» the Legislative Council in 1854, and 
n 1856 was returned to the first Legis- 
ative Assembly elected under responsible 
government, as member for Monaro. In 
861 he was elected for Eden, but was 
ejected by this constituency in 1869, 
md again returned for Monaro in the 
ame year. He was Postmaster-General 
n the Robertson and Cowper Ministries 
rom Oct. 1868 until his death on Oct 
6th t 1870. 

Eggers, William, was born in 1815 at 

trunswick, Hanover, where his father was 

medical man. After a university train- 

ig he went to London, and entered the 

mployment of the eminent printing firm 

f Clowes, Gilbert & Rivington. In 1848 

e emigrated to Adelaide, where he was 

mployed in the mechanical department 

f the South Australian Register. Sub- 

jquently he started the Aitttralische 

kutsche Zeittmg, the first German news- 

iper published in the colony. He died 

i Jan. 20th, 1882. . 

Elder, Alexander Lang, second son of 

eorge Elder of Kirkcaldy, Scotland, by 

)anna Haddo, his wife, daughter of 

lexander Lang, of Leith, N.B., and 

other of Sir Thomas Elder (q.v.) t was 

»rn at Kirkcaldy in April 1815, and 

aigrated to South Australia in 1839, 

here he founded the well-known mer- 

ntile firm of Elder & Co., now Elder, 

Idth & Co., of Adelaide. In 1853 he 

tat to reside in England, and was head 

I the firm of A. L. Elder & Co., of 

bdon, until his death. Prior to his 

wing South Australia, he was member 

* West Adelaide in the mixed Legis- 

We Council inaugurated in 1851, but 

gned his seat on March 30th, 1853. 

^married a daughter of the late Rev. 



John Baptist Austin, of South Australia. 
He died in London on Sept. 5th, 1885. 

Elder, David, J.P., son of Douglas 
Elder, by his wife Euphemia Adam, was 
born at Dundee on June 19th, 1850, and 
arrived in Melbourne on August 10th t 
1855. He was educated at the Scotch col- 
lege, and entered the office of Mr. Andrew 
Lyell, public accountant, in 1865, becom- 
ing a partner in the firm in 1874. In 
1880 Mr. Elder left the firm to assume 
the Melbourne managership of the New 
Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency 
Company, Limited, and in 1890 he was 
made general manager of the Company in 
Australia. Mr. Elder is a justice of the 
peace for the colonies of Victoria and 
New South Wales, and returning officer 
for the district of Essenden and Fleming- 
ton, in the former colony. He was Com- 
missioner of Savings Banks, but resigned 
the position on visiting England in 1890. 
Mr. Elder married, on May 23rd, 1873, 
Miss Emma Turner. 

Elder, Sir Thomas, G.C.M.G., is the 
fourth son of the late George Elder, of 
Kirkcaldy, Scotland, by his marriage 
with Joanna Haddo, daughter of Alex- 
ander Lang, of Leith, N.B., and was born 
at Kirkcaldy in 1818. He emigrated to 
South Australia in 1854, and joined the 
firm of Elder & Co., founded by his 
brother, Mr. A. L. Elder, and on the 
retirement of the latter became its head, 
as he now is of the present firm of Elder, 
Smith & Co., of Adelaide. Sir Thomas 
Elder was mainly instrumental in form- 
ing the company to work the famous 
Moonta copper mines. He also intro- 
duced camels into the colony for ex* 
ploratory purposes in 1861, and allowed 
of their use by the expeditions under 
Mr. Giles, Major Warburton, and Mr. 
Gosse. Sir Thomas contributed £20,000 
towards the endowment of Adelaide 
University in 1874, and, in addition to 
other benefactions, endowed a scholarship 
in connection with the Royal College of 
Music of London, and offered £5000 
towards the exploration of the interior 
of Australia, and a similar amount to- 
wards the expenses of the proposed 
Antarctic expedition, conditionally, in 
both cases, on a certain amount of public 
subscriptions being obtained. Ultimately 
he undertook the sole cost of the ex- 
ploring expedition under Mr. Lindsay in 
1891-2. He has taken an active interest in 



M7 



o 



Eld] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Emb 



the breeding of first-class stock, and has 
imported some of the finest horses brought 
to Australia. He was a member of the 
Legislative Council from 1863 to 1868 
and from 1871 till 1878, when he resigned 
his seat, and in the latter year went to 
Europe as Honorary Commissioner for 
South Australia at the Paris International 
Exhibition. In 1887 he offered to con- 
tribute £10,000 towards the establish- 
ment of a Medical School in connection 
with the University of Adelaide. He 
was knighted in May 1878, and created 
K.C.M.G. in 1887 and G.C.M.6. in 1888. 

Elder, William, was the eldest son of 
George Elder, of Kirkcaldy, Scotland, and 
Joanna Haddo, his wife, and brother of 
Sir Thomas Elder (g.v.) t and of Mr. A. L. 
Elder (g.v.). He was in the merchant 
service, and first came to South Australia 
in command of the ship Malcolm. He 
subsequently became a member of the 
eminent firm of Elder & Co., of Adelaide, 
but retired in 1854, and returned to reside 
in Scotland. He died at Cannes in April 
1882, at the age of seventy-eight. 

Eliott, Gilbert, C.M.G., sometime Speaker 
of the Legislative Assembly, Queensland, 
was third son of Sir William Eliott, the 6th 
Bart, of that name, of Stobs, Roxburgh- 
shire. He was born in 1796, and married, 
in 1830, Isabella Lucy, daughter of the 
Rev. Robert Eliott, vicar of Askham (who 
died in 1871). He emigrated to Queens- 
land, and was elected to the first Legis- 
lative Assembly of that colony in April 
1860, as member for Wide Bay. On the 
meeting of the House in May he was 
elected the first Speaker, and, having 
been thrice successively re-elected in the 
next three Parliaments, voluntarily re- 
tired in Nov. 1870, when he was created 
C.M.G. He died on June 30th, 1871. 
Mr. Eliott's eldest son, Gilbert William, 
was a police magistrate in Queensland 
from 1866 to 1878 ; and, by his marriage 
with Jane Penelope, daughter of Thomas 
Thomson, of Tasmania, had a son, Gilbert 
Francis Eliott, born in 1859, who is Engi- 
neer of Harbours and Rivers for Northern 
Queensland, and has been resident at 
TownsviUe since 1880. 

Ellery, Robert Lewis John, C.M.G., 
F.R.S., F.R.A.8. ("Government Astronomer 
of Victoria), is the son of the late John 
Bllery, of Cranleigh, Surrey, where he was 
born in July 1827. He was educated 
at the local grammar school, and subse- 



quently adopted the medical profession. 
Astronomical researches, however, mainly 
occupied his attention; and after his 
arrival in Victoria, in 1851, he was em- 
ployed by Mr. La Trobe to establish an 
observatory at Williamstown, near Mel- 
bourne. He assumed office on July 13th, 
1853, and has since, under various titles, 
discharged the functions of Government 
astronomer. In 1858 he initiated a 
geodetic and trigonometrical survey of 
the colony. Five years later the obser- 
vatory was removed from Williamstown 
to its present site in the Domain, Mel- 
bourne, and the meteorological and 
Ehysical observatory, previously conducted 
y Professor Neumayer, was amalgamated 
with it under the control of Mr. Ellery. 
He was President of the Royal Society 
of Victoria for twenty years, and was 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of 
London in 1873. He has been a Fellow 
of the Royal Astronomical Society since 
1855, and is an honorary member of 
numerous foreign scientific societies. Mr. 
Ellery is also a member of the Council 
of the University of Melbourne, and one 
of the trustees of the Public Library. 
In 1873 Mr. Ellery assisted in organising 
the Torpedo and Signal Corps (now the 
Submarine Mining Engineers), and held 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel in connec- 
tion therewith. In 1889 he was created 
C.M.G. His first wife died in 1856, three 
years after their marriage ; and Mr. EUery 
married secondly, in 1858, Margaret, 
daughter of John Shields, of Launoeston, 
Tasmania. 

Emberton, Hon. Horace 0. C, Receiver- 
General and Agent-General of Immigra- 
tion, Fiji, is an Associate of Arts ol 
Oxford University, and a notary public 
He was appointed a stipendiary magistrate 
in Fiji in Oct. 1874, a member of thf 
Lands Commission in Oct. 1875, Registrar' 
General, Chief Police Magistrate, and 
Commissioner of the Supreme Court ii 
1876, Registrar of Titles in 1877, Aotinfl 
Commissioner of Crown Lands and 
Acting Member of the Executive Council 
in 1880, Acting M.L.C. in June 1881 
Acting Receiver-General and Comptroller 
of Stamps, and a Member of the Executive 
Council in 1877, and, along with othd 
duties, Acting Agent-General of Immi- 
gration in 1888. To the latter poet bfl 
was permanently appointed in 1889, and 
holds it in conjunction with that d 

48 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Eva 



Receiver-General and Commissioner of 
Stamps. He is also a member of tbe 
Legislative Council. 

Bmbling, Thomas, M.B.C.S., L.S.A., is 
a native of Oxford, and was born in 1814. 
After embracing the medical profession, 
and becoming M.B.C.S. England, and 
L.8JL London, he left for Australia in 
Oct. I860, and after spending " Black 
Thursday" in Adelaide, 8JL, reached 
Melbourne in Feb. 1851. Shortly after 
his arrival he was commissioned to over- 
haul the management of the Yarra Bend 
Lunatic Asylum ; and having done this 
successfully, commenced the practice of 
his profession in Fitsroy, Melbourne, in 
1863. In the following year he took a 
prominent part in the agitation for the 
redress of the gold-diggers' grievances, 
which culminated in the regrettable out- 
breaks at Ballarat and elsewhere. In 1865 
Dr. Bmbling entered the Legislative 
Council as member for North Bourke, 
and represented Collingwood in the 
Assembly from 1856 to 1869, when he 
retired from political life. Dr. Bmbling 
aided in the start of the eight hours 
movement, and endeavoured to pass the 
Torrens (Land Transfer) Act through 
Parliament; but the measure was for 
the time rejected, though subsequently 
adopted on the initiative of Mr. Service. 
Dr. Bmbling was successful in obtaining 
a committee to inquire into the industries 
of the colony, which reported in favour 
of Protection; but it was several years 
before the present fiscal policy was 
adopted. Dr. Bmbling has lon£ since 
retired from the practice of his pro- 
fession. 

If-g'***, Hon. Thomas, M.L.C., sometime 
Minister of Works, South Australia, was 
a member of the Legislative Council of 
that colony from 1866 to 1878 and from 
1882 till his death, and was Commissioner 
of Public Works in the Hart Government 
from Oct. 1866 to March 1866, and in the 
Boucaut Ministry from the latter date till 
May 1867. He died on Dec 17th, 1884. 

Erskine, Vice-Admiral James Blphin- 
stons, sometime commodore on the 
Australian station, is the second son 
of the late James Erskine, of Cardross, 
Perthshire, and was born on Dec. 2nd, 
1838. He entered the royal navy as a 
cadet in 1852, became sub-lieutenant in 
1859, lieutenant in 1859, commander in 
1862, captain in 1868, rear-admiral in 



1886, and vice-admiral in 1891. In May 
1880 he was appointed private secretary 
to- Lord Northbrook on the tatter's be- 
coming First Lord of the Admiralty. 
He was commodore on the Australian 
station from June 1881 to 1884, and on 
Nov. 6th in the latter year hoisted the 
British flag at Port Moresby, and pro- 
claimed the British protectorate over the 
south coast of New Guinea and the ad- 
jacent islands. Admiral Erskine was 
naval aide-de-camp to the Queen from 
Dec. 1882 to Jan. 1886, and was a Lord 
of the Admiralty from Feb. to August 
1886. From Dec. 1888 to Deo. 1891 he 
was senior officer commanding on the 
coast of Ireland. In May 1892 Admiral 
Erskine wrote to the Time* expressing 
his doubts as to whether under any 
circumstances the recruiting of Kanaka 
labour for the Queensland sugar planta- 
tions could be conducted with freedom 
from abuse and without depopulating 
the islands whence the supply was drawn. 
He married in 1886 Margaret Eliza, 
daughter of Bev. John Constable, of 
Marston Biggott, Somersetshire. 

Evans, Hon. Georgs Samuel, LL.D., one 
of the earliest English settlers in New 
Zealand and for some time a Minister of 
the Crown in Victoria, was admitted to 
the English Bar, and early became as- 
sociated with the Wakefield colonisation 
schemes. He decided to go out with the 
first party of settlers to Wellington (Port 
Nicholson), N.Z., under the auspices of 
Colonel William Wakefield, who had 
selected the site on Cook Straits in the 
previous year. He sailed from London 
m the Adelaide on Sept. 18th, 1839, and 
arrived at Port Nicholson with his 
family early in 1840, another eminent 
jurist, the late Sir Richard Davis Hanson 
(0.t?.), who however, held a secondary 
position to Dr. Evans, having previously 
landed from the Cuba. Colonel Wakefield 
had selected Petone as the site of the 
future capital of New Zealand, but there 
was a strong feeling amongst the emi- 
grants that tbe site of the present city 
of Wellington was the preferable one. 
Colonel Wakefield was, however, obsti- 
nate until the arrival of Dr. Evans, 
who called a public meeting of the 
pioneer settlers, and used his oratorical 
powers with such effect that the popu- 
lar feeling aroused compelled Colonel 
Wakefield to give way. Dr. Evans was 



149 



Digitized by 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Eva 



thus in a sense the " father " of 
Wellington (then called Thorndon). It 
must be borne in mind that when the 
foundation of the Port Nicholson settle- 
ment was projected in Loudon England 
had not yet annexed New Zealand. A 
self-governing constitution was therefore 
drawn up under date Sept. 14th, 1839, 
which all the settlers were expected 
to sign. Under this constitution a com- 
mittee or council of colonists was ap- 
pointed, of which Colonel Wakefield was 
president, and Dr. Evans the next most 
important member. Though only given 
the curious title of " umpire," the latter 
was virtually the chief judicial authority 
of the settlement, both in civil and cri- 
minal cases. The first meeting of the 
committee was held on March 2nd, 1840, 
and in the meantime Captain Hobson had 
landed further north with a commission 
as first Lieutenant-Governor. He was 
furious when he heard of the proceedings 
at Port Nicholson, characterising the 
actions of the council of colonists as high 
treason. He at once proclaimed the 
Queen's sovereignty over both the North 
and South Islands, a proceeding which 
might otherwise have been long delayed, 
and in hot haste despatched the acting 
Colonial Secretary, Willoughby Shortland, 
to Port Nicholson to dissolve the coun- 
cil, displace their officers, and cancel 
their acts. Instead, however, of meeting 
with opposition, Shortland was cordially 
welcomed by the supposed rebellious 
settlers when he arrived at Port Nichol- 
son on June 2nd, 1840. He was at once 
waited on by Dr. Evans and two others, 
who assured him of the loyalty of the 
community. Two days later the pro- 
visional government was declared illegal, 
and the Queen's authority formally pro- 
claimed. On July 1st following a great 
public meeting was held, at which Dr. 
Evans moved the adoption of a loyal 
address to Captain Hobson in a long 
speech, in which, whilst vindicating the 
legality of the proceedings of the council, 
he advised the settlers to sacrifice their 
feelings and submit to its dissolution with 
a good grace. He strongly advocated 
the claims of Wellington to be regarded 
as the seat of government, and the 
address was then adopted. On August 
19th Dr. Evans presided over another 
meeting at which the reply of Governor 
Hobson to the address was received. 



Subsequently the meeting deputed Dr. 
Evans, Mr. Hanson, and Mr. Moreing to 
proceed to Sydney to lay before the 
Governor of New South Wales (Sir George 
Gipps), who then had superior jurisdiction 
over New Zealand, the views of the 
settlers on the land question, a Bill being 
then before the Legislative Council of 
New South Wales having for its object 
to cancel all rights acquired of the Maoris 
except such as her Maiesty might allow. 
The Bill was passed, but it was really 
more particularly aimed at the exorbitant 
claims of- New South Wales residents 
like Mr. Wentworth, who professed to 
have acquired twenty million acres from 
the Maoris, than at the requirements 
of genuine settlers such as those at Port 
Nicholson. Dr. Evans and his colleagues 
were therefore successful in their mis- 
sion, a fact which they reported to a 
public meeting on Dec. 11th. In the 
meantime the Government did not give 
satisfaction, and in July 1841, when 
Governor Hobson proposed revisiting Port 
Nicholson, Dr. Evans took an active part 
in opposing the presentation of a con- 
gratulatory address to him pending the 
disclosure of the Government policy on 
various matters affecting the welfare of 
the settlers. He carried an amendment 
to this effect, despite the support given 
to the motion for the address by Mr. 
Hanson. On August 30th Dr. Evans was 
one of a deputation which presented a 
petition to the Governor requesting the 
immediate grant of a charter of incorpo- 
ration to the town. In 1843 Dr. Evans 
took a prominent part in representing the 
views of the settlers in relation to the 
melancholy Wairau massacre. He did so 
as the champion of those whose injudi- 
cious conduct caused the affray, and was 
sent as a delegate to Auckland to put their 
view of the matter before the Governor. 
He was also hotly opposed to the policy 
of Governor Fitzroy in cancelling the 
award of Mr. Spain (q.v.) in relation to the 
Wellington land claims. Dr. Evans was 
no believer in the treaty of Waitangi, 
that Magna Charts of the Maoris, and 
when in England in 1845 acted as the 
representative of the discontented colo- 
nists who demanded the recall of Fitsroy. 
On this subject he had interviews with 
the Under-Secretary for the Colonies 
(Mr. Hope), and corresponded with the 
late Lord Derby, then, as Lord Stanley, 



150 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Bjr 



head of the department. Dr. Evans sub- 
sequently went to the colony of Victoria, 
and took a prominent part in the dis- 
cussion of the various questions which 
agitated the early stages of its develop- 
ment under representative institutions. 
When responsible government was con- 
ceded he was returned to the first 
Legislative Assembly in 1856 for Rich- 
mond. He was Postmaster-General in 
the second O'Shanaasy Ministry through- 
out the whole term of its existence, from 
March 1868 to Oct 1859. When Sir 
Charles Gavan Duffy left the Government 
in March 1859, Dr. Evans took the 
additional portfolio of Minister of Lands, 
which he held till the dissolution of the 
Cabinet. In the third O'Shanaasy Govern- 
ment Dr. Evans was Postmaster-General 
from Dec. 1861 to June 1863. He was 
for a considerable period editor of the 
Melbourne Herald. Dr. Evans died on 
Sept. 23rd, 1868. 

Ivans, Gowen Edward, M.A., only son 
of the late Rev. Gowen Evans, M.A., 
of Potterspury, Northamptonshire, was 
born in 1826, and educated at Lin- 
coln College, Oxford, where he matri- 
culated in May 1845, and graduated BJL 
in 1849 and MJL in 1852. He entered 
at the Inner Temple in November of the 
latter year, and was called to the bar in 
Jan. 1864. His tastes tending in the 
direction of literature, he became a writer 
for the Spectator, and having become 
acquainted with Mr. Edward Wilson, one 
of the proprietors of the Melbourne Argus, 
he was selected by that gentleman, when 
he came to reside in England, to represent 
the Wilson interest in the management 
of the Argus. Mr. Gowen Evans went 
to Melbourne in that capacity in 1867, 
and has ever since taken a prominent 
part in the direction of the paper. Mr. 
Evans was admitted to the Victorian bar 
in 1867, and in the following year he 
received the honorary degree of M.A. 
from Melbourne University. 

Ever&rd, William, was one of the early 
pioneers of South Australia, having been 
present at the proclamation of the colony 
by Governor Hindmarsh in Dec. 1836. 
He did not enter political life till 1868, 
when he was returned to the Legislative 
Assembly for Encounter Bay, and subse- 
quently sat in the Legislative Council 
from 1873 to 1878. Mr. Everard was 
Commissioner of Public Works in the 



! Hart Ministry, from Sept to Oct 1868 ; 
Commissioner of Crown Lands in the 
Blyth Ministry, from July 1873 to June 
1875 ; and Minister of Education in that 
of Mr. Boucaut from March to June 1876. 
He was a member of the council of Ade- 
laide University and of the governing 
boards of the Art Gallery, Museum, Public 
Library, and Botanio Gardens of Adelaide. 
He died, at the age of seventy, on August 
26th, 1889. 

Eyre, Edward John, son of the late 
Rev. Anthony Eyre, vicar of Hornsea and 
Long Riston, Yorks, was born on August 
15th, 1815, and educated at Louth and 
Sedbergh Grammar Schools. In 1833 he 
emigrated to Sydney, and entered upon 
pastoral pursuits, with some success, in 
the Lower Murray district, where he was 
subsequently appointed Resident Magis- 
trate and Protector of the Aborigines. 
Mr. Eyre early began to interest himself 
in exploration, and in 1836 conducted an 
expedition across the Australian conti- 
nent from Sydney to Swan River, WJL 
He was afterwards a settler in South 
Australia, and in 1840 started on a journey 
for the South Australian Government 
into the interior. His object was to 
explore Lake Torrens and penetrate to 
the heart of the continent. After visiting 
Lake Torrens, he struck into the Flinders 
Range; but, owing to the scarcity of food 
and water, found himself unable to pro- 
ceed northwards through the impene- 
trable bush. At last he succeeded in 
rounding the Great Bight, whence he 
pushed on to King George's Sound, in 
the company of one Englishman (Baxter) 
and three aborigines. The party endured 
great privations, and after two months 
of hardship two of the natives murdered 
Baxter and decamped with the provisions. 
Mr. Eyre, left alone with a solitary abori- 
ginal, pushed on, and was eventually 
rescued by a French whaling ship, the 
Mississippi, and reached Adelaide in July 
1841. In 1845 he returned to England, 
and in 1847, when Earl Grey separated 
the colony of New Zealand into two pro- 
vinces and appointed lieat. -governors, Mr. 
Eyre was nominated to this office for the 
South Island, Sir George Grey being then 
Goveraor-in-Chief. During his term of 
office he lived mostly at Wellington ; but 
his powers as lieut. -governor were incon- 
siderable, owing to the overshadowing 
authority of the Governor-in-Chief. In 



'5 1 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Pai 

him from blame ; but bis accusers, not 
content with the issue, instituted pro- 
ceedings against him, which lasted for 
four years, bat came to nothing. A 
"Jamaica committee" was formed to 
carry on the prosecution, which led to a 
defence fund being started. Mr. Eyre 
was then prosecuted for murder before 
the magistrates of Market Drayton, in 
Shropshire, but they declined to commit 
him for trial. Subsequent proceedings 
before the Court of Queen's Bench also 
proved abortive. Mr. Eyre is the author 
of "Discoveries in Central Australia," 
1845; ** Journals of Expeditions and 
Discovery into Central Australia, and 
Overland from Adelaide to King George's 
Sound," 1846. He resides at Steeple Aston, 
in Oxfordshire. 



1863 he retired and went to England, 
and in December of the following year 
was appointed Governor of the island 
of St. Vincent, and subsequently Lieut- 
Governor of the Leeward Islands. On 
July 13th, 1864, he was made Captain- 
General and Governor-General-in-Chief 
and Yioe-Admiral of Jamaica. It was 
during his tenure of office that the insur- 
rection broke out in Oct. 1865, but owing 
to his energetic measures it was com- 
pletely crushed. His action, especially 
in relation to the execution under sen- 
tence of court martial of George William 
Gordon, a mulatto of property, was, how- 
ever, much canvassed in England, and he 
was recalled, and a commission of inquiry 
appointed to investigate the charges 
against him. The result was to exonerate 



Fairfax, Bear-Admiral Henry, C.B., 
second son of Colonel Sir Henry Fairfax, 
Bart., was born in 1837, and entered the 
Royal Navy in I860, becoming com- 
mander in 1862, captain in 1868, and rear- 
admiral in 1885. He was naval attache to 
Sir Bartle Frere's mission to Zanzibar in 
1872-3 ; private secretary to the First Lord 
ot the Admiralty in 1 873-4 ; and wascreated 
C.B. (Civil Division) in 1879, and Mili- 
tary Division in 1882. He commanded 
H.M.8. Monarch at the bombardment of 
Alexandria in 1882, for which he received 
a medal, the Khedive's bronze star and 
the 3rd class Osmanlieh. He was naval 
aide-de-camp to the Queen from 1879 to 
1885 and Commander-in-Chief on the 
Australian station from 1887 to 1889, 
assuming the command on the 17th of 
April in the former year. In 1889 
Admiral Fairfax became Second Naval 
Lord of the Admiralty. Admiral Fairfax 
married, in 1872, Harriet, daughter of Sir 
David Kinloch, 9th Bart. 

Fairfax, Hon. John, M.L.C., whose 
reputation is inseparably identified with 
the pioneer days of Australian journalism, 
was born at Warwick in 1804. Trained 
as a compositor, he obtained employment 
on the Morning Chronicle of London at 
the completion of his apprenticeship; 
but, after a time, returned to his native 
county and commenced business as a 
orinter and bookseller at Leamington, 



where he started the Leamington 8pm 
Chronicle. The venture was successful ; 
but an outspoken criticism upon the 
conduct of public officials resulted in a 
prosecution for libel. Mr. Fairfax suc- 
cessfully defended his position ; but was 
overwhelmed with the heavy costs of 
litigation, and this circumstance caused 
him to emigrate to 8ydney in 1838. He 
obtained employment on the Sydney 
Herald, which had begun its career in 
1831, and was then issued bi-weekly by 
Mr. F. M. Stokes, and as a daily in 1840. 
Mr. Fairfax also obtained the position of 
librarian to the Australian Subscription 
Library in Sydney, Sept. 13th, 1838. His 
energy, prudence, and enterprise secured 
him powerful friends. The proprietor of 
the Herald wishing to retire from busi- 
ness, the paper was purchased in 1841 by 
Mr. Fairfax and Mr. C. Kemp, a reporter, 
for the sum of £10,000, which was partly 
advanced by friends of the new pro- 
prietors. The partnership prospered, and 
the foundation of the great future success 
of the Herald was securely laid. The 
paper has always jealously asserted its 
independence, and has never been con- 
sidered a party journal. It has been 
conducted with rare moderation and 
unusual literary ability, and has secured 
an amount of commercial support which 
is unprecedented even in the colonies. 
In 1851 Mr. Fairfax revisited Leamington, 



152 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Far 



and honourably defrayed all the liabilities 
which he had left when he emigrated 
thirteen yean before. His old townsmen 
recognised his sterling qualities, and 
gave him a most cordial reception. 
Returning to Sydney in 1853, Mr. Fairfax 
purchased the share of his partner, Mr. 
Kemp, and became the sole owner of his 
paper, which since August 1st, 1842, had 
assumed the name of the Sydney Morning 
Herald. In 1867 Mr. Charles Fairfax 
was taken into partnership, and on the 
accidental death of his eldest son, Mr. 
John Fairfax admitted his younger sons 
— Mr. James Beading Fairfax and Mr. 
Edward Boss Fairfax. Under their 
management the paper acquired an un- 
disputed precedence in New South Wales. 
Mr. John Fairfax again visited England 
in 1863, and utilised his leisure to 
familiarise himself with all the latest 
phases of newspaper management, with 
the result that his own journals were 
always in possession of the most modern 
machinery and equipments. In the 
political struggles of his day Mr. Fairfax 
took little personal part. He once sought 
election to the Legislative Assembly, and 
was defeated ; but in 1874 he was nomi- 
nated to a seat in the Legislative Council. 
He was a devoutly religious man, and 
throughout his career was a prominent 
member and a most generous supporter 
6t the Congregational body. In 1840 he 
was chosen as a deacon of the Pitt Street 
Congregational Church, in Sydney, and 
took a deep interest in its welfare until 
his death, which took place at his 
residence, Ginahgulla, Bose Bay, Port 
Jackson, June 16th, 1877. His two sons 
conducted the Herald, and its powerful 
adjuncts, the Mail and Echo, until 1888, 
when Mr. B. B. Fairfax withdrew from 
the partnership. Mr. J. B. Fairfax then 
admitted his sons — Messrs. Charles 
Geoffrey and James Fairfax, jun.— into 
the partnership, and as he only exercises 
a supervising influence himself, the con- 
trol of the journals is virtually vested in 
them. 

Farjeon, Benjamin Leopold, the well- 
known writer, went to Australia in early 
life, and, after some experience on the 
gold diggings of Victoria, migrated to 
New Zealand, where he assisted Mr. (now 
Sir Julius) Vogel in starting the Otago 
Daily Timet at Dunedin in 1861, the 
former being editor, and the latter business 



manager. Subsequently Mr. Farjeon 
took to literature, and married a daughter 
of Joseph Jefferson, the celebrated 
American actor. His successful career 
as a story-writer since his return to 
England is well known. 

FarntU, Hon. James Squirt, was born 
in 1827 at Parramatta, N.S.W. In 1859 
he was elected to the Assembly for St. 
Leonard's, and in the following year for 
Parramatta. Subsequently he again sat 
for St. Leonard's. Having acted for some 
time as Chairman of Committees, he was 
Secretary for Lands in the Partes Go- 
vernment from May 1872 to Feb. 1876. 
In Dec 1877, on the defeat of Sir John 
Robertson, he became Premier of the 
colony of New South Wales, with the 
portfolio of Minister of Lands. Failing, 
however, to carry his Land Bill, he re- 
signed in Dec. 1878. He was again 
Secretary for Lands in the Stuart Go- 
vernment from Jan. 1883 to Oct. 1885, 
and was appointed Minister of Justice in 
the Dibbs Ministry which followed, but 
he almost immediately resigned. Mr. 
Farnell, who was first Grand Master of 
the New South Wales Constitution of 
Freemasons, died on August 21st, 1888. 

Farr, Yen. Arohdeacon George Henry, 
M.A., LL.D., son of George Farr and 
Eleanora his wife, was born on July 2nd, 
1819, at Tottenham, England, and edu- 
cated at Christ's Hospital, where be was 
" Grecian," and at Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1843 
and M.A. in 1853. He entered at the 
Middle Temple in 1841, but was ordained 
deacon in 1844 and priest in 1845, and 
was Diocesan Inspector of Schools in 
West Cornwall. He emigrated in 1854 
to South Australia, where he was head 
master of St. Peter's Collegiate School, 
Adelaide, from that year till 1879. He 
was appointed Canon of the Cathedral 
Church of Adelaide in 1857, and Arch- 
deacon of Missionary Districts in the 
Diocese of Adelaide in 1880. He took 
the degree of LL.D. at Cambridge Uni- 
versity in 1882 ; and in connection with 
the University of Adelaide was made 
M.A. in 1877, Warden of the Senate in 
1880, LL.D. in 1883, and was twice 
elected Vice-Chanoellor— viz., in 1888 and 
1889. Archdeacon Farr, who was captain 
and stroke of his college eight when at 
Cambridge and winner of a silver medal 
at the Thames Regatta in 1843, was 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Fav 



married at Woolwich on Feb. 5th, 1846, 
to Miss Julia Warren (ted. He is chair- 
man of the Public Library, Museum, and 
Art Gallery of South Australia. 

Farrell, Very Bey. James, M.A., first 
Dean of Adelaide, was born in Ireland 
on Nov. 26th, 1803, and educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he gra- 
duated M.A. Having taken orders in 
the Church of England, he emigrated 
to South Australia, and arrived in Sept. 
1840, when he acted as assistant to 
Rev. C. B. Howard, the first Colonial 
Chaplain. He had sole charge of the 
Anglican communion in Adelaide from 
1843 to 1846, when he was relieved by the 
arrival of Archdeacon Woodcock and 
the Rev. James Pollitt. On Dr. Short (the 
first bishop's) arrival, in Dec. 1847, Mr. 
Farrell was created Dean of Trinity 
Church, which at first served as the 
cathedral of the diocese. Prior to this, 
in Nov. 1845, Mr. Farrell married the 
widow of the Rev. C. B. Howard, whom 
he succeeded as Colonial Chaplain, an 
office which expired with him. He died 
at Malvern, whilst on a visit to England, 
on April 26th, 1869. He left four scholar- 
ships of £50 each to St. Peter's Collegiate 
School, Adelaide; and a window was 
erected to his memory in Trinity Church, 
which he had been incumbent of as well 
as dean. 

Farrell, John, was born in Buenos 
Ayres, La Plata, South America, on Dec. 
18th, 1851, of Irish parentage. He came 
with his parents to Victoria in the 
following year, and up to the age of 
twenty was engaged in farming in that 
colony. He afterwards learned the trade 
of a brewer in Sandhurst, and followed 
this business for several years in New 
South Wales. He contributed during 
this period a number of poems on Aus- 
tralia and other subjects to various 
periodicals, notably the Bulletin, which 
attracted a good deal of notice ; and in 
1887 published a volume, " How He Died, 
and other Poems." On the publication 
of "Progress and Poverty," Mr. Farrell 
became convinced that Henry George 
had found the solution to the problems 
of social want and misery, and has since 
largely devoted himself to the work of 
spreading abroad a knowledge of the 
single tax principle. In 1888 he estab- 
lished a newspaper at Lithgow, N.S.W., 
with this object, which had a considerable 



influence on public thought. In 1889 he 
joined with several others in bringing 
Henry George through the colonies on a 
lecturing tour, and in June 1890 became 
editor of the Sydney Daily Telegraph. 
Some months afterwards he resigned thia 
position, but remains on the editorial 
staff of that journal. Mr, Farrell was 
married in Melbourne in 1876, and is 
regarded as one of the most uncompro- 
mising leaders of the Single Tax Move- 
ment in Australia. 

Faneett, Hon. Foter, M.L.C., formerly- 
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court, New- 
South Wales, was born in Dublin, and 
educated at Trinity College, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1842, and was called 
to the bar in 1845. He emigrated to 
Sydney In 1852, and was admitted to 
the colonial bar. He was returned to 
the first Legislative Assembly as member 
for King and Georgiana in 1856, and was 
elected for East Sydney in 1860. He 
was Solicitor-General in the Martin 
Ministry from Oct. 1863 to Feb. 1865, 
and in October of the latter year was 
appointed Judge of the Supreme Court 
of New South Wales. In 1889 he retired 
on a pension, having been called to the 
Legislative Council in the previous 
year. 

Faveno, Ernest, the explorer and his- 
torian of exploration, was born in Lon- 
don and educated in Berlin, arriving in 
New South Wales in 1863. After residing 
in Sydney a year he relinquished his com- 
mercial employment and went on to a 
station in the frontier squatting districts 
of Northern Queensland, where he was 
actively engaged during the early pioneer- 
ing times. Subsequently he gave his 
attention to " overlanding M (i.e. taking 
cattle across country) and wrote for 
the press under the nom de plume of 
44 Dramingo." In 1878 the proprietor of 
the Queentlander newspaper employed 
him to explore the line of country extend- 
ing from Blackall, on the west boundary 
line of Queensland, to Port Darwin, with 
the view of solving the question then 
being debated as to whether a railway 
could be constructed across the continent 
along that route. The task was success- 
fully performed by Mr. Favenc at the 
head of a small and well-equipped party. 
In 1888 Messrs. Favenc and Crawford 
explored the McArthur from the Queens- 
land boundary, In 1888 Mr, Favenc 



?54 



o 



Faw] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[B*\ 



published a "History of Australian 
Exploration " (London and Sydney). Mr. 
Favenc has the advantage of being a 
good artist as well as a facile writer. 
His magnum, opus, the " History of Aus- 
tralian Exploration," was dedicated to 
Sir Henry Partes, and was published in 
one large volume at the expense of the 
New South Wales Government. Prior 
to the issue of the work on Explora- 
tion, Ifr. Favenc had published two 
other brochures, entitled respectively, 
"The Great Australian Plain," and 
" Western Australia." 

Tawkner, Hon. John Fascoe, M.L.C., 
who has sometimes been styled "the 
rather of the colony of Victoria," was 
the son of John Fawkner and Hannah 
his wife, and was born in London on Oct 
20th, 1792. On Feb. 10th, 1803, he, with 
his parents, sailed in the Calcutta with the 
expedition sent out under Collins to found 
a penal settlement at Port Phillip, where 
they arrived on Oct. 9th, 1803, and landed 
on the site of what is now Sorrento. 
Shortly afterwards the attempt to found 
a penal settlement was abandoned, and 
he went with the rest of the party in the 
Ocean to the Derwent, in Van Diemen's 
Land (now Tasmania), where he arrived 
on Feb. 10th, 1804. Living with his father 
about eight miles from Hobart Town, he 
first assisted the latter in farming, and 
then turned sawyer. In 1814 he mixed 
himself up in a plot for the escape of a 
party of convicts, two of whom betrayed 
his complicity. In consequence he was 
Hogged, and had to leave for Sydney, 
whence he returned to Tasmania in 
March 181 7. He then engaged in business 
at Hobart Town, removing in 1819 to 
Launceston, where he engaged in the 
timber trade, which be relinquished in 
1826, and started a public-house at 
Launceston called the Cornwall Hotel. 
In 1829 he started the Launceston Adver- 
tiser, which he sold in 1831, acting in the 
meantime as a sort of amateur solicitor or 
" agent " for litigants in the local police 
courts. In 1835 Fawkner concocted a 
plan for the settlement of Port Phillip and 
brought five associates into his scheme, 
for the effectuation of which he bought 
the schooner Enterprise, of fifty-five tons 
burden. The expedition sailed from 
George Town, Tasmania, on July 27th, but 
was obliged to beat about for three days, 
during which Fawkner suffered so much 



from sea sickness that he had himself 
put ashore again, the Enterprise, with his 
coadjutors, proceeding to Western Port, 
in what is now Victoria, where they ar- 
rived on August 8th. -Not liking the look 
of the adjacent country, the party made 
for what is now Hobson's Bay, and un- 
deterred by warnings that " John Batman, 
King of Port Phillip, had bought all the 
lands and desired all trespassers to keep 
aloof," explored the Yarra Yarra river, 
with which and the surrounding district 
they were much delighted. They put the 
first plough into the earth on Sept. 8th, 
1835, and sowed the first crop of five acres 
of wheat. Fawkner himself, cheered by 
the accounts which the advance party 
brought back, landed in Hobson's Bay in 
Oct. 1835, and may be justly regarded as 
the real founder of Melbourne, leaving 
Messrs. Batman (who reached Hobson's 
Bay in May 1835) and Henty to dispute 
the glory of being the founders of the 
colony. In Jan. 1838 Fawkner started 
the first newspaper, which was written on 
four pages of foolscap. In March some 
type arrived from Tasmania, and the 
journal was printed weekly. In 1839 he 
commenced the Port Phillip Patriot, 
which he afterwards made into a daily 
paper, and which is now, after many 
mutations, the daily Argus. In 1842 he 
was elected one of the Market Commis- 
sioners, and in 1843 a town councillor, an 
office which he held for many years. In 
1851 he was elected a member of the 
first Legislative Council for Dalhousie, 
and on the introduction of a free Parlia- 
ment in Victoria in 1856 was returned 
to the Legislative Council for the cen- 
tral province. Though Batman must 
have the credit of originally selecting 
the site of Melbourne, Fawkner not 
only followed closely on his heels, but 
in his uncouth way contributed mate- 
rially to promoting the infant interests 
of what is now the magnificent Victorian 
metropolis. He was also to the fore in 
all the public affairs of the colony, 
generally on the Liberal side. He took a 
leading part in the movement for declin- 
ing to elect members for Port Phillip 
to the New South Wales Legislative 
Council before its separation from the 
mother colony. A public meeting in 
Melbourne selected him as one of the 
delegates to negotiate a compromise 
between the Government and the mal- 



155 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Pel 



contents during the riots regarding the 
diggers' licences in 1864. In Nov. of 
that year the Governor, Sir Charles 
Hotham, nominated him as one of the 
members of a special commission which he 
appointed to inquire into the grievances 
or the goldfields ; and he was a party to 
the voluminous report which they sent 
in. He died on Sept. 4th, 1869. 

Fsatherston, Isaac Earl, M.D., some- 
time Agent-General, New Zealand, fourth 
son of Thomas Featherston, of Cotfleld 
House, Durham, was born in Durham 
on March 21st> 1813, and took his 
M.D. degree at Edinburgh in 1836. He 
was one of the earliest settlers in 
Wellington, N.Z., under the New Zealand 
Company. He took a prominent part in 
the agitation for self-government in and 
about 1860. In 1862, when the province 
of Wellington was constituted, he was 
elected first superintendent, and repre- 
sented Wanganui in Parliament from 1863 
to 1871, when he resigned the superin- 
tendency. From July 12th to August 
2nd, 1861, he was Colonial Secretary under 
Mr. Fox, and held office without portfolio 
under the same gentleman from Nov. 16th, 
1869, to March 31st, 1871. In Jan. 1866 
he persuaded the friendly Maoris about 
Wanganui to join General Chute in his 
campaign on the west ooast, and his 
march toward Mount Egmont; and he 
himself accompanied and led the Maori 
contingent in the various actions at 
Otapawa and elsewhere. For his gal- 
lantry on these occasions he received the 
New Zealand Cross, on the recommenda- 
tion of General Chute. In 1869 Dr. 
Featherston was sent home to England, 
in company with Mr. Dillon Bell, as 
commissioner to treat with the Imperial 
Government for a force to put down 
rebellion and to raise another force for 
colonial service. When the Vogel Govern- 
ment started the Public Works policy, 
the Commissioners were instructed to 
arrange with the Home Government to 
guarantee a loan for £1,000,000 for 
public works and immigration, to be 
spent at a rate not exceeding £200,000 a 
year. This they succeeded in doing. By 
the Public Works and Immigration Act 
of 1870, the office of Agent-General in 
London was created, and Dr. Featherston 
became first Agent-General This post 
he held from the year 1871 till his death 
at Brighton on June 19th, 1876. Dr. 



Featherston married, in 1839, a daughter 
of Mr. A. Scott, of Edinburgh. 

Fehon, William Xeeko, Commissioner 
of Railways, New South Wales, was 
born on March 5th, 1834, in London. 
He was employed on some of the leading 
railway companies in England and Canada, 
prior to emigrating to Victoria, where he 
arrived in April 1868, and was appointed 
traffic manager of the Victoria railways. 
Mr. Fehon subsequently engaged in pas- 
toral and commercial pursuits, but in 
1888 accepted a position as one of the 
Commissioners of Railways in New South 
Wales. 

Feilberg, Carl H., a Queensland jour- 
nalist, displayed great literary powers 
in his contributions to the Queendander 
and other Australian newspapers and 
periodicals. He was for a time on the 
staff of the Melbourne Argus, but re- 
turned to Queensland, where he held the 
position of editor of the Brisbane Courier 
till his death, on Oct. 26th, 1887. His 
father was the son of a Danish naval 
officer, and his mother, who was born at 
Santa Cruz, was of Danish descent and 
the daughter of a West Indian planter. 
He was educated in England and at 
St. Omers, France, and was for some 
time in the office of a London insurance 
broker. He emigrated to Rockhampton, 
Queensland, when twenty-two years of 
age, and was clerk and storekeeper on 
a station on the Barcoo for two years. 
He was subsequently engaged in farm- 
ing at Wide Bay, and then went into 
journalism at Maryborough, in con- 
nection with the Wide Bay News. 
After further press experience at Cook- 
town, he went to Brisbane and contributed 
first to the Patriot and then to the 
Courier, In June 1882 he accepted the 
post of sub-editor of the Melbourne 
Argus. In July 1883 he returned to 
Queensland, and became a regular writer 
on the Courier, succeeding the late 
Mr. W. O'Carroll as editor three months 
later. This position Mr. Feilberg, who 
married a daughter of William Smith, 
the owner of the KiUrivan cobalt mines, 
held till his death. 

Fellows, Hon. Thomas Howard, for- 
merly Puisne Judge, Victoria, son of 
Thomas Fellows, of Moneyhill, Herts, 
solicitor, was born in England in 1823, 
and, after being educated at Eton and 
studying under Chitty in London, was 



i 5 6 



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DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Pel] 

called to the bar in 1852, and soon after- 
wards emigrated to Victoria. - In that ' 
colony he gained a high repute in his 
profession, and, having become a member 
of the old Legislative Council in 1855, 
was appointed Solicitor-General in the 
Haines Ministry in June 1856, in succes- 
sion to Mr. (afterwards Sir) Robert Moles- 
worth, who was raised to the bench. 
This post he held till Feb. 1857, when he 
succeeded Sir William 8tawell (appointed 
Chief Justice) as Attorney-General. In 
the meantime responsible government 
had been inaugurated, and Mr. Fellows 
had been returned to the first Legislative 
Assembly for St. Eilda as the colleague 
of Mr. (now 8ir) F. T. 8argood. In 
March 1857 Mr. Fellows retired from 
office on the defeat of the Haines 
Ministry. They came back to power 
again a month later, and Mr. Fellows 
was their Solicitor-General till March 
1858, when he quitted the Assembly, and 
was elected to the Legislative Council, 
in opposition to Mr. T. T. a-Beckett. He 
represented the Nicholson Ministry in the 
Upper House, without portfolio, from Oct. 
to Nov. 1860. In Oct. 1863 Mr. Fellows 
joined that powerful combination, the 
first M'Culloch Ministry, as Postmaster- 
General, but quitted the Cabinet in 
March 1864, as soon as the drift of their 
policy was made apparent. He now 
appeared as the determined opponent 
of his former colleagues, and led the 
Council in their resistance to the Tariff 
and Darling grant " tacks." The better to 
champion the cause of the Conservative 
party, he resigned his seat in the Council, 
and was returned in 1867 to the Legis- 
lative Assembly for St. Kilda. The 
M*Cullochites commanded an over- 
whelming majority in the Lower House, 
but Mr. Fellows discharged the difficult 
task of TTmrqhftHing his meagre minority 
with conspicuous tact and ability. In 
1868 Sir James M'Culloch resigned, 
owing to a difference with the Governor 
over the procedure to be pursued in rela- 
tion to the Darling grant ; and after pro- 
longed negotiations, during the course of 
which Mr. Fellows was frequently sug- 
gested as Premier, Sir Charles Sladen 
agreed to champion the forlorn hope 
of the Council in their constitutional 
battle with the Assembly, Mr. Fellows 
agreeing to take the leadership of the 
latter body, with the portfolio of Minister 



[Fen 



of Justice. In spite of several hostile 
votes carried against them in the popular 
Chamber, the Sladen Ministry held on 
from May 6th to July 11th, 1868, when 
the crisis was terminated by a request 
from Sir Charles Darling that the grant 
should be withdrawn, as he had made 
bis peace with the Colonial Office. Mr. 
Fellows did not again take office, though 
he remained in the Assembly till 1872, 
when, it having been decided to nominate 
a fifth Puisne Judge, he was appointed to 
that position by the Francis Ministry, 
and remained on the bench till his death, 
on April 8th, 1878. 

Fenton, Frauds Dart, a native of York- 
shire, went out to Auckland, N.Z., in 
1850, and cultivated land on the Waikato 
River. In 1851 he was appointed by Sir 
George Grey (then Governor) to a position 
in the Deeds Office at Auckland, and 
subsequently became Resident Magistrate 
and Collector of Customs at Kaipara. In 
March 1856 he was made Native Secre- 
tary by Governor Browne ; but his policy 
clashing with that of Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
Donald McLean, Chief Native Land Com- 
missioner, he was compelled to resign, 
and was appointed Resident Magistrate 
at Whaingaroa. On May 9th, 1857, as 
the result of a paper of suggestions which 
he had addressed to the Governor, he 
was summoned to act as magistrate at 
Waikato at a critical time in the diffi- 
culties preceding the Waikato war. His 
appointment, "at the earnest request of 
the natives, 11 was the promise of a new 
departure on the part of the Government, 
who had resolved that the Maoris should 
be governed by laws " enacted with their 
own consent, 1 ' and instructed Mr. Fenton 
to prepare a code upon this understand- 
ing. Mr. Fenton proceeded to Waikato, 
but on July 14th, 1857, Potatau accepted 
the kingship offered him by the malcon- 
tent tribes, and he was shortly afterwards 
withdrawn. From 1858 to 1864 Mr. 
Fenton acted as assistant law officer of 
the Crown. In 1861 he prepared the 
Domain Act, and in 1863 was charged 
with the working of the New Zealand 
Settlement Act. Mr. Fenton was ad- 
mitted as a barrister and solicitor in 
New Zealand in Jan. 1857. In 1865 Mr. 
Fenton was employed to draw up the 
Native Lands Act, and became Chief 
Judge of the Native Land Court, a post 
which he held for seventeen years. In 



*57 



o 



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DtCTl6NAftY OP AUSTRALASIAN StOGtUPHY. 



[Per 



1869 he was called to the Legislative Governor Wilmot, in 1846, but was 
Council, and introduced a bill to amend ,' reappointed by royal warrant in March 



the Native Lands Act, which was passed, 
but he railed to pass the Native Reserves 
Bill. He assisted in the successful 
opposition to the importation of Ghoorka 
regiments for the purposes of the war, 
but was ultimately disqualified as an 
official from sitting in the Council. 
He was for two years district judge of 
Auckland, in addition to his other appoint- 
ments, and retired from public service 
in 1882. Mr. Fenton is singularly well 
acquainted with the Maori language, and 
the history and customs of the people. 
In addition to various pamphlets, he is 
the author of " Observations on the State 
of the Aboriginal Inhabitants of New 
Zealand n (Auckland, 1869), and " Bug- 
gestions for a History of the Origin and 
Migrations of the Maori People" (1886). 
Fenton, James, son of James Fenton, 
was born at Dunlavia, County Wicklow, 
Nov. 20th, 1820. His father was a land, 
bolder in the county, but in consequence 
of religious and political disturbances in 
Ireland, emigrated with his family to 
Tasmania in 1833. Mr. Fenton was 
educated at Elton School, Arklow, and 
afterwards at the schools of Mr. James 
Thomson and Mr. R. W. Giblin at Hobart. 
In 1839 he took up land in West Devon, 
Northern Tasmania, where he was the 
first settler. He was an active pioneer 
of the district, was appointed a J.P. in 
1866, and was for years Chairman of the 
Devon Road Trust. After seeing Devon 
grow into a populous district he fixed 
his residence in Launceston. Mr. Fen- 
ton has for half a century been a con- 
stant contributor to colonial newspapers 
and magazines. His "History of Tas- 
mania n was published at Hobart in 
1884. He is also author of the " Life of 
Rev. Charles Price" (Melbourne, 1886), 
and " Bash Life in Tasmania Fifty Years 
Ago " (London, 1891). 

Fenton, Hon. Michael, formerly cap. 
tain in the 12th Regiment, after service 
in India, sold out and emigrated to Tas- 
mania in 1829, settling on a grant of land 
at Fenton Forest, near Glenora, on the 
river Derwent. He was appointed a 
member of the nominee Legislative 
Council by Sir John Franklin in 1840, 
and was one of the " Patriotic 8ix," who | 
resigned their seats in the Council, in 

~^er to frustrate the financial policy of 



1847. In 1861 he became one of the 
first elected members of the Legislative 
Council, representing New Norfolk. In 
1866 he was elected Speaker in succes- 
sion to Sir R. Dry. When responsible 
government was conceded he entered 
the House of Assembly for the same 
district, and was elected the first 
Speaker in Dec. 1856. Mr. Fenton con- 
tinued to fill the chair of the House till 
May 1861, when he resigned, and was 
succeeded by Sir Robert Officer. He died 
at Fenton Forest on April 6th, 1874, 
aged eighty-five years. 

Fenwick, .George, J.P., editor of the 
Otago Daily Timet, was born at Sunder- 
land, England, on Feb. 2nd, 1847. He 
arrived with his parents in Melbourne 
on Jan. 1st, 1863, and subsequently came 
to New Zealand, landing in Dunedin in 
1866. He entered the office of the Otago 
Witness in 1859, and there remained 
until 1866, when he visited Australia. 
Returning to Otago, he became part 
proprietor of one or two provincial news- 
papers, and in 1875 was appointed 
manager of the Otago Guardian, a daily 
paper of considerable merit, at that time 
published in opposition to the Otago 
Daily Times. The Guardian subse- 
quently became the property of Mr. G. 
M. Reed, whom Mr. Fenwick joined in 
partnership. In 1877 the subject of our 
sketch conceived the project of purchas- 
ing the Otago Daily Times, and, after 
much negotiation, Messrs. Reed and 
Fenwick became proprietors of the Times 
and of the Otago Witness. Subsequently 
Mr. Fenwick was appointed managing 
director of a company which purchased 
the property. This position he still 
holds, and in conduction therewith he 
was appointed editor of the Timet in 
August 1890. Mr. Fenwick is chairman 
of the Dunedin City and Suburban Tram- 
ways Company and a Justice of the 
Peace. 

Fergus, Eon. Thomas, M.H.R., was 
born at Ayr, Scotland, on April 6th f 
1851, went with his parents to Melbourne, 
Australia, as a boy, and arrived in Otago, 
N.Z., in the beginning of 1870. Shortly 
after landing in Otago he decided to 
enter the engineering profession, and 
to that end studied at the Otago Uni- 
versity under Professor Shand, who wa# 



i 5 8 



o 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHV. 



Par] 

one of Mr. Fergus's tutors when at Ayr 
Academy. In 1872 he was appointed 
by the Provincial Government as district 
engineer for the goldfields, with his 
headquarters at. Cromwell, and held that 
position until 1876, when he left the 
service of the Government in order to 
enter into partnership with Mr. D. 
Henderson. The firm of Henderson k 
Fergus carried out several important 
undertakings, including the construction 
of the Mosgiel-Outram Railway, the Patea 
Bailway, the waterworks at New Ply- 
mouth, and the railway wharf at the 
Bluff. In partnership with Mr. J. B. 
Blair, he was instrumental in building 
the Deloraine-Mersey Railway in Tas- 
mania and the Heidelberg-Alphington 
Railway in Victoria. At the general 
election of 1881 he was returned to the 
New Zealand House of Representatives 
for the Wakatipu district, after a severe 
contest, and in 1884 he was re-elected, 
having 1 bad again to encounter strong 
opposition. In 1887 and in 1890 he 
was returned unopposed. On the for- 
mation of the Atkinson administration 
in 1887, Mr. Fergus attained Cabinet 
rank, being entrusted with the portfolios 
of Justice and Defence, which he re- 
tained until Oct. 15th, 1889, when, con- 
sequent on the re-election of the Hon. 
T. W. Hislop, a rearrangement of port- 
folios took place, Captain W. R. Russell 
joining the Ministry and relieving Mr. 
Fergus of the departments of Justice 
and Defence, while the latter took over 
the more important portfolios of Public 
Works and Mines. He administered 
these departments until Jan. 1891, when, 
the Atkinson Government having been 
defeated at the polls in the previous 
December, he resigned with his col- 
leagues. He married a daughter of Mr. 
Donald Reid (g.v.). 

Ferguson, Bight Hon. Sir James, Bart., 
G.C.8.L, K.C.M.G., C.I.E., M.P., is the 
eldest son of the late Sir Charles Dal- 
rymple Fergusson, of Kilkerran, Ayrshire, 
on whose death, in 1849, he succeeded as 
6th baronet. His mother was Helen, 
second daughter of the Right Hon. David 
Boyle, Lord Justice-General of Scotland. 
He was born on March 14th, 1832, and 
was educated at Rugby and University 
College, Oxford. Having entered the 
army in 1850, he became successively 
lieutenant and captain in the Grenadier 



[Ptf 



Guards. Serving in the Crimea in 1 854-5, 
he was wounded at. lnkerman, and re- 
ceived a medal with three clasps and 
a Turkish medal. He was M.P. for Ayr- 
shire from 1854 to 1857, when he was 
defeated, bat was again returned in 
1859, and sat till 1868. He was Under- 
Secretary for India from 1866 to 1867 in 
the third Derby Government, and Under- 
Secretary for the Home Department in 
the first Disraeli Ministry from the lat- 
ter year till 1868, when, having been 
sworn of the Privy Council, he was 
appointed Governor and Commander- 
in-Chief of South Australia, and held 
office from Feb. 1869 to Feb. 1873. 
Responsible government leaves but little 
to the initiative of the governors of the 
self-governing colonies; but Sir James 
Fergusson is entitled to considerable 
credit in connection with the establish- 
ment of cable communication between 
Australia and England, the construction 
of the overland telegraph line from Port 
Darwin to Adelaide resulting from the 
encouragement which he gave to Mr. 
Strangways when the latter was Premier 
of South Australia. Sir James married, 
in 1859, Lady Edith Christian Ramsay, 
daughter of the Marquis of Dalhoasie ; 
and this lady died in 1871, during his 
tenure of the government of South Aus- 
tralia. Two years later he married a 
second time, the object of his choice 
being a South Australian lady— Olive, 
daughter of the late John Henry Rich- 
man, of Wambanga, in that colony, and 
previously of Adelaide, solicitor. From 
June 1873 to Dec. 1874 Sir James was 
Governor of New Zealand, when he re- 
signed and returned to England, being 
created E.C.M.G. in the same year. In 
1875 he unsuccessfully contested Frome, 
and in 1878 Greenock with a like fate. 
He was Governor of Bombay from March 
1880 to March 1885. In Jan. 1882 his 
second wife,who in the previous December 
had received from the Queen the decora- 
tion of the Imperial Order of the Crown of 
India, died suddenly in Bombay, of Eng- 
lish cholera, during her husband's absence 
at Baroda. Sir James, who was created 
G.C.S.I. in 1885, was elected for one of 
the divisions of Manchester at the general 
election in that year, and again in 1886. 
In August of the latter year he was 
appointed Under Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, and in Sept. 1891 Post- 

'59 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Per] 

master-General, in succession to the late 
Mr. Baikes. He has been for some years 
past a director of the Bank of New 
Zealand. 

Ferguson, Major John Adam, is the 
third son of the late Sir Charles Dal- 
rymple Fergnsson, Bart., and younger 
brother of Sir James Fergnsson (q.v.). He 
was born on May 7th, 1845, and educated 
at the Edinburgh Academy and the Royal 
Military Academy, Woolwich. He passed 
first on the list for a direct commission in 
the army in 1865, and was appointed to 
the Rifle Brigade. After serving in India, 
he was private secretary to Sir James Fer- 

rson, and Clerk of the Executive Council 
South Australia from 1870 to 1873. 
He passed the Staff College in 1878, 
served on the staff of the Intelligence 
branch of the Horse Guards in 1879, and 
was Garrison Instructor in North Britain 
from 1879 to 1880 ; when, having in the 
meantime become Captain of the Prince 
Consort's Own Regiment of the Rifle 
Brigade, he was appointed Deputy- 
Assistant Adjutant-General of the South 
Australian military forces, with the local 
rank of major. In 1881 he was commis- 
sioned by the South Australian Govern- 
ment to proceed to India and arrange for 
the introduction of Coolie labour into the 
Northern Territory. Subsequently re- 
turning to England, he unsuccessfully 
contested Peterborough in 1883, and, 
having been promoted to major, was 
Deputy • Assistant Adjutant-General in 
Ceylon from 1887 to 1889. Major Fer- 
gnsson, who is now serving with the 
Rifle Brigade in India, married, in 1871, 
Sarah, daughter of Joseph Gilbert, of 
Pewsey Vale, 8.A. 

Finch-Hatton, Hon. Harold, is the son 
of the 9th Earl of Winchelsea and Not- 
tingham, by Fanny Margaretta, eldest 
daughter of Edward Royd Rice, of Dane 
Court, Kent. He is the younger brother 
of the 11th and present Earl, and was 
born at Eastwell Park, Kent, in 1856, 
and educated at Eton and Balliol College, 
Oxford. When nineteen, Mr. Finch- 
Hatton went out to Queensland, where 
he remained until 1883, engaging, in the 
first instance, in pastoral pursuits in the 
Mackay district, and subsequently going 
in for hard work as a practical miner on 
the Nebo goldfields. A pleasant record 
of his colonial experience is to be found 
in " Advance, Australia 1 " a book from his 



P» 



pen, which has gone through two edition 
Mr. Finch-Hatton is a warm upholder t 
the integrity of the empire, and was oi 
of the founders of the Imperial Federatic 
League, of which he has been treason 
since its start. In politics he is a staunc 
Conservative, and at the general electio 
in 1885 contested Nottingham in thi 
interest against Mr. Arnold Morley, tl 
Liberal whip. The contest was in th 
nature of a forlorn hope, and Mr. Fine 1 
Hatton was defeated by a majority 
991. In 1886 and 1892 he again stoo 
but was beaten by his former opp< 
nent. Mr. Finch-Hatton is an. ardec 
advocate of the development of the Pacifi 
route to Australia and the East, and ha 
been secretary of the Pacific Telegrapj 
Company, formed for the purpose o 
laying a line from Vancouver Island t* 
Australia, since its establishment. Whei 
the North Queensland Separation Leagtx 
extended its organisation to the Metro 
polis, Mr. Finch-Hatton was appoint* 
permanent delegate and chairman of th< 
London committee. These offices he stil 
holds, and it is in a great degree owing 
to his energy in the cause that it ha" 
arrived at its present prominence in tb* 
eyes of the Colonial Office, and of Englist 
public men. 

Fincham, James, Engineer-in-Chief foi 
Tasmania, was born in London in 1838 
He was for a number of years employed 
as Assistant and Resident Engineer' oe 
various railway works in England, ii 
surveys for railways and architectural 
work in connection with railway stations 
In 1872 he went to Tasmania as District 
Engineer for the Tasmanian Main Line 
Railway, then in process of construction, 
and subsequently had charge of tbe 
whole line as Engineer. He returned to 
England in 1876, and was shortly after* 
wards selected by the Government of 
Tasmania for the appointment of En* 
gineer-in-Chief for the colony. His ap- 
pointment dates from April 1877. 

Finlayson, John Harvey, J. P., is the sod 
of William Finlayson by his marriage 
with Helen Harvey. His parents arrived 
in South Australia in Feb. 1837, and he 
was born at Helenholme, Mitcham, neai 
Adelaide, on Feb. 3rd, 1843. He joined 
the staff of the South Australian 
Register and Adelaide Observer id 
1861, became one of the proprietors in 
1877 and editor of the tiegister in 

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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN B!o6ftAl>HY* 



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1878, which latter position he still holds. 

Ik. Finlayson, who is a Justice of the 

tfeaoo, married at Adelaide on March 

^Dth, 1878, Alice, daughter of Thomas 

hoobridge. He was a member of the 

ommission for the Adelaide Jubilee 

feiibition of 1887 and of the South 

nstralian Commission for the Mel- 

ae Centennial Exhibition of 1888. 

le is also a member of the North Ade- 

ide School Board of Advice and of the 

,7 incil of the South Australian Accli- 

'.[„ «*tisation Society. 

. : , Finn, Bdmund, was born in Tipperary, 

.^eland, on Jan. 13th, 1819, and arrived 

f Melbourne in July 1841. Up to June 

J368, when he became Clerk of the 

papers in the Legislative Council, he 

Iras connected with the Port Phillip 

Herald. He retired from the Civil 

; Service in 1886, and is the author of 

k The Chronicles of Early Melbourne," 

published under the nam de plume of 

.; * Garryowen." 

Finniss, Lieut-Colonel Hon. Boyle 
Travers, was born at sea on August 18th, 
, 1817, and educated under Dr. Burney at 
Greenwich, and at the Royal Military 
College, Sandhurst. He joined the 66th 
Regiment as ensign in 1825, and became 
lieutenant in 1827, being shortly after- 
wards transferred to the 82nd Regiment. 
He sold his commission in 1835 with the 
view of emigrating to New South Wales 
as a military settler ; but having been 
appointed Assistant Surveyor under 
Colonel Light, Surveyor-General of South 
Australia, he arrived in that colony in 
Sept. 1836, and four years later became 
Deputy Surveyor-General. In 1843 he 
was appointed Commissioner of Police 
and Police Magistrate, becoming Regis- 
trar-General, with a seat in the Executive 
and Legislative Councils, in succession 
to Captain Sturt, in 1847. This post he 
held till 1852, when he was appointed 
Colonial Secretary, a position which he 
had temporarily held in 1849, during the 
absence of Captain Sturt. In his official 
capacity Mr. Finniss carried the Con- 
stitution Act through the Legislative 
Council, and from Dec. 1854 to June 
1855 was Acting Governor, during the 
interval between the departure of 
Governor Young and the arrival of his 
successor, Sir R. G. Macdonell. Mr. 
Finniss continued to act as Colonial 
Secretary till Oct. 24th, 1856, when he 



was gazetted Chief Secretary , and became 
first Premier of the colony under the 
present constitutional rSaime. He was 
also one of the first members for the 
city of Adelaide in the first South 
Australian Legislative Assembly, and 
represented Mount Barker in the second 
parliament from 1860 to 1862. Mr. 
Finniss, who resigned the premiership 
in August 1857, was Treasurer in the 
Hanson Ministry from June 1858 to May 
1860. He was appointed Lieut.-Colonel 
commanding' the Adelaide Volunteer 
Regiment, having raised a company of 
Volunteers called the Adelaide Marks- 
men, and organised a Volunteer force of 
2000 men under the Act of 1853. In 
1864 he was appointed Government 
Resident of the Northern territory, 
where it had been decided to form a 
settlement. On arrival with his party he 
selected a site for the capital at Adam 
Bay, which caused much opposition, and 
the break-up of the expedition. This 
ill-judged act and the indiscipline which 
prevailed in his party led to his recall 
in 1865, when an official inquiry took 
place as to the selection of the site and 
the general management of the expedi- 
tion, the result of the report being that 
Mr. Finniss resigned. Having held 
ministerial office for three years, he 
received the Queen's permission in I860 
to bear the title of Honourable within 
the colony of South Australia. He was 
appointed a member of the Forest Board 
in 1875, and was Acting Auditor-General 
during the next year in the absence, on 
leave, of Mr. Hitchin, the Auditor- 
General. He resigned his position in 
the Civil Service in 1881. 

Firth, Joiiah Clifton, was born in 
Yorkshire in 1826. In 1864 he settled 
in Auckland, N.Z., and was formerly 
a member of the House of Representatives. 
In 1869, at the height of the Te Kooti 
trouble, Mr. Firth, who had been a great 
friend of Wiremu Tamehana, the ** king- 
maker," and was acknowledged by the 
Maoris as a friend, negotiated with 
Tawhiao, the Maori king, for a cessation 
of hostilities, and subsequently had an 
interview with the notorious Te Kooti 
himself, in order to try and arrange a 
general amnesty. Te Kooti was willing, 
but the Government, being confident of 
his capture, refused the terms, and the 
war went on. On the occasion of 

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Tawhiao's visit to Auckland, early in 
1882, Mr. Firth entertained him and his 
chiefe. Mr. Firth was the owner of a 
model farm of fifty thousand acres at 
Matamata, in the Auckland Provincial 
District. He is the author of " Our Kin 
across the Sea," with a preface by 
Mr. Fronde (Longmans), ana " Nation- 
making n (Longmans, 1890). 

Fisher, George, M.H.R., sometime 
Minister of Education and Customs, New 
Zealand, is the son of James Fisher and 
Elizabeth (McLeod) his wife, and though 
of Scotch descent, was born at Dublin in 
Dec. 1843. At nine years of age he was 
engaged in a printing office in Gough 
Square, London, and arrived in Melbourne, 
Vict., with his parents in Sept. 1857, 
where he was employed as reading boy 
on the Age newspaper, and subsequently 
on the Herald, his father being a small 
proprietor in the former journal. He 
was next employed as a compositor by 
Messrs. Ferguson & Moore, of Mel- 
bourne, but left that firm in 1863 to go 
to the Otago gold diggings in New 
Zealand. After working at his trade in 
Invercargill, Dunedin, and Christchurch, 
Mr. Fisher settled in Wellington, and 
was employed in the Government printing 
office till 1872, when he became a reporter 
on the Independent, and having learnt 
shorthand, obtained a footing on the 
New Zealand Hansard staff, which he 
held for eleven years, being in the mean- 
time returned to the Wellington City 
Council, and holding the mayoralty of 
the capital tor four consecutive years. 
In 1884 he was elected to the House of 
Representatives for South Wellington, 
and has represented East Wellington 
since 1 887. He was Minister of Education 
and Commissioner of Trade and Customs 
in the last Atkinson Government from 
Oct. 1887 to April 1889, when he resigned, 
the vacant portfolios being taken over by 
the Premier. Mr. Fisher was married at 
Christchurch, N.Z., on March 1st, 1866, 
to Miss Laura Emma Tompkins. 

Fisher, Sir James Hurtle, son of the 
late James Fisher, a London architect, 
was born in 1790, and educated for the 
legal profession, practising as a solicitor 
in Cavendish Square from 1811 to 1832. 
When the colony of South Australia 
was founded, in 1836, he was appointed 
by the Imperial Government, Resident 
Commissioner for Crown Lands, and 



arrived in Adelaide with the first 
Governor, Captain Hindmarsh, in Decem- 
ber, being present at the proclamation 
of the colony in that month. The pair 
quickly quarrelled over the selection of 
a site for the capital, and possessing 
virtually concurrent powers, and neither 
being inclined to give way, a deadlock 
ensued, which was only broken by the 
interference of the Home Government, 
who after their representatives had spent 
fourteen months in wrangling, dis- 
missed the Commissioner and recalled 
the Governor. This occurred in Oct. 183ft, 
Sir James Fisher thenceforward throw- 
ing in his lot with the colony, as a much- 
respected private citizen. The same 
year he became President of the School 
Society, and was elected first Mayor of 
Adelaide in 1840; being re-chosen five 
times subsequently, the last occasion 
being in 1853, in July of which year he 
was nominated to the Legislative Coun- 
cil, and held a seat till 1855, when he 
became a nominated non-official mem- 
ber and Speaker of the united Council 
which passed the Constitution Act. At 
the first election under the Constitution 
Act in 1857, Sir James was returned to 
the Legislative Council, and was chosen 
Speaker in April of that year, a position 
which he held until he retired from the 
Council in Feb. 1865. Sir James, who 
was an active patron of the turf, was 
created Knight Bachelor in May 1860, 
up to which year he successfully prac- 
tised bis profession, and was for some 
time leader of the South Australian bar. 
He died in Adelaide on Jan. 28th, 1875. 

Fitsgerald, Captain Charles, R.N., OB., 
formerly Governor of Western Australia, 
was the son of Robert Fitsgerald, of 
Kilkee, county Clare, and entered the royal 
navy in 1809. He was Governor of the 
Gambia from 1844 to 1847, and of Western 
Australia from August 1848 to June 1855. 
During an exploring expedition, under- 
taken in Dec. 1848, with a view of con- 
firming Mr. A. C. Gregory's reported 
discovery of a lead mine on the Mar- 
chison, the Governor was speared by 
blacks, and narrowly escaped with his 
life. He was created C.B. in 1857, and 
died on Dec. 29th, 1887, in his ninety- 
sixth year, at Geraldine House, Kilkee. 

Fitsgerald, Hon. George Parker, M.HJL, 
has been the representative of Hobart 
in the House of Assembly since 1886, 



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and was appointed a member of the 
Fysh Ministry, with a seat in the Ex- 
ecutive Council, without office, in Oct. 
1888. He is Chairman of the Board of 
Technical Education, and of the Chamber 
of Commerce, Hobart. 

ZitsGerald, James Edward, C.M.G.,B.A M 
J.P., son of the late Gerald FitzGerald, of 
Queen's County, was born in 1818 at Bath, 
and educated at Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1842. 
He was assistant in the Department of 
Antiquities, British Museum, 1844-8, and 
Under-Secretary to the British Museum 
1849-50. When the Canterbury Associa- 
tion was founded, to settle the province of 
Canterbury, N.Z., he became an active 
member, and in 1850 arrived in one of 
the first four ships at Lyttleton, N.Z., 
where he started and edited for two 
years the Lyttleton Times, acting at the 
same time as Police Inspector and Immi- 
gration Agent. In 1853 he was chosen 
first superintendent of Canterbury, and 
held the office till 1857, when he went to 
England as agent for the province. He 
was one of the members for Lyttleton 
returned to the first Parliament in 1854, 
and was appointed to the Executive 
Council on June 14th. This was the first 
step taken towards responsible govern- 
ment, Mr. FitzGerald becoming virtually 
the first Premier of New Zealand. The 
newly appointed members were anxious 
to secure genuine power for themselves 
as representatives of constituencies, and 
they urged the Acting Governor (Colonel 
Wynyard) to get rid of the permanent 
office holders and re-constitute the 
Government upon "the ordinary re- 
sponsible basis." This request being put 
before the office holders, including Mr. 
William Swainson(Attorney-General),Mr. 
Alexander Shepherd (Colonial Treasurer), 
and Mr. Andrew Sinclair (Colonial Secre- 
tary), they declined to advise on the 
subject, and on August 2nd Mr. FitzGerald 
and his colleagues resigned from the 
Executive Council. In 1857-60 he was 
agent in England for the province of 
Canterbury. In 1862 Mr. FitzGerald 
re-entered Parliament as member for 
Akaroa, and on August 12th, 1865, became 
Minister for Native Affairs, in succession 
to Mr. W. B. D. Mantell, in the Weld 
Administration, which office he held till 
Oct. 16th, when the Cabinet resigned 
upon a practical failure to carry stamp 



duties. In 1866, after his retirement from 
public life, Mr. FitzGerald was appointed 
Comptroller-General, and in 1872 Com- 
missioner of Audit, and Comptroller and 
Auditor-General in 1878, which office he 
still holds. In 1870 he was created 
C.M.G. Mr. FitzGerald married in 1850 
Fanny Erskine, daughter of the late 
George Draper, of London. 

Fitigsrald, Hon. John Foster Yesey 
(formerly John Fitzgerald Leslie Foster), 
is the second son of the late Hon. John 
Leslie Foster, Baron of the Irish Court 
of Exchequer, and sometime M.P. for 
the county of Louth and the University 
of Dublin, by his marriage with the 
Hon. Letitia Yesey Fitzgerald, sister of 
Lord Fitzgerald and Yesci. The families 
of Foster and Fitzgerald have been for 
generations distinguished in the Church 
and politics of Ireland, as well as at the 
bar and in the judicial arena; Mr. Fitz- 
gerald's grandfather having been Bishop 
of. Clogher, and his great-grandfather 
the Right Hon. Anthony Foster, Lord 
Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer. 
Mr. Fitzgerald, who was born in Dublin 
on August 19th, 1818, was educated at 
Dublin University, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1839 with honours, and became a 
student for the bar, but abandoned the 
legal profession in favour of a colonial 
career. The colony of Victoria, then only 
the Port Phillip District of New South 
Wales, was his choice, and he landed 
there on March 28th, 1841. At first he 
devoted himself to pastoral and agricul- 
tural pursuits, but in 1847 he was elected 
as representative of Port Phillip, and in 
July 1848 again came forward for election 
as one of the six members allotted to 
Port Phillip in the Legislative Council of 
of New South Wales. The feeling was, 
however, so strong that this so-called 
representation was a mere farce, that the 
majority were desirous not to elect any 
more members until separation was 
secured. In deference to the protests 
of this party Mr. Foster's nomination 
was withdrawn, but a few days later 
he was put up as a candidate for the 
borough of Melbourne, when the non- 
election party nominated Earl Grey, the 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, in 
opposition to him, in the hope that his 
election would call publio attention in 
England to the grievances of which the 
colonists complained. In the result Earl 

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Grey was returned by a large majority, 
and Mr. Foster on a subsequent occasion 
declined to stand. Ultimately, however, 
he was elected, to sit in the Sydney 
Parliament till he left for England on 
a visit in 1849. In 1853 Mr. Foster re- 
turned, with the appointment of Colonial 
Secretary of the colony of Victoria, which 
had in the meantime been constituted. 
He was thus virtually Premier during the 
difficulties caused by the discovery of 
gold and the rigid enforcement (which 
he deprecated) of the unpopular diggers' 
licences. The troubles culminated in the 
Ballarat riots, of which Mr. Foster was 
made the scapegoat. Aware of the 
hostile feeling against him, he tendered 
his resignation to Sir Charles Hotham, 
by whom it was accepted on the ground 
that the Queen's government of the 
colony was endangered, and with the 
implied pledge that compensation should 
be given Mr. Foster for the pecuniary 
loss which he would sustain by his retire- 
ment from the public service. Mr. Foster, 
however, failed in all attempts to obtain 
any recognition of his claims to compen- 
sation. During his tenure of office he 
introduced and passed the measure which 
embodied the new constitution of Vic- 
toria, and which for the first time 
included the principle of an elective 
Upper House. In 1854 he turned the 
first sod at Williamstown of the great 
system of railways which has since been 
developed, and was also instrumental in 
introducing telegraphs into the colony. 
Considerable difference of opinion existed 
as to some of the measures proposed by 
him; but it is remarkable that every one 
of them has since been adopted by sub- 
sequent legislative action under the new 
constitution — as, for instance, the aboli- 
tion of the gold diggers' licence, and the 
appropriation of the Land Tax to pur- 
poses of general utility instead of expend- 
ing it on immigration. The contracting 
of loans for public works, which he 
proposed as the necessary complement 



responsible government he sat in the 
first Legislative Assembly as member for 
Williamstown, and acted as Treasurer in 
the first Administration of Sir John 
O'Shanassy from March to April 1857 
soon after which he returned to England, 
where he has since resided. In accord- 
ance with the will of his uncle, the last 
Lord Fitzgerald and Vesci, he assumed 
the name of Vesey and Fitzgerald in 
addition to his own name of Foster, bj 
which latter he was known in Australia 
Mr. Fitzgerald married in 1851 Emily, 
daughter of Kev. J. J. Fletcher, D»D., 
and administered the government of 
Victoria from May to June 1854, during 
the interval between the departure 
of Mr. Latrobe and the arrival of Sir 
Charles Hotham. Several of his relatives 
achieved distinction in Australia. Of 
these it is only necessary to mention his 
three first cousins— the late Sir William 
Foster Stawell, Mr. Justice Foster of 
New South Wales, and the late Mr. 
Charles Griffith of Victoria, notices of 
each of whom will be found elsewhere. 

Fitzgerald, Hon. Vieholas, M.L.C., 
eighth son of the late Francis Fitzgerald, 
a well-known brewer in the west of Ire- 
land, and brother of Sir Gerald Fitzgerald, 
K.C.M.G., Accountant-General of the 
Navy, was born at Galway in 1829. He 
was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he took honours, and also won a 
scholarship at the Queen's College, Gal- 
way, in 1849. After spending some time 
in legal studies, he embraced commercial 
pursuits, and in 1869 arrived in Victoria, 
where he started theCastlemaine brewery, 
and did an extensive business throughout 
the Australian colonies. Mr. Fitzgerald, 
who is also largely enraged in squatting, 
has been a member of the Upper House 
for the past five-and-twenty years, and is 
regarded as one of the most prominent 
representatives of the Catholic body in 
Victoria. He married in Sept. 1868 
Marianne, eldest daughter of the late 
Sir John O'Shanassy, K.C.M.G. He was 



of his policy, has since been largely ! one of the representatives of Victoria 
developed. When his conciliatory policy I at the Federation Convention held in 
with reference to the diggers' licences | Sydney in March 1891. 



was reversed by the Governor, Sir Charles 
Hotham, and unfortunate results ensued 
at Ballarat, be retired from office. Sub- 
sequent legislative inquiry proved that 
for such results he was in no way 
responsible. After the concession 



FitzGibbon, Sdmond Gerald, C.M.G., 
Chairman of Metropolitan Board of 
Works, Melbourne, Vict., is a native of 
Cork, Ireland, and was employed under 
the Committee of the Privy Council on 
of | Education in England, Having decided 

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to emigrate, he arrived in Melbourne 
in Sept. 1852, and went to the Mount 
Alexander gold diggings, where he 
remained until the next year, when he 
was appointed Reader to the Legislative 
Council of Victoria by Governor Latrobe. 
Mr. FitzGibbon was appointed to assist 
Mr. Kerr, the Town Clerk of Melbourne, 
in 1854, and on Mr. Kerr's resignation in 
1866 be succeeded him in that position, 
which he held till 1891, when he was ap- 
pointed first Chairman of the newly con- 
stituted Metropolitan Board of Works of 
the city of Melbourne. Mr. FitzGibbon 
was called to the Victorian Bar in 1860, 
and in 1861 unsuccessfully contested South 
Bourke in the Free Trade interest. Two 
years later he was appointed secretary 
of the Victorian branch of the league 
formed to prevent the transportation of 
criminals to Australia. He married a 
daughter of the late Mr. Michael Dawson, 
one of the early colonists of Victoria, and 
was created CM.G. in 1892. 

Fitiherbert, Hon. Sir William,K.C.M.G., 
ex-Speaker of the Legislative Council, 
New Zealand, third son of the Bev. Samuel 
Fitzherbert, of Buckshaw House, Dorset- 
shire, was born in 1810, and educated 
at Queen's College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated B.A. in 1832, M.A. in 1836, 
becoming Fellow of his college. He then 
took up the study of medicine, and 
became a Fellow of the Royal College 
of Physicians, practising for a time in 
Hanover Square, London. In 1842 he 
migrated to New Zealand, and in the 
following year was placed by Captain 
Hobson, the first Governor of New 
Zealand, at the head of the list of the 
colonial magistracy. He was also offered 
a seat in the first Legislative Council 
Mr. Fitzherbert at this time was engaged 
in commercial pursuits. Subsequently 
he threw himself into the agitation for 
constitutional government, which was 
granted by the Home Government in 
1853. Immediately afterwards Mr. Fitz- 
herbert entered the Provincial Council 
of Wellington, of which he was elected 
Superintendent in 1871. He was also 
elected in 1866 to the House of Repre- 
sentatives for Wellington, and subse- 
quently for Hutt. On Nov. 24th, 1864, 
he became Colonial Treasurer and Com- 
missioner of Customs in the Weld 
administration, in which Major Atkinson 
was Minister of Defence. On Oct. 16th, 



1866, the Cabinet retired, owing to the 
increasing opposition in the House and 
upon a nominal failure to carry stamp 
duties. Mr. Stafford succeeded, but in 
a short time made common cause with 
a section of the Weld party, and on 
August 24th, 1866, Mr. Fitzherbert resumed 
his office of Colonial Treasurer in suc- 
cession to Mr. Jollie. Subsequently, on 
May 6th, 1867, he added thereto the Com- 
missionership of Stamp Duties. During 
his term of office the Imperial authorities 
put in large claims against the colony for 
expenses incurred in the suppression of 
the native rebellion. Of this Sir William 
Fitsherbert, as Treasurer, remitted to 
England a sum of £600,000, which he 
admitted to be justly due; but with 
regard to a balance of £760,000 he 
absolutely declined, on behalf of the 
Government of which he was a member, 
to pay a farthing. Negotiations and 
commissions were resorted to; the par- 
leying extending over a protracted period 
and proving wholly futile, until at last 
the Stafford Government decided to avail 
themselves of the remarkable financial 
and diplomatic abilities of their colleague, 
and sent him to England on a special 
mission, with plenipotentiary powers, to 
come to a final settlement with the 
British Government. Sir William's idea 
of a settlement was the entire abandon- 
ment of the Imperial demand. And 
from this standpoint he never wavered 
during his numerous interviews and com- 
munications with the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, the then Colonial Secretary, and the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Ward 
Hunt. At last, after months of negoti- 
ation, the Treasury agreed to accept 
£200,000, this being announced as the 
ultimatum ; and Sir William was, at the 
same time, privately informed that in 
case he did not accept these terms his 
further stay in England was useless. 
Nothing daunted, Sir William requested 
another interview with the Duke of 
Buckingham, and as a result obtained a 
complete triumph and an entire surrender. 
During his stay in England be also con- 
solidated the various colonial and pro- 
vincial loans, and was successful in 
persuading Lord Granville to retain the 
one English regiment in the North Island. 
On June 28th, 1869, the Stafford Govern- 
ment went out of office and was succeeded 
bythatof Mr.Fox; but on Sept. 10th, 1872, 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



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Mr. Stafford again came into power, and 
Mr. Fitzherbert was Secretary for Crown 
Lands and Immigration. The Cabinet, 
however, only lasted till Oct 11th. In 
1876 he was appointed Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, and in 1879 
Sir George Grey made him Speaker of 
the Legislative Council. This latter 
position he held till his death, in Jan. 
1891. He was created C.M.G. in 1872 
and E.C.M.G. in 1877. In 1887 Sir 
William Fitzherbert visited England as 
one of the representatives of New Zealand 
at the Colonial Conference, and in 1890 
he was elected one of the delegates of 
the colony to the Federation Convention 
at Sydney, but died before it met, on 
Feb. 9th, 1891. 

Fitspatriek, Michael, M.L.A., was born 
at Parramatta, N.S.W., on Dec. 16th, 
1816, and educated at a Roman Catholic 
school and at the Australian College, 
where he entered in Jan. 1832, and 
carried off the highest prizes. After 
acting as tutor at the Normal Institution, 
he became a clerk in the Lands Depart- 
ment of New South Wales in Oct. 1837, 
first-class clerk in 1846, and clerk of the 
Executive Council in 1861. Mr. Fitz- 
patrick was selected as the first Under 
Secretary for Lands and Works in 1856, 
on the introduction of responsible govern- 
ment. When these departments were 
divided, he held the office of Under 
Secretary for Lands until 1869, when he 
retired on a pension. In December of 
that year he was returned for the district 
of Yass Plains, and represented the con- 
stituency in several parliaments. He 
first supported the Cowper-Robertson 
party, and afterwards voted with Sir 
Henry Parkes. He was Colonial Secre- 
tary in Mr. FarnelTs Administration from 
Dec. 1877 to Dec. 1878. Mr. Fitzpatrick 
married, in August 1846, Theresa Anas- 
tasia, third daughter of Captain 8mall, 
Superintendent of Hyde Park Barracks. 
He died on Dec. 10th, 1881. . Owing, 
as it was supposed, to his attitude on the 
education question, he was refused the 
rites of Christian burial by the Roman 
Catholio authorities. A great sensation 
was created, and ultimately on Dec. 
22nd it was officially notified that the 
eontretempt bad arisen through a mistake, 
and a funeral service was performed over 
the grave. 

Fitiroy, Lieuteuant'Colonel Sir Charles 



Augustus, E.C.B., E.C.M., ninth Governor 
of New South Wales and first Governor- 
General of her Majesty's Australian 
possessions, was the only son of Lord 
Charles Fitzroy by bis'first wife, Frances, 
daughter of Edward Miller-Mundy, of 
Shipley, Derby, and was born in 1796. 
Sir Charles Fitzroy 's grandfather, the 
third Duke of Grafton, sometime Prime 
Minister of England, was the object of 
the envenomed attacks of Junius. His 
half-brother, Admiral Fitzroy, famous 
for his storm warnings, was Governor of 
New Zealand from 1843 to 1845. Having 
entered the army, Captain Fitzroy, as he 
was then called, was for some time 
Governor of Prince Edward Island, and. 
from 1842 to 1845 of Antigua. In 1846 
he was appointed to succeed Sir George 
Gipps as Governor of New South Wales, 
and arriving in Sydney on August 2nd of 
that year, was sworn in on the following 
day. The year after his arrival in the 
colony a distressing accident occurred. 
On Dec. 7th, 1847, whilst he was driv- 
ing his wife, Lady Mary Fitzroy, in 
the neighbourhood of Parramatta, the 
horses took fright, and one of the wheels 
struck against a tree, causing the occu- 
pants to be thrown out, Lady Mary being 
killed on the spot. The deceased, to 
whom Sir Charles Fitzroy was married on 
March 11th, 1820, was the eldest daughter 
of Charles, fourth Duke of Richmond. 
Shortly after his arrival 8ir Charles 
Fitzroy avowed his entire neutrality in 
regard to all matters of local concern, 
and it was well that he did so, as the 
public mind was then greatly agitated 
on some of the most momentous questions 
affecting the welfare of Australia as a 
whole. Mr. Gladstone, when Secretary 
for the Colonies in the Peel Government, 
from 1845 to 1846, roused great bitterness 
by suddenly mooting the renewal, of 
transportation and actually constituting* 
a new colony in the Port Curtis district 
of what is now Northern Queensland by 
the name of Northern Australia, with at 
view of making it a receptacle of British 
convictism on a large scale. The scheme, 
however, collapsed on Mr. Gladstone's 
retirement from office, and Northern 
Australia reverted to the jurisdiction of 
New South Wales in 1849. In 1847 a 
long-standing difficulty was settled by 
the concession of some sort of fixity of 
tenure to the squatters, In 1848 the 

66 



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[Pi* 



New South Wales Legislative Council, 
acting in a manner quite contrary to the 
public sentiment, passed a resolution of 
Wentworth's approving the importation 
of a certain number of selected convicts, 
provided they were accompanied by an 
eqnal number of free emigrants sent oat 
at the imperial expense. Earl Grey (the 
then Colonial Secretary) revoked the 
Order in Council of 1840 by which the 
colony had been declared to be a place to 
which criminals could not be deported, 
and started transportation on the old 
unsatisfactory lines, much to the indig- 
nation even of the Legislative Council. 
Sir Charles Fitsroy encouraged Earl Grey 
in his action all through, and thus 
appropriated a good deal of the un- 
popularity which the temporary renewal 
of transportation involved. As the result, 
however, of a vehement agitation, it very 
quickly ceased, and was formally termi- 
nated in 1853. In 1851 the gold discoveries 
were made, and it was a good deal owing 
to Sir Charles Fitzroy's prudent manage- 
ment that the results of the "fever" 
evolved were not so disastrous in New 
South Wales as in Victoria, where ex- 
penditure and extravagance ran riot. In 
the same year Victoria won the long- 
sought boon of severance from the 
mother colony, and in May the old 
purely official Legislative Council of New 
South Wales was transmuted into an 
assemblage in which the elective prin- 
ciple was partially recognised, the new 
chamber being opened by Governor 
fitsroy on Oct 16th, 1851. This 
popularisation of the Constitution only 
whetted the appetite for a further in- 
stalment of constitutional government, 
and before Sir Charles Fitzroy left the 
colony the boon of responsible govern 
ment in connection with a bicameral 
Legislature was conceded to New South 
Wales. The first sod of the Sydney and 
Goulburn Bailway was turned by Governor 
Fitzroy's daughter on July 3rd, 1851. 
In Oct. 1852 the Sydney University was 
inaugurated, and in the next year a 
branch of the Royal Mint was opened in 
8ydney. The progress made in New South 
Wales and throughout Australia during 
Sir Charles Fitzroy's unprecedentedly 
long term as Governor was enormous, 
and predisposed the colonists to short 
memories of former grievances, so that 
before he left Sydney on Jan. 28tb, 



1855, Sir Charles Fitsroy was presented 
with a public testimonial of £2,000. On 
the motion of Mr. James Maoarthur, the 
Legislative Council also passed resolutions 
acknowledging the practical ability, sound 
judgment, and eminent success, which 
had characterised his rule; a condem- 
natory amendment, proposed by the 
redoubtable Dr. Lang, being rejected by 
twenty-eight votes to six. Sir Charles 
Fitsroy died on Feb. 16th, 1858. In 
connection with the Constitution Act of 
1850, which authorised the separation of 
Victoria from New South Wales, and 
otherwise liberalised government in Aus- 
tralia, the Governor of the mother colony 
was constituted Governor-General of all 
her Majesty's Australian possessions, in- 
cluding Western Australia. Under the 
new regime Sir Charles Fitsroy held four 
separate commissions as Governor of 
New South Wales, Van Diemen's Land, 
South Australia, and Victoria. He was 
not, under his commission as Governor- 
General, to interfere with the internal 
interests of Van Diemen's Land, South 
Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia, 
whose lieutenant-governors would corre- 
spond directly with the Colonial Office ; 
but he had M general authority to super- 
intend the initiation and foster the com- 
pletion of such measures as those com- 
munities may deem calculated to promote 
their common welfare and prosperity.'' 
In case of necessity he would repair to 
another colony and assume and retain the 
government during his residence there, 
the functions of the Lieutenant-Governor 
being meanwhile completely suspended. 
Remote Western Australia alone was 
exempt from such a contingency. The 
title of Governor-General was continued 
to Sir Charles Fitzroy's successor, Sir W. 
Denison, and then dropped. Sir Charles 
Fitzroy formally proclaimed his new 
dignities on June 12th, 1851. 

Fitsroy, Vice- Admiral Bobert, R.N., 
F.R.S., late Governor of New Zealand, 
second son of General Lord Charles 
Fitzroy, brother of the 4th Duke 
of Grafton, by Frances Anne, eldest 
daughter of Bobert, 1st Marquess of 
Londonderry, was born in June, 1806, 
and entered the navy in 1819, becoming 
lieutenant in 1824. In 1828-36 he was 
in command of the Beagle in important 
hydrographies! operations in South 
America and elsewhere (Darwin acoom- 



167 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[*• 



panied him on one of these voyages). 
Captain Fitzroy was Conservative M.P. 
for Durham, 1841-3, when he was appointed 
Governor of New Zealand in succession to 
Captain William Hobson, and arrived in 
the oolony in Dec. 1843. At this time 
the oolony was'not possessed of respons- 
ible government, and Captain Fitzroy 
was called upon to adjudicate upon the 
Wairau affray of 1839, in which Captain 
Wakefield and others were killed in a 
skirmish with Bauparaha and his natives 
over a disputed section of land in the 
Nelson district. The Governor arrived at 
the decision to pardon Bauparaha, being 
of the opinion that the colonists had 
been in the wrong, the Maoris having 
been "hurried into crime by their mis- 
conduct." Subsequently Captain Fitz- 
roy, with the view of allowing greater 
freedom in land transfer, practically 
rescinded a clause in the Treaty of 
Waitangi, by which the Maoris could sell 
only to the Government, by a proclamation 
permitting the colonists to buy on pay- 
ment of a ten shilling fee per acre to 
the Government. This having been re- 
garded as a heavy tax on the sales, in 
Oct. 1884 he reduced it to the nominal 
fee of one penny per acre. About the 
same time the Waitara difficulty came 
before him. Colonel Wakefield claimed 
to have bought certain lands in the Tara- 
naki district, and the Ngatiawas disputed 
the sale. A commission under Mr. Spain 
reported in favour of Colonel Wakefield, 
but the Governor decided to have further 
investigations made. This course, among 
other things, led to a memorial, signed 
by many leading, public men, praying for 
the censure of the Governor by the Queen. 
Captain Fitzroy struggled with his diffi- 
culties, which included a lack of money 
and of troops, but the rising of a ohief 
called Horn Heke, and his attack on 
Kororarika, induced the Home Govern- 
ment to recall him, and, on Nov. 18th, 
1845, Sir George Grey assumed the reins 
of Government In 1 857 he became Bear- 
Admiral, and Vice-Admiral in 1863. In 
1854, when the meteorological depart- 
ment of the Board of Trade was estab- 
lished, he was placed at its head, and for 
many years devoted himself to the duties 
of his office. His assiduity has identified 
his name to a large degree with the 
science of neteorology ; but it would 
seem that 1 la mind gave way under the 



268 



strain, for he committed suicide on April 
29th, 1865. He was the author of *' Nar- 
rative of Voyages of the Adventure and 
Beagle and the Beaglti* Circumnavigation 
of the Globe" (3 vols.), 1839; "Remarks 
on New Zealand," 1846; and "Sailing 
Directions for South America," 1858. 
Admiral Fitzroy married, first, in 1836, 
Mary Henrietta, second daughter of 
Major-General B. J. O'Brien (who died 
1852); second, in 1854, Maria Isabella, 
third daughter of John Henry Smyth, of 
Heath Hall, co. Yorks. 

Flanagan, Boderick, historian of New 
South Wales, was born at Elphin, Bos- 
common, Ireland, in April 1828, and went 
with his family to New South Wales in 
1840. He was apprenticed to a printer, 
but soon took to journalism and literature. 
Mr. Flanagan contributed to the Empire 
when edited by Mr. ("now Sir) Henry 
Parkes, and in 1854 joined the staff of 
the Sydney Morning Herald. He com- 
menced a history of New South Wales, 
and after four years' labour took the 
MS. to England to be published by 
Messrs. Sampson Low & Marston. He 
was seized with a fatal illness whilst 
revising the sheets of the first volume, 
and died suddenly in 1861 in London. 
The history was subsequently published 
in two volumes, and Is a work of great 
interest and reliability. 

Fleming, Sir Va lent ine, formerly Chief 
Justice of Tasmania, was the son of 
Valentine Fleming (captain 9th Foot), 
of Tuam, Gal way, by his wife, Catherine, 
daughter of John Hunter Green, of 
Mount Nebo, Wexford, and was born in 
1809. He was educated at Bangor and 
at Trinity College, Dublin, where he 
graduated BJL in honours in 1834. He 
was called to the bar at Gray's Inn 
in 1838, and was Commissioner of the 
Insolvent Debtors Court at Hobart, 
Tasmania, from 1841 to 1844 ; Solicitor- 
General for Tasmania from 1844 to 1848 ; 
Attorney-General from 1848 to 1854; 
when he was appointed Chief Justice. 
This post he held till May 1870, when 
he retired, but was Acting Chief Justice 
from 1872 to 1874, in which year he 
administered the government of Tas- 
mania, after the resignation of Sir 
Charles Du Cane, from March to June. 
8ir Valentine married, first, in 1852, 
Elizabeth Oke, daughter of Charles 
Buckland, of Hobart, who died in 1870; 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[For 



and secondly, in 1872, Fanny Maria, 
daughter of William Seccombe, sen., 
Medical Officer of Tasmania, who sur- 
vives him. Sir Valentine, who was 
knighted in 1856, died on Oct. 25th, 1884. 

Fletcher, James, M.L.A., was for some 
years the representative of Newcastle in 
the Legislative Assembly of New South 
Wales, and was Secretary for Mines in 
the Jennings Ministry from Feb. to Deo. 
1886, when he resigned. He was Secre- 
tary for Public Works in the Dibbs 
Ministry from Jan. to March, 1889. Mr. 
Fletcher died on March 22nd, 1891. 

Fletcher, Bev. William Boby, M.A., is 
the son of the late Rev. Richard Fletcher, 
a well-known Congregational minister, 
who officiated in Manchester, and sub- 
sequently in Melbourne, Vict., where he 
died in 1861. He was bora in Man- 
chester on April 6th, 1833, and was 
educated at Silooats School in Yorkshire, 
at the University of Bonn, the Lanca- 
shire Independent College, and at Owens 
College (now the Victoria University), 
Manchester. Mr. Fletcher graduated 
B.A. at London University in 1853, and 
in the following year took the London 
University prize for the Scripture exami- 
nation. In 1856 he graduated M.A., and 
won the gold medal. He soon after- 
wards sailed for Sydney, and ultimately 
proceeded to Victoria, where he acted as 
his father's assistant at St. Kilda and 
Sandhurst In 1866 he removed to Rich- 
mond, near Melbourne, and was appointed 
a professor at the Congregational College 
of Victoria. After a tonr round the world 
he became pastor of the Stow Memorial 
Church, Adelaide, in March 1876. Since 
1878 he has been a member of the Council 
of Adelaide University, of which he was 
made an honorary MjL in 1877. During 
the last illness, and subsequent to the 
death of the late Professor Davidson, he 
was acting Hughes Professor of English 
Language and Literature and Mental 
and Moral Philosophy. In 1890 he was 
elected Vice-Chancellor of the University. 

Folingsby, George Frederick, was born 
in Ireland in 1830, but went, when yonng, 
to America, where he commenced his 
artistic career by contributing illustra- 
tions to Harper 1 * Magazine. Subse- 
quently he studied for six years at the 
Munich Academy, and after a varied 
artistic experience on the continent of 
Europe, settled at Munich, where he 



remained for twenty-five years, painting 
pictures which were exhibited in the 
principal galleries of Europe. In 1880 
he visited Victoria at the request of the 
trustees of the National Gallery in Mel- 
bourne, of which he was subsequently 
appointed director, a post which he held 
till his death. The collection contains 
his painting of Henry VIII. and Anne 
Boleyn ; but his work in Australia was 
mainly confined to portraiture. He died 
in Melbourne on Jan. 4th, 1891. 

Forbes, Frederic Augustus, was born 
in Sydney in 1818, and educated at 
Cape's School, Sydney, add at the King's 
School, Parramatta. After engaging in 
business at Liverpool, in New South 
Wales, he removed to the Moreton Bay 
district in 1848, and resided at Ipswich. 
Having entered the Legislative Assembly 
of Queensland after the formation of 
that colony, he was appointed Chairman 
of Committee in 1870, and was Speaker 
from Nov. 1871 to Sept. 1873. Mr. 
Forbes died in 1877. 

Forbes, Henry Ogg, A.L.S., F.R.G.S., 
F.Z.S., ex-Director of Canterbury Museum, 
Christchurch, N.Z., is the son of Rev. 
Alexander Forbes, M.A., and Mary (Ogg) 
his wife. He was born at Drumblade, 
Huntly, Aberdeenshire, and was married 
in Java on April 5th, 1882, to Annabella, 
daughter of William Keith, of Aberdeen. 
From Oct. 1878 to the end of 1883 he was 
engaged in exploring the islands of the 
Dutch East Indies, travelling in Java 
and Sumatra ; and after April 1882, accom- 
panied by his wife, he visited the Moluccas 
and Timorlaut (where, in daily peril of 
their lives, they were forced to spend three 
months), Bourn, and Timor. The results 
of these years have been published in '* A 
Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern 
Archipelago " (Sampson Low) and by Mrs. 
Forbes in a volume, " Insulinde : Ex- 
periences of a Naturalist's Wife in the 
Eastern Archipelago" (Blackwood). On 
the publication of the "Wanderings" 
Mr. Forbes started for New Guinea to 
attempt the exploration of Mount Owen 
Stanley. This expedition was under the 
auspices of the Royal Geographical 
Society and of the Royal Scientific Geo- 
graphical Society, and under the recog- 
nition of the Government, by whom it 
was recommended to Sir Peter Scratchiey, 
K.C.M.G., then appointed first Special 
Commissioner over British New Guinea, 

J69 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[For 



With twenty-five Malays and Amboinese 
carriers, he reached Fort Moresby in 
Sir Peter's yacht, the Governor BlackdU. 
Arriving too late for the dry season of 
that year, he established a camp to the 
east of the Astrolabe mountains, in the 
Bogeri country, whence explorations were 
conducted for many miles round the 
camp, and surveys made of the region. 
Toward the end of the year, he accom- 
panied Sir Peter as a scientific expert on 
his journey along the north-eastern coast 
to Nutre rock and the Boundary Cape, 
on the 8th parallel of south latitude, tne 
line of separation between the German 
and English spheres of influence. On 
this journey Sir Peter contracted the 
illness which so suddenly and unex- 
pectedly proved fatal. His illness and 
death prevented the signing of the papers 
to authorise the payment of the con- 
tribution which was largely to support 
the expedition. Mr. Forbes maintained 
the expedition at Sogeri as long as the 
public and his own private resources 
could afford, in the hope that Sir Peter's 
successor, the Hon. J. Douglas, would 
contribute the sum well known to have 
been promised by Sir Peter Scratchley 
to the expedition, but not seeing his way 
to do this, he appointed Mr. Forbes 
Besident at Dinner Island, and sub- 
sequently Government Meteorologist at 
Port Moresby, whence he was in 1887 
instructed to conduct an exploration to- 
wards Mount Owen Stanley via the Goldie 
Valley. This expedition reached tbe very 
base of the mountain, and would have 
without doubt attained the summit but 
for the unexpected attack on the main 
camp by the natives of Bbe, during Mr. 
Forbes* absence, in which everything 
was looted. This calamity necessitated 
a withdrawal from the region back 
to the coast, whioh was effected without 
loss of life, though after many hardships. 
Returning to England in March 1888, Mr. 
Forbes was appointed in July to succeed 
the late Sir Julius von Haast as Director 
of tbe Canterbury Museum at Christ- 
church, N.Z., a position he held till 1892. 
He has contributed to the transactions 
of various learned societies. 

Forbes, Sir William Stuart, Bart., son 
of Charles Hay Forbes, second son of the 
7th baronet of that name, of Piteligo 
and Monymusk, Aberdeenshire, by his 
marriage with Jemima Rebecca, daughter 



of the late Alexander Bonaldson Mac- 
donell, of Glengarry, was born on June 
16th, 1835, and emigrated to New Zea- 
land, where he resides at Carterton, near 
Wellington. In 1865 he married Marion, 
daughter of J. Watts, of Bridgend, 
Nelson, N.Z., and in the following year 
succeeded as 9th baronet on the death of 
of his uncle, Sir John Stuart Hepburn 
Forbes, when the family estates de- 
scended to the fetter's daughter, who 
married the 20th Baron Clinton. 

Ford, Biehard, Commissioner of Bail- 
ways, Victoria, was educated at the col- 
lege in Shaw Street, Liverpool, and went 
to Victoria in 1852. He returned to 
England in 1854, and held an appoint- 
ment under the Liverpool Dock Trust 
for three years. Coming out again to 
Australia in 1858, he was engaged in a 
solicitor's office, and subsequently as a 
share broker at Daylesford. Returning 
to Ballarat, he held the offices of Town 
Clerk and City Treasurer for six years. 
In 1877 he was appointed Secretary to 
the Melbourne Harbour Trust Commis- 
sion, and visited England in 1883 to assist 
in the flotation of a loan of £250,000. 
Soon after his return to the colony he 
was appointed one* of the Victoria Bail- 
way Commissioners, Mr. Richard Speight 
and the late Mr. Alfred J. Agg being his 
colleagues. His tenure of office expired in 
1891, but was again renewed under modi- 
fied conditions. In March 1892 Mr. Ford 
and his colleagues were suspended on an 
allegation of inefficiency. In June, how- 
ever, as the result of negotiations with 
the Government, they agreed to resign, 
receiving a sum equal to half the salary 
for the remainder of the unexpired term 
for which they were appointed in 1891 by 
way of compensation. 

Forrest, Alexander, M.L.A^ younger 
brother of the Hon John Forrest, Premier 
of Western Australia (?.t?.), was born in 
that colony in 1849, and is one of the 
most eminent of the explorers of Western 
Australia. He accompanied his brother's 
expeditions in 1870 and 1874. On Jan. 
18th, 1879, with a party of five and two 
natives, with twenty-six horses and six 
months' provisions, he started from Perth 
to explore the north-west portion of 
Australia, Port Darwin being their ulti- 
mate destination, which was reached on 
Oct 6th. The chief results of this expe- 
dition were the discovery of the source 

70 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Par 



and course of the Fitsroy and other large 
streams, together with an estimated area 
of 20,000,000 acres of good well-watered 
country now known as the Kimberley 
district, which, in addition to its vast 
pastoral possibilities, is well suited for 
tropical cultures, and has been proved 
to be auriferous. He was returned to 
the first Legislative Assembly of Western 
Australia as member for West Kimberley 
in 1890, and was one of the delegates 
to the Federation Convention held in 
Sydney in March 1891. Mr. Forrest 
married in 1880 Amy, eldest daughter 
of Edward Barrett Lennard, of Annan- 
dale, W.A. 

Forrest, Hon. Edward Barrow, M.L.C., 
was born in England in Feb. 1838, and 
educated at the King's School, Parramatta, 
N.8.W., in which colony he arrived in 
1 862. He is managing partner in Queens- 
land of the firm of Parbury, Lamb & Co., 
and was sworn on August 15th, 1882, 
of the Queensland Legislative Council. 
Subsequently he was appointed one of 
the commissioners to inquire into the 
working of the Colonial Stores Office. 

Forrest, Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G., 
F.L.8.,F.R.G.S.,F.G.S., Premier of Western 
Australia, the third son of William 
Forrest, of Leschenault, near Banbury, 
W. A., was born in that colony on August 
22nd, 1847, and educated at the Bishop's 
School, Perth. In 1865 he entered the 
Survey Department of Western Australia, 
and in 1869 was selected to command an 
exploring expedition into the interior in 
search of the remains of Dr. Leichardt. 
In 1870 he commanded an exploring ex- 
pedition from Perth to Adelaide along 
the south coast, and proved the practi- 
cability of the route for the telegraph 
line, which was afterwards erected. In 
1874 he commanded an exploring expe- 
dition from Champion Bay, on the west 
coast, to the overland telegraph between 
Adelaide and Port Darwin, a journey of 
nearly 2000 miles, without the aid of 
camels, and with horses only. For these 
services he received the thanks of the 
Governor and Legislative Council, and 
was awarded the Gold Medal of the 
Royal Geographical Society of London, 
May 22nd, 1876, and was also presented 
by the Imperial Government with a grant 
in fee of 6000 acres of land. In 1876 he 
was appointed Deputy Surveyor-General 
of Western Australia. In 1878 and 1882 

I 



he conducted the trigonometrical surveys 
of the Nickol Bay District, and the 
Gascoyne and Lyons District, in North- 
western Australia. From Sept. 1878 to 
Jan. 1879 Mr. Forrest was Acting Com- 
missioner of Crown Lands and Surveyor- 
General. He is a justice of the peace 
for Western Australia, and acted as 
Comptroller of Convicts from May 1880 
to July 1881. In Jan. 1883 he was 
appointed Commissioner of Crown Lands 
and Surveyor-General of Western Aus- 
tralia, with a seat in the Executive and 
Legislative Councils. In March 1883 
and April 1886 he proceeded to the 
Kimberley district, North- Western Aus- 
tralia, on behalf of the Government, to 
specially report on its character and 
capabilities. Mr. Forrest is the author 
of "Explorations in Australia, 1876," 
and of "Notes on Western Australia, 
1884-7." In 1874, such was his repute 
as an explorer, that the Governor of 
Western Australia, Sir Frederick Weld, 
in writing to Lord Carnarvon, said: 
"Mr. Forrest's expedition has bridged 
the gap that separated Western Australia 
from the other colonies, has led to settle- 
ment on the shores of the Great Bight, and 
to the connection of this colony with the 
rest of the world bv electric telegraph. 
I never doubted of the future of Western 
Australia from the day when the news 
of Mr. Forrest's success reached Perth." 
In 1876 Mr. Forrest married Margaret 
Elvire, eldest daughter of Mr. Edward 
Hamersley, of Pyrton, near Guilford, 
W.A., and' in the same year was created 
a Chevalier of the Order of the Crown of 
Italy by Victor Emmanuel. He is an 
Honorary Fellow of the Italian Geo- 
graphical Society and of the Imperial 
Geographical Societies of Vienna and 
St. Petersburg. He was created C.M.G. 
in 1882 ; proceeded to Cambridge Gulf, 
in the extreme north, in 1886, and 
selected the site of the town of Wynd- 
ham. In the same year he was mainly 
responsible for the Land Act passed by 
the Legislative Council, rendering aliena- 
tion conditional on improvements. He 
was a member of the local commission 
for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition 
of 1886, and was one of the delegates of 
Western Australia to the Colonial Con- 
ference held in London in 1887. In Dec. 
1890 Mr. Forrest was returned unopposed 
to the first Legislative Assembly for 

71 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[F* 



Banbury, and became first Premier and 
Treasurer of Western Australia under 
responsible government. In March 1891 
he represented the colony at the Sydney 
Federation Convention, and in June 1891 
he was created K.C.M.G. 

Forrest, Hon. William, M.L.O., is a 
member of the well-known Queensland 
firm of B. D. Morehead & Co., and was 
appointed to the Legislative Council on 
March 15th, 1888. He has been long and 
extensively engaged in pastoral pursuits 
in Queensland and the neighbouring 
colonies. 

Forster, Anthony, was for some time 
editor of the South Australian Register. 
In 1855 he was elected to the Mixed 
Legislative Council for West Adelaide, in 
opposition to Mr. (afterwards Sir James) 
Hurtle Fisher. The seat was, however, 
declared vacant by the Court of Disputed 
Returns in November, Mr. Forster being 
re-elected in Jan. 1856. When the present 
Constitution Act came into force, Mr. 
Forster was elected to the Legislative 
Council in March 1857, and sat till Feb. 
1861, when he retired by rotation, but 
was immediately re-elected, and sat till 
Dec 1864, when he resigned. He has 
published " South Australia : its Progress 
and Prosperity " (London, 1866). 

Forster, Hon. William, was born at 
Madras in 1818, and came to Australia 
at eleven years of age. He was educated 
at Cape's School, in Sydney, and became 
a squatter early in life. Mr. Forster soon 
attained prominence as a politician, but 
in his early career was better known as 
a satirical versifier and an incisive con- 
tributor to the press. He was elected at 
different times to the Lower House for 
East Sydney, St. Leonards, the Hastings, 
Queanbeyan, Hlawarra, and Murrum- 
bidgee. In his place in parliament he 
was a severe oritic of the education 
policy of the Cowper Administration 
formed in 1857, and on their defeat on 
this question in Oct. 1859 he himself 
formed an administration, which, how- 
ever, only lasted till the following March. 
Mr. Forster was Colonial Secretary in 
Mr. (afterwards Sir) James Martin's first 
Ministry from Oct. 1863 to Feb. 1865, 
and Secretary for Lands in Mr. (now Sir) 
John Robertson's second Ministry and 
the succeeding Cowper Ministry from 
Oct. 1868 to April 1870. In Feb. 1875 
be again took office under Sir John 



Robertson, this time as Colonial Tret 
surer— a post which he held till t) 
following February, when he resigne 
to become Agent-General of the Coloi 
of New South Wales in London. Th 
post he held for three years, when hj 
was recalled by the Parkes Ministry, and 
returned to New South Wales, where ho 
died on Oct. 80th, 1882. Mr. Forste* 
whilst resident in London, published Tkt* 
Weir- Wotf, a Tragedy. He also published 
"Political Presentments " in 1879, and 
was the author of two other poetical 
works, "The Brothers" and "Midas "— 
the latter issued posthumously. 

Fosbery, Edmund Waloott, J.P., In- 
spector-General of Police, New South 
Wales, was born at Wotton, in Gloucester- 
shire, in 1833, and educated at the Royal 
Naval School, New Cross. He went to 
Melbourne in 1852, and was employed in 
the police department. Ten years later, 
when the New South Wales Constabulary 
was reorganised, he was appointed Secre- 
tary to the Force, and Superintendent and 
Deputy Inspector-General. In Oct 1874 
he succeeded the late Captain M'Lerie 
as Inspector-General. 

Foster, Hon. William John, Puisne 
Judge, New South Wales, son of, the 
Rev. W. H. Foster, of Lough Gilly, oo. 
Armagh, by Catherine, daughter of James 
Hamilton, of Brown Hall, Donegal, and 
niece of the first Duchess of Wellington, 
was born on Jan. 13th, 1831, at Rathescar, 
co. Louth, the residence of his uncle, 
John Leslie Foster, Baron of the Irish 
Court of Exchequer. He was educated 
at Cheltenham College, and at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he took the 
Vice-Chancellor's prize for Greek in 
1850, also the composition prise in the 
same year, as well as honours in classics 
and mathematics. He left the Univer- 
sity in 1851, and arrived in Sydney 
in August 1854, and for the first three 
years of his residence in New 8outh 
Wales devoted himself to agricultural 
pursuits. He then studied law, and was 
called to the colonial bar in 1858, when 
he entered on the practice of his pro- 
fession. In 1859 he published a work 
on the District Courts Act, which was 
the standard work on the subject until 
1870, when a revised edition was issued. 
In 1877 be published a supplement to the 
same work. He acted as a Crown pro- 
secutor from 1859 to 1862 and from 18C4 



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j 1870, when he was appointed Crown 
prosecutor for 8ydney, in succession to 
. i'r. Butler, who had accepted the 
ttorney -Generalship. In Dec. 1877 he 
■ signed this post, and became Attorney- 
•eneral in the Farnell Administration, 
with a seat in the Legislative Council. 
Retiring with his colleagues in Dec. 
£78, be again took office in Oct. 1881, 
being Minister of Justice in the Parkes 
Administration from that date till Jan. 
1883, when the Government resigned. 
He retired from the Legislative Council 
in 1880, and was returned to the Lower 
House for Newtown. In 1882 he was 
defeated, but was re-elected in 1885, and 
sat in the Assembly till he retired from 
political life in 1888. Judge Foster was 
made Q.C. in 1886, and in the following 
January he again took office as Attorney- 
General under Sir Henry Parkes, but 
resigned in Feb. 1888, on the ground that 
his prior claim to the vacant Puisne Judg- 
ship had been slighted. Later in the same 
year he was raised to the Supreme Court 
Bench. Mr. Justice Foster married in 
1854 Matilda 8ophia, daughter of John 
Williams, of Landigige, Pembrokeshire. 
He on several occasions refused District 
Court Judgeships, and declined the 
Speakership of the Assembly in 1887. 

Fowler, David, was born near An- 
struther, in Scotland, in 1826, and emi- 
grated to South Australia in 1852. He 
founded the mercantile firm of D. k J. 
Fowler of Adelaide, which city he quitted 
in 1873 to assume the direction of the 
London branch. He died at Norwood, in 
Surrey, on Nov. lltb, 1881. 

Fowler, George Swan, a partner in 
the firm of D. & J. Fowler, of Adelaide 
and London, was member for East Ade- 
laide from 1878 to 1881 in the Legislative 
Assembly of 8outh Australia. He ac- 
cepted office in the last Morgan Ministry 
as Treasurer, in March 1881, but in the 
following May he resigned. Early in 
1892 he contested the seat for East Ade- 
laide, left vacant by the retirement of 
8ir John Bray, but was defeated by the 
labour candidate. 

Fox, Sir William, K.C.M.G., M.A., for- 
merly Premier of New Zealand, third son 
of George Townsbend Fox, J.P. and D.L. 
for co. Durham, was born on June 9th, 
1812, and educated at Wadham College, 
Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1832, M.A. in 
1839. He entered at the Inner Temple 



________ [*<* 

on Nov. 15th, 1838, and was called to the 
bar on April 29th, 1842. In the latter 
year he emigrated to Wellington, N.Z., 
and in 1843 succeeded Captain Wake- 
field as the Resident Agent of the 
New Zealand Company at Nelson. Early 
in 1848 he became Attorney-General of 
the Southern Province, but resigned when 
it appeared that no steps were to be 
taken to grant self-government to the 
colony. In Sept. 1848 he succeeded 
Colonel Wakefield as principal agent of 
the New Zealand Company. In 1850 he 
returned to England as honorary political 
agent of the Wellington settlement to 
assist in getting the Constitution Act 
through the Imperial Parliament, and 
travelled for a year in the United States. 
On May 7th Mr. Sewell formed the first 
responsible ministry; but on May 20th 
he resigned upon a want of confidence 
motion 'carried by Mr. Fox in connection 
with the powers of the provincial govern- 
ments, which Mr. Sewell desired curtailed. 
But his tenure of office was as brief as 
that of his predecessor, as on June 2nd he 
also was defeated, Mr. Stafford assuming 
office with Mr. Sewell as treasurer. On 
July 3rd, 1861, Mr. Fox carried a vote of 
want of confidence in the ministry by 24 
votes against 23, and formed a cabinet 
on July 12th. In 1862 Mr. Fox brought 
before the House a resolution affirming 
exclusive Ministerial responsibility for 
Maori affairs, and, the votes being equally 
divided, resigned the same year. On 
Nov. 2nd, 1863, Mr. Fox came into office 
as Colonial Secretary, Mr. Whitaker being 
Premier and Attorney-General. The 
Waikato war had now begun, and the 
burden of responsibility fell jointly upon 
the Governor (Sir George Grey) and the 
Fox- Whitaker cabinet. Mr. Fox carried 
through the Suppression of Rebellion Bill 
by a large majority; also the Defence 
Bill and the New Zealand Settlements 
Bill ; and it was owing to difficulties with 
Sir G. Grey during the progress of the 
war (notably concerning confiscation) 
that the ministry resigned on Nov. 24th, 
1864. Mr. Fox was not in office again 
till June 28th, 1869, when be once more 
became Premier and a member of the 
Executive Council, after the defeat of the 
Stafford Government. During his term 
of office in 1870 a bill was- passed found- 
ing the University of New Zealand, and 
the Public Works scheme was inaugurated 



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by Mr. Vogel. The Land Transfer Regis- 
tration Act was also passed. On Sept. 
10th, 1872, he resigned, and Mr. Stafford 
came in again ; bat on March 3rd, 1873, 
Mr. Fox once more returned to office, 
though he resigned on April 8th, leaving 
his colleague, Mr. (afterwards Sir) Julius 
Vogel, to take his place as Premier. On 
July 29th, 1879, 8ir George Grey's Govern- 
ment was defeated on an amendment 
moved by Sir William Fox (as he was 
now), but he failed to secure a seat at 
the general election in the same year. In 
1880 he was appointed, with Sir F. D. 
Bell, upon the Commission for the West 
Coast to inquire into the question of 
native titles and report upon the con- 
fiscated lands, and subsequently became 
sole commissioner. He was created 
K.C.M.G. in 1879, and since his retire- 
ment from public life has devoted him- 
self to lectures and addresses upon the 
temperance question. He married May 
3rd, 1842, Sarah, eldest daughter of 
William Halcombe, of Poulton House, 
Wilts, who died in June, 1892. Sir 
William Fox is the author of "The Six 
Colonies of New Zealand " (1851), and 
" The War in New Zealand w (1866). 

Franois, George W., the first director 
of the Adelaide Botanic Garden, was 
born in England in 1799, and emigrated to 
South Australia in 1849. Soon after his 
arrival he leased the old Botanic Garden, 
north of the Torrens, and was ultimately 
appointed director under Government. 
This post he held till his death on 
August 9th, 1865. Mr. Franois was the 
author of several works. 

Franois, Hon. James Goodall, sometime 
Premier of Victoria, was born in London 
in 1819, and emigrated to Tasmania in 
1834. Here he entered the mercantile 
firm of Boys & Painter, whose business 
he took over in 1847, in conjunction with 
his partner, Mr. Macpherson. A branch 
establishment was opened in Melbourne 
in 1853, under the management of Mr. 
Francis, and he henceforward resided 
in Victoria, going largely into squatting 
and viticulture, in addition to his mer- 
cantile concerns, which proved highly 
successful. In 1855 he was elected a 
director of the Bank of New South Wales, 
and was President of the Melbourne 
Chamber of Commerce as far back as 
1857. In Oct. 1859 he was returned to 
the Legislative Assembly for Richmond, 



which he represented till he resigned 
in 1874. Mr. Francis was Minister of 
Public Works in the Nicholson Admini- 
stration from Nov. of that year to Sept. 
1860, when he resigned with Mr. Service 
in connection with the dispute with the 
Upper House over the Land Bill. He 
was Minister of Trade and Customs in 
the first M'Cullooh Government from 
June 1863 to May 1868, supporting and 
in a great measure initiating the par- 
tially protective tariff introduced by the 
Treasurer, Mr. Verdon, and also the 
Darling Grant ; the tacking of both which 
measures to the Appropriation Bill he 
cordially approved. He was himself 
Treasurer In the third M'Culloch Govern- 
ment from April 1870 to June 1871. 
During the latter part of the Duffy 
Administration which succeeded, he led 
the opposition, and after the former were 
defeated, in June 1872, he formed a 
government which lasted until July 1874, 
when he retired, partly on political 
grounds and partly with a view to 
recruiting his health by a visit to the old 
country. Parliament under the auspices 
of his administration sanctioned a railway 
expenditure of £2,250,000; but the chief 
event of his tenure of power was the 
passing of the Education Act, introduced 
by Mr. Stephen, the Attorney-General, 
and which established the present highly 
popular, though expensive system of free 
education. Mr. Francis was by no means 
a skilled parliamentary orator or an 
eminently adroit manager of men, but 
his downright manners and bluff honesty 
rendered him, apart from mere politics, 
one of the most popular premiers Victoria 
has possessed. As a means of reforming 
the Upper House and averting deadlocks, 
Mr. Francis introduced into the Assembly 
a scheme embodyiug the Norwegian 
system, but it met with but cold support, 
and Mr. Francis in consequence resigned, 
and was succeeded by Mr. Eerferd. He 
on three occasions refused the honour of 
knighthood— a met which no doubt con- 
tributed to establish his popularity. On 
his return from England Mr. Francis, 
though always previously looked on as 
a Liberal, avowed himself as strongly 
opposed to what he regarded as the 
extreme policy of the Berry Government, 
and was induced to enter the lists against 
Sir Bryan O'Loghlen, when that gentle- 
man contested West Melbourne in 1878. 



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Despite Mr. Francis' personal popularity, 
he was, however, defeated, and the same 
result accrued when he again opposed 
8ir Bryan on his seeking re-election 
after accepting the office of Attorney- 
General in the Berry Government. 
Shortly afterwards Mr. Francis was re- 
turned to the Assembly for Warrnam- 
bool, and was re-elected in 1880 and 
again in 1883. Meanwhile he acted with 
Mr. Murray Smith as joint leader of the 
Constitutional party, as the combined 
Conservatives and old Liberals now called 
themselves. Mr. Francis, whose health 
had been for some time failing, died on 
Jan. 25th, 1884. His widow, Mrs. Mary 
Grant Francis, died in England on May 
13th, 1887, at the age of sixty-three. 

Frankland, Frederick William, F.I.A., 
son of Professor Edward Frankland, 
D.C.L., and his wife Sophie Fiok, was born 
on April 18th, 1854, in Manchester, and 
landed in Lyttleton, N.Z., in May 1875. 
In September of the same year he entered 
the New Zealand civil service, and in 
March 1884 became Actuary of the New 
Zealand Government Insurance Depart- 
ment, and also Registrar of Friendly 
Societies. Subsequently, in 1886 he was 
appointed Government Actuary and 
statist, and in 1889 Government Insurance 
Commissioner. Mr. Frankland returned to 
England early in 1890, and is now Assistant 
Actuary of the Atlas Assurance Company. 
He is a Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries 
(1884), and has contributed to various 
journals on actuarial and mathematical 
topics. Mr. Frankland married, on April 
30th, 1879, Miss Miriam Simmons. 

Franklin, Lady, the wife of the ill-fated 
Arctic explorer, Sir John Franklin, was 
the daughter of John Griffin, and was born 
in 1792. She married Sir John as bis 
second wife at Liverpool in Nov. 1828, 
and accompanied him to Van Diemen's 
Land when he was appointed Governor 
there in 1836. They arrived in the island 
in Jan. 1837 and remained till August 1843. 
She was a great traveller, and was the 
first lady to cross overland from Sydney 
to Port Phillip, a feat she accomplished 
in May 1839, two years only after the 
latter settlement was founded. Though 
a most intrepid explorer, Sir John was 
only a weak administrator, and his term 
of office was embittered by perpetual 
contentions between Lady Franklin and 
.Montagu, the Colonial Secretary, nephew 



[F*a 



of the previous Governor, Arthur, as to 
which should dictate the policy of the 
Government, the matter being ultimately 
the subject of amusing references to 
the Colonial Office, who when Sir John 
Franklin dismissed Montagu practically 
reversed his decision. In 1845 Sir John 
Franklin proceeded on his ill-fated ex- 
pedition to the Arctic seas, and perished 
in 1847. His wife's heroic efforts in 
organising search expeditions are well 
known. In 1860 she was awarded the 
gold medal of the Royal Geographical 
Society, being the first woman on whom 
that distinction was conferred. She died 
in London on July 18th, 1875, aged eighty- 
three years. 

Franklyn, Henry Mortimer, started the 
Victorian Review, a monthly magazine 
for some time published in Melbourne, 
and devoted to Australasian politics, 
commerce and pastoral pursuits. He also 
started and edited the Federal Austra- 
lian, a weekly newspaper, published in 
Melbourne, and based on the idea of 
intercolonial unity. Both these enter- 
prises have now, for some years, ceased 
publication. Mr. Franklyn has published 
" Australia in 1880" (issued in Melbourne), 
and "The Unit of Imperial Federation" in 
London in 1887. 

Fraser, Hon. Alexander, M.L.C., some- 
time Minister of Public Works, Victoria, 
was the son of a Scotch farmer, and was 
born at Aldoura, near Inverness. In 1827 
he went to London and five years later 
sailed for Sydney, N.S.W., in the Rubicon. 
The ship, however, put in at Hobart 
Town, Tas., and he decided to stay there, 
which he did till 1852, when he visited 
Victoria and decided to settle there. He 
had been interested in pastoral properties 
in the colony as far back as 1836, and he 
now started as an auctioneer in Bendigo, 
removing the business to Melbourne in 
1853. In 1858 he was elected to the 
Legislative Council for the western 
province, and was Commissioner of Public 
Works in the Francis Ministry from 
June 1872 to May 1874, representing the 
Government in the Upper House. He 
was principally known as the plaintiff in 
an action which he brought against the 
Melbourne Age in 1878 for damages for a 
libel contained in an article reflecting on 
his conduct towards a deceased brother 
who had died in England in indigent 
circumstances. He recovered £250. Mr. 



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Fraser died on August 21st, 1888, aged 
eighty-seven years. 

Fraier, Sir Malcolm, K.C.M.G., • O.K., 
Agent-General, Western Australia, was 
employed in various departments of the 
government of New Zealand in 1857-70, was 
appointed Surveyor-General of Western 
Australia, with a seat in the Executive 
and Legislative Councils, in Dec. 1870, and 
Colonial Secretary of Western Australia 
Jan. 1883. He represented the latter 
colony at the Intercolonial Conference 
on Cable Duplication held at Sydney in 
1874, the Australasian Convention at 
Sydney in 1883, and at the Intercolonial 
Conference at Sydney in 1888. He was 
Executive Commissioner for Western 
Australia to the Melbourne International 
Exhibition of 1880, and to the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition at South Kensing- 
ton in 1886. He was created C.M.G. in 
1881 and E.C.M.G. on June 21st, 1887. 
Sir Malcolm administered the Govern- 
ment in the absence of Sir F. Napier 
Broome from Jan. 1st to Feb. 21st, 1888 t 
and from Dec. 21st, 1889, until the 
return of Sir W. Robinson in Oct. 1890. 
His duties as Colonial Secretary ceased 
with the inauguration of responsible 
government in Western Australia, towards 
the end of 1890, and he arrived in England 
in Jan. 1891. In April 1892 he was 
appointed first Agent-General for Western 
Australia. 

Fraier, Hon. Simon, M.L.C., Victoria, 
youngest son of William Fraser, mill- 
owner and farmer, of Nova Scotia, to 
which colony that gentleman emigrated 
from Inverness, Scotland, soon after it 
was taken from, the French by the 
English. Mr. Fraser was born at Pictou, 
Nova Scotia, August 21st, 1834. On his 
arrival in Victoria, in 1853, Mr. Fraser 
spent some time at the diggings, but 
in a year or two turned his attention to 
contracting — at first in road works and 
bridge building, and later in railway 
construction, — being at various times a 
member of firms who carried out con- 
tracts in Victoria, New South Wales, 
and South Australia. In the last-named 
colony he was one of the constructors of 
the Port Augusta and Government Gums 
Railway. While engaged in these works 
he also entered into squatting pursuits, 
first in Queensland, where he resided 
from 1867 to 1869, and afterwards in 
Victoria and New South Wales. He is 



still considerably interested in pastoral 
properties in the northern colony. At 
the general election of 1874 he stood for 
Rodney, in the interest of the Francis 
Ministry, and was opposed by Mr. J. J. 
Walsh, whom he beat by a large majority, 
and at the general election of May 1877 
was again elected to the Legislative 
Assembly for the same district as a sup- 
porter of the M'Cuiloch Ministry. After 
representing that constituency nine years, 
he retired in 1883, and visited Europe 
and America, being absent about two 
years. In 1885 he unsuccessfully con- 
tested West Melbourne with Mr. Carter, 
the Mayor of Melbourne. He was also 
an unsuccessful candidate for a seat in 
the Legislative Council for the Northern 
province, in April 1886, but was returned 
as member for South Yarra province in 
August of the same year. In politics 
Mr. Fraser is a man of moderate views, 
and took an active interest in promoting 
the Service-Berry coalition of 1883. He 
is a J.P. for Victoria, and was for a 
lengthened period chairman of the Aus- 
tralian Widows' Fund Life Insurance 
Society, and a director of the City of 
Melbourne Bank and the private railway 
line between Deniliquin and Moama. 
Mr. Fraser has been twice married. In 
Nov. 1890 he became a member without 
portfolio of Mr. Munro's Cabinet. Twelve 
months later he voted against his col- 
leagues' measure for establishing the prin- 
ciple of " one man one vote,** and it was 
rejected by the Council, Mr. Fraser ten- 
dering his resignation in consequence. 
It was not, however, accepted, and the 
Bill was withdrawn. In Feb. , however, 
when Mr. Shiels reconstructed the Cabinet, 
Mr. Fraser finally withdrew from office. 

Freeling, Major-General Sir Arthur 
Henry, Bart., sometime Surveyor-General, 
South Australia, son of John Clayton 
Freeling and grandson of Sir Francis 
Freeling, Bart., for thirty years Secretary 
to the General Post Office, entered the 
Royal Engineers, and ultimately took 
service under the South Australian Govern- 
ment as Surveyor-General. In this capa- 
city he did some valuable exploring work, 
and was a member of the Executive and 
legislative Councils prior to the conces- 
sion of responsible government. He was 
elected to the new Legislative Council 
in March 1857, and sat till August 1876, 
when he resigned. In the meantime he 

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was a member of the Finnis Ministry as 
Commissioner of Publio Works from Oct. 
1866 to March 1857, when he retired rather 
than relinquish the permanent post of 
Surveyor-General, which he resigned in 
1861, and returned to England. He was 
then lieut.-colonel in the Boyal En- 
gineers, but became major-general on 
retiring, and succeeded in 1871 as 5th 
baronet of Ford and Hatchings, Sussex. 
Sir Arthur (who was the elder brother 
of Sir Sanford Freeling, K.C.M.G.) mar. 
ried, in 1848, Charlotte Augusta, daughter 
of Sir Henry Rivers, 9th baronet, who 
still survives. 8ir Arthur died on March 
26th, 1885, when he was succeeded by his 
son Harry, the 6th and present baronet. 

Trenefc, Colonel George Arthur, RJL, 
C.M.G., ex-Commandant of Defence Force, 
Queensland, son of the late John French, 
of Mornington Park, co. Dublin, was 
born at Roscommon on June 19th, 1841, 
and educated at the Royal Military 
College, Sandhurst, and the Royal Military 
Academy, Woolwich. He was commis- 
sioned as lieutenant of the Royal Artillery, 
on June 19th, I860, and became captain 
in 1872, major in 1881, and lieut.-colonel 
in 1887. He was adjutant of the Royal 
Artillery at Kingston from 1862 to 1866 ; 
Inspector of Artillery in the Dominion 
of Canada from 1870 to 1878, being 
appointed Lieut. -Colonel of Canadian 
Militia in the former year. He was 
Commissioner of the North- West Mounted 
Police in Canada from 1873 to 1876 ; and 
Inspector of Warlike Stores at Devonport 
from 1878 to 1888. He organised the 
Permanent Artillery and Mounted Police 
of Canada, and commanded the expedi- 
tionary force of 300 mounted men and two 
guns, sent from the Red River to the 
Rocky Mountains, in 1874. He was made 
a Companion of the Order of St. Michael 
and St. George on May 30th, 1877. In 
Sept. 1883 he was appointed Commandant 
of the Queensland Local Forces with the 
local rank of colonel, and arrived in the 
colony on Jan. 4th, 1884. Colonel French 
married, in 1862, Janet Clarke, daughter 
of the late Robert Long Innes, formerly 
of the 37th Regiment. Colonel French 
retired in 1891, and returned to England. 

Frsoae, eeaeral Edward Chariot, was 



a lieutenant in the Royal Engineers, and 
arrived in South Australia with a sur- 
veying party of sappers and miners in 
1836. He succeeded Captain Sturt as 
Surveyor-General in Oct. 1839, and was 
also Engineer-in-Chief till 1843. Return- 
ing to England, he became Colonel Com- 
mandant R.E., and rose to the rank of 
General in 1877. He died on Feb. 12th, 
1890, at the age of eighty-eight. He was 
formerly Governor of Guernsey. 

Turner, Luke Lydiard, M.P., represents 
Wallaroo in the Legislative Assembly of 
South Australia, and was Commissioner 
of Public Works in the Downer Ministry 
from June 1886 to June 1887. He was 
first returned for Wallaroo in 1878. 

Fyth, Hon. Philip Oakley, M.L.C., was 
born at Highbury, London, in 1835. In 
1859 he emigrated to Tasmania. After 
a successful commercial career he went 
into politics and became Premier of Tas- 
mania, was member for Hobart in the 
Legislative Council from 1866 to 1869, 
and for Buckingham from Nov. 1870 to 
July 1873, when he left the Upper House 
for the House of Assembly, in which he 
represented East Hobart from August 
1873 to Nov. 1878. In March 1884 he 
was re-elected to the Legislative Coun- 
cil for Buckingham, for which consti- 
tuency he still sits. Mr. Fysh was in 
the Kennerley Government from August 
1873 to March 1875 as Treasurer, and 
from that date till July 1876 as a minister 
without portfolio. He became the re- 
cognised leader of the Opposition in July 
1877, and the next month formed an 
Administration, in which he took the 
position of Premier without office. In 
March 1879 Mr. Giblin became Premier, 
Mr. Fysh remaining a member of the 
Ministry without portfolio till its retire- 
ment in the following December. In 
March 1887 Mr. Fysh, who is President 
of the Central Board of Health, and was 
major commanding the Tasmanian Volun- 
teer Rifle Regiment from 1880 to 1884, 
formed his second Government, of which 
he is still Premier and Chief Secretary. 
He was one of the delegates from Tas- 
mania to the Sydney Federation Con- 
vention in 1891. 



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Gahan, Charles Frederick, F.R.G.8., 
sometime Postmaster-General, Western 
Australia^ entered the Royal Navy in 
June 1862, and served for about eleven 
and a half years, principally at the Cape 
of Good Hope and on the east coast of 
Africa. He was specially employed under 
the India Office from 1875 to 1878, and 
under the Admiralty from June of the 
latter year till Nov. 1881. For four 
years subsequently he was Head Ac- 
countant and Acting Secretary of the 
Executive and Legislative Councils of 
Mauritius. In 1885 he was despatched 
on special service to the Bahamas, and 
in 1887 was appointed to succeed Mr. 
Helmich as Postmaster-General and 
Superintendent of Telegraphs in Western 
Australia, both which posts he held till 
his death on April 27th, 1889, at the age 
of forty-three years. 

Galloway, Frederic William, was born 
at Delhi, India, in 1856, and entered the 
85th Regiment (King's Light Infantry) 
as sub-lieutenant in 1875. After serving 
with credit in India and South Africa, 
he retired from the service, and went, in 
1880, to Australia, where he entered the 
Queensland Civil Service as Clerk of 
Petty Sessions at Port Douglas in 1883, 
being promoted to Ipswich in 1886, and 
becoming Immigration Agent at Brisbane 
in July 1889. 

Galloway, John James, was nominated 
to the Legislative Council of Queensland 
immediately on its being constituted a 
separate colony, and was in the first re- 
sponsible ministry of the colony, as a 
member of the Executive Council, without 
portfolio, from August to Nov. 1860. 

Garner, Arthur, was born on Feb. 8th, 
1851, at Bath, England, where his father, 
Dr. Jonathan Garner (M.D. of Edin- 
burgh) practised his profession, his 
mother being a Miss Cobden. Arthur 
Garner was articled to Mr. C. J. Phipps, 
the architect, whose connection was 
largely theatrical, he having erected no 
less than forty English theatres; from 
which circumstance may perhaps be 
traced the young pupil's gravitation to 
the stage, where he became a proUgS of 
Mr. George Gordon, the scenio artist. 
From the paint-room Mr. Garner soon 
found his way to the footlights, and for 



some time appeared in various provincial 
companies. In 1873 he arrived in Mel- 
bourne, returning to London in 1876. In 
1879 Mr. Garner began his career as an 
Australian entrepreneur by taking out 
" The London Comedy Company " (1879), 
of which the late Fred Marshall was the 
bright particular oomio star and Mr. 
George Gordon the hardly less indis- 
pensable scenic artist. In 1881 he joined 
Mr. J. C. Williamson, the eminent Austra- 
lian-American actor, and Mr. Musgrove 
in establishing the leading firm of Aus- 
tralasian managers, generally known as 
the " Trio," which has controlled a greater 
number of theatres and entered into 
engagements, dramatic and operatic, on a 
larger scale than has ever been attempted 
south of the Line. Their operations prac- 
tically commenced at the Theatre Royal, 
Melbourne, on July 1st, 1882, with the 
production of Gilbert and Sullivan's 
Patience* Many eminent London artistes 
were introduced to the colonies under 
their regime ; but the most substantial 
undertaking of Messrs. Williamson, Gar- 
ner & Musgrove was the building of 
the new Princess's Theatre, Melbourne, in 
1886, by universal consensus one of the 
finest dramatic temples in the world. 
Mr. Garner has been twice married: first, 
to the excellent English actress, Miss 
Blanche Stammers, who died in Mel- 
bourne in 1883 ; and, secondly, to Miss 
LetitiaHill Martin, sister of Mr. Patcbett 
Martin, herself an accomplished littera- 
teur, and formerly a contributor to the 
Australian press. 

Garran, Hon. Andrew, M.L.C., LL.D., 
was born in London on Nov. 19th, 1825, 
and educated at a proprietary grammar 
school in Hackney, and afterwards at 
Spring Hill College, Birmingham. He 
subsequently graduated at London Uni- 
versity, taking the M.A. degree in the 
philosophical branch in 1848. Falling 
ill with what was pronounced to be con- 
sumption, he went to Madeira for eighteen 
months, and then resolved to emigrate 
to Australia. Shortly after arriving in 
Adelaide in 1851, Dr. Garran was engaged 
to write for a short-lived weekly news- 
paper called the Austral Examiner* On 
the outbreak of the gold diggings he 
went to Victoria, and was engaged there 

78 



Oar] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Oar 



as private tutor to Mr. 0. E. Labilliere 
on a station near Ballan. Returning to 
Adelaide, he was engaged as editor on 
the South Australian Register in 1854 
and 1856, when he removed to Sydney, 
on the invitation of the proprietor of the 
Sydney Morning Herald, to be assistant 
editor to the Rev. John West. On the 
latter gentleman's death in 1873 Dr. 
Garran became editor-in-chief, and held 
that post till he was forced to retire 
from failing health at the beginning of 
1886. In Feb. of the following year he 
was appointed by 8ir H. Parkes to the 
Legislative Council of New South Wales. 
Dr. Garran has been a member of the Par- 
liamentary Committee on Public Works, 
of the Board of Technical Instruction, 
and of the Board of the Sydney Grammar 
8chooL He was for many years Sydney 
correspondent for the Melbourne Argus, 
and also for the London Times. Dr. 
Garran, edited "The Picturesque Atlas 
of Australia," the most comprehensive 
descriptive work on Australia hitherto 
published, fie married at Adelaide on 
Dec. 1st, 1854, Miss Mary Isbam Sabine. 
From 1890 to 1891 he presided over the 
deliberations of the Royal Commission 
on labour questions. 

Garrard, Jacob, M.L.A., represented 
Balmain in the Legislative Assembly of 
New South Wales for a number of years, 
and was returned at the head of the poll 
at the general election in 1889. He was 
Secretary for Public Works in the last 
Robertson Ministry from Deo. 1885 to 
Feb. 1886. At the general election in 
June — July 1891 he was elected for 
Central Cumberland. 

Garrett, Thomas, M.L.A., represented 
Camden in the Legislative Assembly of 
New South Wales tor a number of years. 
He was born in Liverpool, England, 
on July 16th, 1830, and went to New 
South Wales with his parents when 
nine years of age. A year later he was 
bound to the printing business, but 
during his apprenticeship he ran away, 
and became a cabin-boy on H.M.S. Fly, 
then employed in resurveying the coast 
between Port Jackson and Hobson's Bay. 
The youth was soon sent back, and 
having finished his apprenticeship, he 
was engaged on a number of newspapers, 
subsequently being employed in the 
Government printing office, where he 
worked for three years. Mr. Garrett 



then turned his attention to journalism, 
and in 1855 established the lUawarra 
Mercury, and afterwards also the Alpine 
Pioneer and the Cooma Mercury. In 
I860 he first entered Parliament, sitting 
for the Monaro constituency. He retired 
four years later in favour of Mr. Alexan- 
der Montague, but was elected for Shoal- 
haven, for which electorate he sat as 
member until 1872. Afterwards he acted 
for a short period as police magistrate 
for Berrima, but not caring for official 
life, he again entered Parliament, this 
time for Camden, for which electorate he 
sat until the general election in June 
1892, when, on account of ill-health, he 
decided not to again contest the seat, 
and bade farewell to political life. He 
was Secretary for Lands in the third 
Robertson Ministry from Feb. 1875 to 
Feb. 1877, when he resigned. In the 
fourth Robertson Government he filled 
the same post from August to Nov. 1877, 
when he again resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded, as on the former occasion, by 
Mr. E. A. Baker. He was Minister of 
Lands in the Parkes Government from 
Jan. 1887 to July 1888. Mr. Garrett 
died on Nov. 25th, 1891. 

Garriek, Hon. Sir James Francis, 
K.C.M.G., M.L.C., Q.C., Agent-General 
for Queensland, is the second son of the 
late James Francis Garriek, of Sydney, 
New South Wales, in which city he was 
born in 1836. After practising as a 
solicitor in Brisbane, Queensland, where 
he was a partner of the present Chief 
Justice, Sir Charles Lilley, and for 
several years City Solicitor for Brisbane, 
he was elected to the Assembly for Bast 
Moreton, and subsequently visited Eng- 
land, entering as a student at the Middle 
Temple in Nov. 1870. He was called to 
the bar in June 1873, and, returning to 
Brisbane, practised at the local bar with 
great success, and also took a leading 
position in politics. Mr. Garriek was 
Crown Prosecutor from 1874 to 1877; 
and having been returned for Moreton, 
in that year entered the Douglas Ministry 
as Secretary for Lands and Mines, a post 
which he held from Feb. to Dec. 1878, 
when he was appointed Attorney-General. 
Mr. Garriek retired with his colleagues 
in Jan. 1879, and became Q.C. in 1882, 
when he was again returned for Moreton. 
Qn the formation of the first Griffith 
Ministry, in Nov. 1883, Mr. Garriek was 

179 



Gar] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[GH 



nominated to the Legislative Council, and 
was appointed Colonial Treasurer, but 
exchanged this post for that of Post- 
master-General in the following Decem- 
ber. In June of the next year he was 
appointed Ag ent-Qeneral for Queensland, 
and for the first time in the history of the 
colony held that post in conjunction with 
a seat in the Government, of which he 
was a member without portfolio till Sir 
Samuel Griffith's resignation in June 
1888. During his first tenure of office as 
Agent-General in London, he was a Royal 
Commissioner and Executive Commis- 
sioner for Queensland at the Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition in 1886, and was 
one of the representatives of the colony 
at the Colonial Conference in the next 
year. In 1885 he was created C.M.G., 
and E.C.M.G. in 1886. Sir James, who 
married in 1865 Kate, daughter of the 
late J. J. Cadell, M.D., was reappointed 
Agent-General in Dec. 1890. He is a 
member of the governing body of the 
Imperial Institute. 

Garvan, Hon. James Patrick, M.L.A., 
has represented Eden in the Legislative 
Assembly of New South Wales for some 
years past. He was Minister of Justice 
in the Jennings Government from Feb. 
1886 to Jan. 1887, and Colonial Treasurer 
in that of Mr. Dibbs from Jan. to March 
1889. 

Gaunson, David, M.L.A., the fourth son 
of the late Francis Gaunson and Elizabeth 
his wife, was born in Sydney, N.S.W., on 
Jan. 19th, 1846, and educated in Sydney, 
and at Brighton, Victoria. Having 
served his articles to his brother-in- 
law, the late Hon. J. M. Grant, he was 
admitted an attorney of Victoria in 1869, 
and continues to practise his profession 
in Melbourne. After fighting two unsuc- 
cessful contests in 1871, and in 1872 unsuc- 
cessfully opposing the Hon. J. G. Francis, 
the then premier, at Richmond, he was 
returned to the Legislative Assembly in 
1875 for Ararat, which constituency he 
continued to represent till July 1881. 
Mr. Gaunson was a prominent member of 
the •« Stonewall" party, which, under 
Mr. (now Sir) Graham Berry, after an un- 
paralleled agitation in Parliament and in 
the country, ultimately annihilated the 
followers of Sir James M*Culloch at the 
general election in 1877. Subsequently, 
however, he acted in opposition to Mr. 
Berry, and also opposed the Service Go- 



vernment formed in 1880. In the following 
year, on the formation of the OTiOghlen 
Ministry, Mr. Gaunson accepted a port- 
folio as President of the Board of Lands 
and Works and Commissioner of Crown 
Lands and Survey. He was, however, 
defeated at Ararat by the Hon. Wm. 
Wilson on presenting himself for re-elec- 
tion after his acceptance of office, and at 
once resigned his position in the Ministry 
which he only held from July 9th to 
August 2nd. Mr. Gaunson was returned 
to the Assembly at the general election in 
March 1886 ; but on his contesting South 
Melbourne at the ensuing general election 
in March 1889 he was defeated by Mr. 
Mountain. 

Gawler, Colonel George, K.H., second 
Governor of South Australia, was the 
only son of the late Captain Samuel 
Gawler of the 73rd Regiment, who led 
one of the storming parties at the siege 
of Seringapatam. He was born in 1796, 
and educated at the Military College, 
Great Marlow. Colonel Gawler joined 
the 52nd Light Infantry in Nov. 1811, 
and served to the-end of the Peninsular 
War in 1814. During the course of the 
latter he led the forlorn hope at the 
storming of Badajoz, and was struck by 
a grape shot in the right knee, and fell 
from the parapet into the ditch below, 
where he lay all night, but was rescued 
by a private of his regiment, who had 
his own head shot off whilst in the act 
of saving his superior. When still 
under twenty he commanded the right 
company of the 52nd at Waterloo, and 
took part in the attack upon the Imperial 
Guards, for which he received the war 
medal, with clasps. He was appointed 
Governor of South Australia in 1838, 
and, arriving in the colony on the 12th, 
assumed office on the 17th of October 
in that year. The reaction from the over- 
speculation and extravagance which 
prevailed at the initiation of the colony 
set in during his term of office in full 
force, and resulted in an appalling state 
of depression, which Colonel Gawler 
sought to relieve by encouraging settle- 
ment on the country lands, which his 
predecessor had obstructed, and under- 
taking extensive public works with a 
view of giving employment to the urban 
population, whom he also assisted out of 
his private purse. With a view of meet- 
ing the Government outlay incurred, 



180 



o 



Saw] 



MCTIOMA&Y OP AUSTRALASIAN 6IOGftAt>HV. 



[Gib 



Colonel Gavvler, despite the fact that it 
had been expressly stipulated that the i 
colony should be self-supporting, drew | 
upon the British Treasury for about i 
£155,000, the authorities of which dis- | 
honoured his drafts ; thus, by public re- ! 
pudiation, intensifying the prevailing 
financial stringency into almost universal 
private bankruptcy. The Governor, too, 
whose policy the equity of time has 
largely justified, was deposed by Lord 
John Bussell in a manner which has not 
often been paralleled in the annals of 
official curtness and harshness — the first 
intimation which Colonel Gawler got of his 
recall being afforded when Captain (now 
Sir) George Grey, whose father, curiously 
enough, had fallen at the assault on 
Badajoz where Governor Gawler himself 
had won his spurs, walked into Govern- 
ment House, Adelaide, on May 10th, 1841, 
and displayed his own commission to 
become Colonel Gawler's successor. The 
Colonel, after whom the town of Gawler 
in 8outh Australia is named, relinquished 
office on May 15th, and immediately left 
the colony. He died at Southsea on May 
8th, 1869. 

Gawler, Henry, eldest son of Lieut.- 
Colonel George Gawler, K.H., formerly 
Governor of South Australia (£.#.), was 
born at Quorn, near Derby, in 1827, and 
went to that colony with his father in 
1838, but was sent to England to be edu- 
cated. He was at Rugby under Dr. Tait, 
and afterwards studied at King's Col- 
lege, London. He entered at the Middle 
Temple in Nov. 1849, and was called to 
the bar in Nov. 1852. Mr. Gawler married 
on June 25th, 1857, Caroline Augusta, 
third daughter of the Bev. B. Philpot, 
sometime Archdeacon of the Isle of Man, 
and returned to South Australia early in 
1858, when he was appointed solicitor 
to the Lands Titles Office under the 
"Torrens Act," which then came into 
force. Mr. Gawler was Attorney-General 
without a seat in Parliament for a few 
days in Oct. 1861 and March 1876, under 
Messrs. Waterhouse and Boucaut. In 
1870, at the request of the Government 
of New Zealand, Mr. Gawler performed 
valuable service in the inauguration of 
► the Torrens system of land transfer in 
that colony. 

Oellibrand, Hon.Walter Angus Bethune, 
M.L.C., J.P., son of the late Joseph Tice 
Gellibrand, has sat in the Legislative 



Council of Tasmania for Derwent since 
Dec. 1871, and was President of that 
body from July 1884 to Feb. 1889. He 
is a member of the Fisheries Board. 

Geoghegan, Bight Boy. Patrick Bona- 
venture, D.D., second Roman Catholic 
Bishop of Adelaide, was born at Dublin 
in 1811, and was primarily educated at 
Edgworthstown. At the age of sixteen 
he entered the Irish College at Lisbon, 
and afterwards joined the Franciscan 
Order at Coimbra, where he was ordained 
a priest. After officiating for a few 
years at St. Francis* Church, Dublin, he 
volunteered for the mission of New 
Holland, and was appointed first resident 
priest of Port Phillip, where he arrived 
in 1839. The spot where he celebrated 
the first mass on Victorian soil is marked 
by a cross in the grounds of St. Francis' 
Church, Melbourne. When the late Dr. 
Goold was made first Bishop of Mel- 
bourne, he appointed Dr. Geoghegan 
Vicar-General. On the death of Bishop 
Murphy, of Adelaide, he was appointed 
to succeed that prelate in the see, and 
was consecrated in Sept. 1859. He took 
possession of the see in the following 
November, but only held it for about 
five years, when he returned to Ireland, 
where he died at Kingstown, on May 5th, 
1865. 

Gibbes, Sir Edward Osborne, Bart., is 
the eldest son of the late Sir Samuel 
Osborne Gibbes, the 2nd baronet, who 
emigrated to New Zealand, by his second 
wife, Anne, daughter of Bichard Penny, 
who still survives and resides at Whan- 
garei, N.Z. He was born in Nov. 1850, 
succeeded as 3rd baronet on the death 
of his father in 1874, and married in 
1879 Sara, daughter of John Mitchell, a 
captain in the New Zealand Militia. 
He resides at Wellington, and is chief 
clerk in the Education Department of 
New Zealand. His son Philip Arthur, 
born in 1884, is heir to the baronetcy, 
which was created in 1774. 

Giblin, Hon. William Bobert, sometime 
Premier and Puisne Judge of Tasmania, 
was the eldest son of William Giblin, 
Registrar of Deeds for the colony, and 
was born at Hobart on Nov. 4th, 1840. He 
was educated at the school of his uncle, 
Mr. Bobert Giblin, and at the High 
School, Hobart. In 1864 he was ad- 
mitted as a barrister and solicitor of the 
Supreme Court. He entered the House of 

8l 



Gib] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Gib 



Assembly as member for Hobart in 1869, 
and soon secured a prominent place in 
the House. He succeeded Mr. Dobson as 
Attorney-General in the Wilson Ministry 
on Feb. 5th, 1870, and remained in office 
until Nov. 4th, 1872. He distinguished 
himself as an ardent supporter of a 
railway policy, and when Parliament re 
fused to sanction the construction by 
Government of a main line of railway 
from Hobart to Launceston, Mr. Giblin as 
a last resource, introduced, and carried by 
a narrow majority, a Bill authorising its 
construction by an English company. He 
was again Attorney-General in the Ken- 
nerley Ministry from August 4th, 1873, to 
July 20th, 1876. During his term of 
office he carried several important legal 
reforms, amongst others measures amend- 
ing the law of real property and abolish- 
ing primogeniture. The most useful work 
of the Ministry, however, was an extensive 
scheme for the construction of roads, 
bridges, and public works, which was 
carried in spite of determined opposition 
in the Legislative Council In 1877 he 
was defeated in a contest for Central 
Hobart, but shortly afterwards was elected 
for the northern district of Wellington, 
which constituency he represented until 
his elevation to the Bench. He was 
Treasurer in Mr. Fysh's first Ministry 
from August 1877 to March 1878, when he 
became Premier, but only held office for 
nine months. As Treasurer he was suc- 
cessful in placing on the London market 
on advantageous terms the first 4 per 
cent, loan issued by the colony. On the 
defeat of the Crowther Ministry Mr. 
Giblin was sent for, and formed from 
both sides of the House a Coalition 
Ministry, which held office for five 
years, viz., from Oct. 30th, 1879, to 
August 15th, 1884. In this administra- 
tion he acted as Treasurer, and his first 
task was to meet a large deficit, which 
he accomplished with great ability, 
carrying a large scheme of new taxation, 
including a tax on the annual value of 



consequence of failing health. In politics 
Mr. Giblin was a staunch Liberal. He 
represented Tasmania at the Intercolonial 
Tariff Conference at Sydney in 1881, and 
also at the Sydney Federal Conference in 
1883. At the latter Conference he took 
a prominent part in the debates and in 
shaping the Bill which resulted in the 
establishment of the present Federal 
Council of Australasia. He was one of 
the earliest and most earnest advocates of 
the federation of the Australian. On the 
promotion of Mr. (now Sir W. L.) Dobson 
to the post of Chief Justice in succession 
to Sir Francis Smith, Mr. Giblin was 
offered and accepted a puisne judgeship. 
During the absence of Mr. Dobson in 
England he was acting Chief Justice, and 
for a short time Administrator of the 
Government. He died at Hobart on 
Jan. 17th, 1887, in his forty-seventh year. 
Mr. Giblin married in 1865 Emmely Jean, 
eldest daughter of John Perkins, of 
Hobart. 

Gibney, Bight Boy. Matthew, D.D., 
Roman Catholic Bishop of Perth, W.A., 
was formerly Vicar-General of that 
diocese, and was consecrated bishop by 
Cardinal Moran on Jan. 23rd, 1887. Dr. 
Gibney's name is best known in connec- 
tion with a gallant feat which he per- 
formed on the occasion of the destruction 
of the Kelly gang of bushrangers at Glen- 
rowan, in Victoria, where Bishop Gibney 
happened to be on a collecting tour, which 
he had undertaken on behalf of a Western 
Australian orphanage. The outlaws, who, 
to quote from Mr. Hogan's well-known 
work, "The Irish in Australia,*' "had 
long defied capture, and had carried on a 
career of murder and robbery, descended 
from their haunts in the mountain ranges 
and took possession of the village, making 
all the inhabitants prisoners. They cut 
the telegraph wires and tore up the 
railway ; nevertheless, the authorities in 
Melbourne were apprised of this daring 
outrage, and despatched a large force to 
the locality. The bushrangers, taken by 



land and invested personal property, an ' surprise, threw themselves into the village 
excise on beer, and a revised Customs' hotel, which they defended against the 
tariff. The measure passed both Houses besiegers for the greater part of the day. 
almost without opposition, and met Father Gibney, who happened to be in 
with general approbation. In Dec. 1881 ( the neighbourhood at the time, hastened 
he exchanged the post of Treasurer for to the scene of strife, so that the services 
that of Attorney-General, and remained at , of a priest might not be wanting, if re- 
the head of the Government until August quired. At an early stage of the conflict 
^84, when he finally resigned office in 1 he endeavoured to advance through the 

i&2 



Gil] 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



open, and exert his influence with the 
besieged bushrangers to induce them 
to surrender, and thereby avert further 
bloodshed. He was confident that even 
such desperadoes would not fire on a 
priest; but the officers in command 
thought differently, and declined to allow 
him to place his life in jeopardy. When, 
however, late in the afternoon, the hotel 
was seen to be in flames, the brave priest 
refused to be kept back any longer, and 
rushed to the burning building, in the 
hope of being able to administer the last 
sacraments of the Church to any of the 
surviving bushrangers within. He was 
watched with eager and breathless atten- 
tion as he crossed the open space in 
front of the outlaws 1 citadel, the general 
fear being that he would be shot down 
before he reached the house. A cheer 
went up from the excited spectators, as 
they saw him rush through the flames 
into the interior of the hotel, and a 
number of them were emboldened to 
follow in his footsteps. When Father 
Gibney got within the blazing building, 
he saw the bodies of the bushrangers 
lying on the floor, having apparently 
preferred to shoot themselves or each 
other rather than fall into the hands of 
the authorities. He had just time to 
touch their bodies, and ascertain that 
they were lifeless, before the advancing 
flames compelled him to beat a hasty 
retreat in order to save his own life. The 
courage and intrepidity displayed by 
Father Gibney on this occasion won 
universal admiration, and the news of 
his elevation to the mitre was received 
with cordial approval by the press and 
the public of all the colonies." 

Gilford, Bight Hon. Sdric Frederick, 
Srd Baron, V.C., sometime Colonial Secre- 
tary, Western Australia, is the eldest son 
of Robert Francis, 2nd Baron, by Charlotte, 
eldest daughter of Maurice, Lord Fitz- 
hardinge. He was born on July 6th, 1849, 
educated at Harrow, and entered the 83rd 
Foot in 1869. He -exchanged to 24th 
Foot in 1873; served in the Ashantee 
war with that regiment as lieutenant, 
and received the Victoria Cross on 
March 28th, 1874, for distinguished 
gallantry at the taking of Bequeh. 
His lordship exchanged into the 57th 
Foot in 1876, and retired with the rank 
of major on July 24th, 1880. He served on 
the staff of Sir Garnet Wolseley in 1875, 

i»3 



[cm 

when on a special mission to Natal, and in 
Cyprus in 1878-9 ; served in Zulu war in 
1879 as A.D.C. to Sir G. Wolseley ; took a 
leading part in the capture of Cetewayo ; 
he was colonial secretary and senior 
member of the Executive Council of 
Western Australia from 1880 to 1882; 
colonial secretary at Gibraltar from 
Dec. 1882 to 1887, and became a director 
of the chartered British 8outh Africa 
Company in 1889. He succeeded his rather 
on May 13th, 1872, and married on April 
22nd, 1880, Sophia Catherine, daughter of 
Lieut.-General John Alfred Street, C.B. 

Giles, Ernest, F.R.G.S., the well-known 
explorer, son of William Giles and Jane 
Elizabeth his wife, was born at Bristol, 
educated at Christ's Hospital, London, and 
after leaving school joined his rather and 
family in South Australia, to which colony 
they had preceded him. In 1852 he 
went to the Victorian goldfields, and 
subsequently became a clerk in the Post- 
office, Melbourne, and afterwards in the 
county court. Resigning his clerkship, 
he joined an exploring party in Queens- 
land, and after several expeditions made 
his first memorable journey on his own 
account in the year 1872. In August of 
that year, with the assistance of his 
steadfast friend Baron von Mueller and 
his own slender resources, he managed to 
equip a light party, and penetrated into 
some fine country about 250 miles west 
of the great overland telegraph line 
between Adelaide and Port Darwin. The 
qualities shown on this expedition brought 
him friends. On a second appeal by 
Baron von Mueller a fund was raised by 
the liberality of some wealthy Victorians 
and some assistance from the South 
Australian Government, and Mr. Giles 
again set out with a party of four white 
men and twenty-four horses. He remained 
in the field constantly endeavouring to 
reach the western coast for one year, 
when, his provisions having given out 
and the party reduced to living on 
their horses, he made his way back to 
the settled districts of South Australia 
through great hardships, having added 
some 700 miles to previous knowledge of 
the interior. In 1875 he was fitted out 
by that munificent patron of exploration 
Sir Thomas Elder, of Adelaide, with nine- 
teen camels and provisions for eighteen 
months. Through desert after desert for 
a distance of nearly 1500 miles he made 



Digitized by 



Googk 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Oil] _ 

his way. For one fearful stretch of 325 
miles the party found no water for 
seventeen days. After a straggle of six 
months, daring which they had traversed 
some 2400 miles, they made the outlying 
settlements of Western Australia. Mr. 
Giles departed on his return journey 
several hundred miles to the north of his 
former route in Jan. 1876, and arrived at 
the telegraph line in August. In 1889 
Mr. Giles, who is a gold medallist of the 
Royal Geographical Society, published 
a narrative of his explorations in two 
volumes entitled "Australia Twice Tra- 
versed," 

Giles, William, was born at Great 
Staughton, in Huntingdonshire, on Dec. 
27th, 1791. Having obtained an appoint- 
ment under the South Australian Com- 
pany at the start of its operations in 
1836, he arrived at Kangaroo Island, 
where its headquarters were at first 
fixed, in the following year. He was ap- 
pointed a Stipendiary Magistrate shortly 
after his arrival, and in 1840 succeeded 
Mr. McLaren as manager of the South 
Australian Company. In 1851 he was 
returned to the mixed Legislative Coun- 
cil in Yatala, and took part in framing 
the present Constitution Act. He be- 
longed to the Congregationalist body, 
and was a strong opponent of State Aid 
to religion, which was finally abolished 
in 1851. He died in Adelaide in 1861. 

GUI, Rev. William Wyatt, B. A., LL.D., 
was born in December, 1828, at Bristol. 
He became a student of Highbury College 
in 1847, and graduated B.A. at London 
University in 1850. The perusal in early 
life of the martyr Williams' missionary 
enterprises interested him in the conver- 
sion of the heathen world. In 1851 he 
was introduced to the late Rev. A. 
Buzacott, who was about to return to the 
Pacific in the mission barque John 
William*, along with five other mis- 
sionaries. Finding the young man 
sympathetic, Mr. Buzacott asked him to 
take the place of one of the young men, 
who at the last moment was obliged to 



laboured on the island of Mangaia (pet 
in the Hervey group. In 1872, acd 
panied by the Rev. A. W Murray; 
located teachers for the first time on ' 
mainland of New Guinea, Loyalty Is! 
teachers in the neighbourhood of 
Fly river, and Barotongan teachers 
the south-east peninsula of that 1 
island. Some account of this apped 
on his return to England, in a voli 
published by the Religious Tract Soci< 
entitled "Life in the Southern Isfc 
About the same time was published 
"Myths and Songs from the Sol 
Pacific," with an introduction by the w 
known Professor Max Mttller, of Oxfd 
In 1876 Dr. Gill again left England 1 
the Pacific, this time for the island 
Rarotonga, with a printing press, m 
contemplating the education of a natj 
Gospel ministry. His hands were fa 
as he had largely the care of the outlyii 
islands, where no European missiona 
had ever been stationed. His resident 
at Rarotonga enabled his friend tl 
Rev. James Chalmers to join the No 
Guinea Mission, where, in oonjunctio 
with the Revs. W. G. Lawes and D 
McFarlane, he has done such exoellei 
work. Whilst Dr. Gill was at Rarotonp 
the New Zealand Government publishe 
his " Historical Sketches of Savage Lif 
with Illustrative Clan Songs." This wi 
intended as a sequel to "Myths an 
Songs." At Rarotonga overwork begi 
to tell very seriously upon the missionary 
health. Some nine years ago therefoi 
he bade farewell to the Hervey Islander 
and was succeeded by the Rev. J. J. I 
Hutchin. A band of thirty-three nath 
pioneer teachers and their wives, de 
tined for New Guinea, was entrusted 1 
Dr. Gill's care. These he had the sati: 
faction of landing in good health i 
Port Moresby in Feb. 1884. A pleasai 
stay of seven weeks in New Guine 
enabled him to see the marvellous pr 
gress made during the eleven years whic 
had elapsed since his first visit to tbi 
vast country. Soon after his return 1 
stay behind on account of ill-health. Sydney was published " Life and Advei 



Dr. Gill offered himself, was at once 
accepted by the directors of the London 
Missionary Society, and was set apart 
for the work at old Spafields Chapel, 
London. In fourteen days from the offer 
of service he was sailing for the Pacific. 
For upwards of twenty years Dr. Gill 



tares in New Guinea," by Messr 
Chalmers and Gill. In 1885 appear* 
the last volume from the pen of th 
veteran missionary, entitled "Jottinj 
from the Pacific." On leaving actr 
mission service, the revision of tl 
Rarotongan Scriptures was entrusted I 



184 



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DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 




a (M#. Gill by the British and Foreign Bible 

> £gi>ciety. This work took three years of 
J^Jkceesant labour in Sydney. To print it 
jgoiJB was, with Mrs. Gill, invited to visit 

.gland by the society. The printing 
id stereotyping of the Barotongan Bible 
jupied fifteen months. The correction 
the press was a matter of great 
iety, as there was no second proof - 
ler in Europe. The book contains 
j^Jwelve hundred and fifty-one pages, is 
"^ eautifuHy printed, and along with the 
^ ezt are given references and maps. The 
ft riginal translation was made by 
k» Williams, Pitman, and Buzacott. Dr. 
q£ ind Mrs. Gill returned to Sydney in 
gjjj Fury 1888, and soon after Great Britain 
^ is8umed the protectorate of the Hervey 

ip, so that there could be no hin- 

ice to the circulation of the Scriptures 

[which bad just been printed in the 

Barotongan language. The article on 

the Barotongan Bible in "The Bible in 

the Pacific," by the Bev. A. W. Murray 

4 5 (published in 1888), is from Dr. Gill's 

v# pen. To the Melbourne volume of the 

... Australasian Society for the Advance- 

I ment of Science for 1890 he contributed 

three papers, and still writes occasionally 

V for the press. He was created an 

honorary LL.D. by the university of St. 

Andrews. 

allien, Hon. Peter Paul, M.P., Com- 

', missioner of Crown Lands and Immigra- 

\ tion, South Australia, was returned to the 

': Legislative Assembly of that colony for 

> 8tanley in 1887. In June 1892 he ac- 
. oepted a portfolio in the Holder Ministry. 

Gilles, Lewis W., commenced life as a 
naval officer, but after seeing considerable 
service embraced commercial pursuits. 
Subsequently be emigrated to Tasmania, 
and, as a pastoralist, was prominent as a 
breeder of first-class sheep. He established 
the Tamar Bank, which was merged into 
the Union Bank of Australia, and was 
afterwards Assistant Colonial Secretary 
of Victoria, going ultimately to South 
Australia, where he opened up the Glen 
Osmond silver mines, near Adelaide, on 
the property of his relative, the late Mr. 
Osmond Gilles (g.v.). He died at Glen 
Osmond on Jan. 2nd, 1884, at the age 
of eighty-eight. 
f Gilles, Osmond, was born in England 
in 1797, and was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits at Hamburg for fourteen years. 
He took a great Interest in the pre- 



_________ _ [CHI 

liminary arrangements for the formation 
of the colony of South Australia, to which 
he emigrated in 1836, being amongst 
those who were present on Dec. 28th, 
when Captain Hindmarsh read the official 
document proclaiming the colony. He 
was the first Colonial Treasurer of South 
Australia, but only held office for two 
years. He was a large purchaser of 
town and country lands ; and the Glen 
Osmond silver lead mines, worked by an 
English Company, were situated on his 
property. He introduced Saxony and 
Merino sheep into South Australia, and 
was a considerable benefactor to the 
Church of England and to German 
charities. He died at Glen Osmond on 
Sept. 24th, 1876. 

Gillies, Hon. Duncan, M.L.A., sometime 
Premier of Victoria, the son of the 
late Duncan Gillies and Margaret his 
wife, was born at Glasgow in Jan. 1834, 
and went to Victoria in Dec. 1862, 
when he proceeded to the Ballarat 
goldfields, where he engaged as a work- 
ing miner, and where he first took 
part in public affairs as a member of 
the local mining court, which granted the 
first mining lease, and thus paved the 
way for the introduction of company, as 
opposed to individual, working in mining 
ventures. He was a working partner in 
the Great Bepublic Company, and was 
elected, as the miners' candidate, to the 
Legislative Assembly for Ballarat West 
in 1869, being four times re-elected prior 
to his acceptance of office in the un- 
popular 8 laden Ministry in May 1868, 
when he was rejected. In June 1872 
Mr. Gillies was included in the Francis 
Ministry as Commissioner of Railways 
and Roads, and held office till July 
1874, when he accepted the same past 
under the late Mr. Eerferd, retiring 
with his colleagues in August 1876. Mr. 
Gillies, who had meantime been returned 
for Maryborough, was Minister of Lands 
in the last M'Culloch Government, from 
Oct. 1875 to May 1877. At the general 
election in the latter year he was re- 
turned for Rodney, but was unseated on 
petition, on the ground of undue in- 
fluence having been used by the Lands 
Department, by the issue of leases to 
selectors and electors during the contest, 
the committee finding that such influence 
had been used without Mr. Gillies' know- 
ledge. Later on he once more took his 

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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



CHlj 

seat in the Assembly, and, as a Conserva- 
tive and free-trader, strongly opposed the 
Berry party. He, however, entered the 
Service-Berry Coalition Ministry in March 
1883 as Minister of Railways and Public 
Instruction, and held office until, in Feb. 
1886, on the retirement of Messrs. Service, 
Berry and Kerf erd, he himself was nomi- 
nated Premier under a fresh coalition 
arrangement with Mr. Deakin, the new 
Liberal leader, taking in addition the 
offices of Treasurer, Minister of Railways, 
and subsequently Minister of Mines. Mr. 
Gillies, having been defeated on a want 
of confidence motion, retired in November 
189a In 1887 Mr. Gillies refused the 
offer of knighthood (K.C.M.G.). He has 
represented Victoria on numerous occa- 
sions at Intercolonial Conferences, as 
well as at the three first sessions of the 
Federal Council of Australasia. He pre- 
sided at the Federation Conference held 
in Melbourne in Feb. 1890, and was 
selected as one of the representatives 
of Victoria to the Federation Conven- 
tion in Sydney in 1891. Mr. Gillies, who 
is leader of the opposition to the Sbiels 
Ministry, now represents the Eastern 
Suburbs. 

Gillies, Hon. Thomas Bannatyne, for- 
merly Puisne Judge, New Zealand, arrived 
in Otago in 1852, and after a time prac- 
tised as a lawyer. In 1860 he was elected 
to the House of Representatives, and 
became Attorney-General in Mr. Domett's 
Administration on August 6th, 1862, retir- 
ing fifteen days later, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Sewell. In the Whitaker- 
Fox Ministry which followed on Oct 30th, 
1863, Mr. Gillies had the portfolios of 
Postmaster-General and Secretory of 
Crown Lands, which he held till Nov. 
24th and Jan. 13th, 1864, respectively. 
Under Mr. Stafford, from Sept. 10th to 
Oct. 11th, 1872, Mr. Gillies was Colonial 
Treasurer. In 1866 he removed to Auck- 
land, and was Superintendent of the 
province of Auckland from 1869 to 1873. 
In 1875 he was appointed Puisne Judge 
of the Supreme Court. Mr. Gillies, who 
died in August 1889, founded two science 
scholarships in connection with Auck- 
land University College. 

Gillon, Edward Thomas, was born in 
Douglas, Isle of Man, in Jan. 1842. He 
arrived in New Zealand with his parents 
{ n 1851 and settled in Otago, where for 

veral years he endured the rough expe- 



[Gfl 



riences of settlement in a new country. 
While quite a youth he became a contri- 
butor to the Otago Witness, and was 
engaged reporting the Provincial Council 
proceedings for that paper, when, in 1861, 
the Otago goldfields were discovered. 
Mr. Gillon was at once sent to Gabriel's 
Gully as special correspondent for the 
Witness, and was the first press represen- 
tative on the diggings. He remained 
there until recalled to Dunedin to again 
report in the Provincial Council, and he 
was so engaged when Mr. (now Sir Julius) 
Vogel arrived from Australia and, enter- 
ing into partnership with Mr. Cutten, 
the proprietor of the Witness, established 
the Otago Daily Times, the first daily 
paper published in New Zealand. Mr. 
Gillon joined the Times staff as chief 
reporter, and remained on it until early 
the following year, when severe illness 
compelled him to relinquish newspaper 
work for a time. He accepted a Govern- 
ment appointment which, after two or 
three years, he resigned to resume jour- 
nalistic work. In 1867 he went to Wel- 
lington as a member of the first Hansard 
staff, and was subsequently appointed 
Clerk of Private Bills to the New Zea- 
land Parliament. He resigned this office 
after a brief tenure in order to devote 
himself exclusively to literary work, and 
became connected with the Wellington 
Evening Post as well as acting as special 
correspondent for the Otago Daily Times, 
Lyttelton Times, and other leading jour- 
nals. In 1872, when cable communication 
between Europe and Australia was first 
established, Sir Julius Vogel brought about 
a combination of New Zealand papers for 
obtaining supplies of telegraphic news, 
and Mi. Gillon was selected as manager. 
After a time this association handed its 
business over to a private firm, and Mr. 
Gillon rejoined the Post as editor. In 
1878 another press association was formed, 
and Mr. Gillon was again appointed 
manager. In less than two years this 
association absorbed all opposition, and 
developed into the present United Press 
Association, which Mr. Gillon continued 
to manage with great success until 1884, 
when he resigned in order to resume his 
former position of editor of the Post, 
which he still retains. Mr. Gillon is 
recognised as the doyen of New Zealand 
journalists, and when the Institute of 
Journalists was formed recently he was 



1 86 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Gift 



unanimously chosen as Chairman of 
the Council. At the time of the aboli- 
tion of the provinces he was one of the 
city representatives in the Provincial 
Council of Wellington. Some years ago 
one of the prizes offered by the New 



the House of Representatives. From 1870 
to 1875 he was New Zealand Govern- 
ment Insurance Commissioner; in 1877 
he once more entered the House of 
Representatives, and in July 1879 joined 
the Grey Cabinet in which he held office 



Zealand Parliament for the best essays i till October of the same year: from July 



on the settlement of the people on the 
land was awarded to Mr. Gillon. He is 
a Justice of the Peace for the colony, 
and occupies a prominent position in the 
Masonic body. As chairman of the 
central executive committee, he was the 
leading spirit in the movement which 
recently resulted successfully in the 
establishment of an independent Grand 
Lodge of New Zealand. As he declined 
to accept active office, the rank of Past 
Deputy Grand Master was conferred 
upon him, in recognition of his services 
to the craft 

Gilmore, George, went to New South 
Wales in 1839, in command of the 
barque Uretta. He took a prominent 
part in the establishment of the inter- 
colonial coasting trade, starting a line 
between Sydney and the Hunter River, 
and later on between Melbourne, Tas- 
mania, and Sydney. He was one of the 
founders of the Hunter River Steam 
Navigation Company, which was formed 
in Sept. 1841, and became merged in the 
Australian Steam Navigation Company, 
the latter in its turn having recently be- 
come absorbed in the Australasian United 
Steam Navigation Company. In the year 
1842 Captain Gilmore ran the first steamer 
into Moreton Bay, now known as Bris- 
bane, and brought away the first cargo 
of wool from that now prominent em- 
porium. He subsequently resided in 
Launceston, Tasmania, and was Colonial 
Secretary in the Kennerley Ministry from 
April 10th to July 20th, 1876. He died 
at Launceston on Jan. 2nd, 1884. 

Gifborne, Hon. William, who comes of 
an old Derbyshire family, and emigrated 
to New Zealand, was Commissioner of 
Crown Lands in that colony from 1848 
to 1853, and from 1853 to 1869 Under- 
Secretary. On July 5th in the latter 
year, while holding a seat in the Legis- 
lative Council, he became Colonial Secre- 
tary, which office he retained till Sept. 
10th, 1872, and acted also till Dec. 6th, 



5th to 19th as Minister of Lands and 
from July 5th to Oct. 8th as Minister of 
Mines and Immigration. Mr. Gisborne, 
who has lived in England of late, was 
a member of the New Zealand Commis- 
sion in London for the Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition of 1886, and is the 
author of "New Zealand Rulers and 
Statesmen" (Sampson Low, 1886), and, 
more recently, of " The Colony of New 
Zealand" (E. A. Petherick & Co., 1888). 

Glasgow, Kit Excellency the Bight Hon. 
David (Boyle),Earlof, G.C.M.G., Governor 
of New Zealand, is the eldest son of the 
late Patrick Boyle, of Shewalton, Ayrshire, 
by his marriage with Mary Frances, 
daughter of Sir Robert Dalrymple Horn 
Elphinstone, Bart. He was born on May 
31st, 1833 ; and entering the royal navy, 
served through the Crimean war, during 
which he was wounded. Later on he 
retired with the rank of captain. He 
married on July 23rd, 1873, Dorothea 
Elizabeth Thomasina, eldest daughter 
of Sir Edward Hunter Blair, Bart., and 
Elizabeth his wife, daughter of George 
Wauchope. In 1892 Lord Onslow, the 
late Governor of New Zealand, having 
decided to retire, the appointment was 
offered to Lord Glasgow and accepted 
by him. The Ballance Government im- 
mediately on the occurrence of the 
vacancy conveyed to the Colonial Office 
the wish that they should be consulted 
prior to a final appointment being made. 
As this was disregarded, something in the 
nature of a protest was made against 
Lord Glasgow s appointment, but it was 
in no way dictated by personal disap- 
proval, and merely related to the principles 
regulating the method of such appoint- 
ments. Lord Glasgow left for New 
Zealand, vi& Sydney, in April 1892, and 
was received with much effusion on his 
landing in June. His family had already 
formed a connection with the colony, his 
cousin, Alexander Boyle, having married 
in 1883 Fannie, daughter of Michael 



1871, as Minister of Public Works. During Studholme, of the Waimate, Canterbury, 
bis term of office he resigned from the N.Z. His aunt having become the wife of 
Legislative Council and was elected to | the late Sir Charles Dalrymple Fergusson, 

187 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[God 



of Kilkerran, Lord Glasgow is first 
cousin to Sir James Fergusson, formerly 
Governor of New Zealand (q.v.). He was 
also cousin to the late George Elphinstone 
Dalrymple, first Speaker of the Queens- 
land Legislative Assembly. Lord Glasgow 
was for many years convener of the 
county of Ayr, but was not prominent 
in English politics, though professing 
moderate Conservative views. He suc- 
ceeded his cousin as sixth earl in 1889. 

Glass, Hugh, was born at rortferry, 
county Down, Ireland, in 1817, and was 
brought up to farming. He emigrated to 
Port Phillip, Vict., in 1840, and setting 
up in the squatting agency business in 
Melbourne, became himself one of the 
most extensive run-holders in Australia. 
He was a member of the Legislative 
Assembly, and died in 1870. 

Glyde, Hon. Lavington, sometime 
Treasurer of South Australia, was born 
at Exeter, in England, in 1825, and 
emigrated to South Australia in 1847. 
Ten years later he entered the Assembly, 
in which he sat in every parliament from 
the first to the tenth inclusive. From 
1857 to 1860 he represented East Torrens, 
from the latter year to 1875 Yatala, and 
from 1877 to 1884 Victoria. He was 
Treasurer in the Dutton Ministry in July 

1863, and Minister of Lands on four 
occasions — viz., from July 1863, to July 

1864, Oct. to Nov. 1865, May 1867 to 
Sept. 1868, and Oct. to Nov. 1868, in the 
first Ayers, the first Hart, and the fourth 
and fifth Ayers Ministries respectively. 
Mr. Glyde was Treasurer in Mr. (now 
Sir) Arthur Blyth's Government from 
July 1873 to May 1875, and again in 
Mr. (now Sir) John Bray's Government 
from June 1881 to April 1884. He sub- 
sequently retired from public life, and in 
Oct. 1885 accepted the Accountancy to 
the Court of Insolvency, a position he 
held till his death, which took place at 
Kensington, Adelaide, on July 31st, 1889. 
With the one exception of Sir Arthur 
Blyth, Mr. Glyde had been a Minister of 
the Crown for a longer term of years 
than any other South Australian politi- 
cian. He was a singularly able debater, 
and his Budget speeches and financial 
addresses generally were models of 
clearness. 

Godlev, John Bobert, B.A., eldest son 
of John Godley of Killigar, co. Leitrim, 
T.P. and D.L n by Catherine, daughter of 



Right Hon. Denis Daly, of Dunsandle, 
co. Galway, was born in 1814 and edu- 
cated at Iver and Harrow, and subse- 
quently at Christ Church, Oxford, where 
he obtained the Fell Exhibition in 1835 
and graduated second class in classics. 
After being called to the bar he travelled 
extensively. At the time of the great 
Irish famine he urged the Government 
to inaugurate a large scheme of emigra- 
tion, by which over a million of the 
poorer Irish might be removed to Canada. 
Failing in this, he devoted himself to 
county duties, and in 1847 stood for 
Leitrim, but was defeated. About this 
time he came in contact with Edward 
Gibbon Wakefield, who was busy arrang- 
ing for the settlement of Canterbury, 
N.Z. Mr. Godley threw himself with 
vigour into the scheme, and joined tbe 
Canterbury Association, promoting in 
many newspaper articles, notably in the 
Morning Chronicle, the cause he had at 
heart. Captain Thomas, the agent of the 
Association in New Zealand, had secured 
a vast tract of land, and in 1849 Mr. 
Godley set sail to New Zealand to prepare 
the way for the immigrants. On the eve 
of his departure he wrote a public letter 
to Mr. Gladstone, assailing in strong 
terms the policy of the Colonial Office. 
After attending to the business of the 
Association in Port Lyttelton, he pro- 
ceeded to Wellington and threw himself 
into the agitation then in progress for 
constitutional government. In Dec. 1850 
he returned to Lyttelton to meet the first 
four ships of immigrants, and from that 
time till Dec. 1852 he was the practical 
controller and ruler of the new settlement, 
having mapped out the town of Christ- 
church and being the arbiter and chief 
of all the colonists. In 1852, feeling his 
work was done and the new colony in- 
augurated, he returned to England, where 
Mr. Gladstone appointed him a commis- 
sioner of income tax in Ireland. He was 
subsequently removed to England, and 
became head of the stores department of 
the War Office. At a later period he 
was made Assistant Under-Secretary for 
| War, which office he held till his death 
'on Nov. 6th, 1861. In 1864 he was 
t appointed first agent in England for the 
province of Canterbury, but resigned in 
: 1856. After his death, the Provincial 
Council erected his statue in Christchurch, 
and the work was executed by Mr. 

88 

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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Goo 



Woollier. Mr. Godlcy married in 1846 
Charlotte, daughter of Charles Griffith 
Wynne, of Voelas, Carnarvonshire. 

Gee, Bight SeT. Field Flowers, D.D., 
Bishop of Melbourne, is the son of the 
late Field Ooe, and was born at Louth in 
1832. He was educated at Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 
(third class Lit. Hum.) in 1857, and 
MA. in 1860, being given the honorary 
degree of D.D. in 1886. He was ordained 
deacon and priest in 1858, and was 
curate of Christchurch, Kingston-on-Hull, 
in 1858, and perpetual curate from 1858 
to 1873. In the latter year he was ap- 
pointed rector of Sunderland, and held 
the post until 1877, when he became 
rector of St. George's, Bloomsbury, 
London, a preferment which he resigned 
in 1887 to accept the bishopric of Mel- 
bourne. He was consecrated to that 
see in Westminster Abbey on Feb. 24th 
by Archbishop Benson, and Bishops 
Temple, Thorold, Moorhouse, Parry (of 
Perth, West Australia), Perry (formerly 
of Melbourne), Alf ord, and Marsden (for- 
merly of Bathurst). 

Goldsbrough, Richard, was born at 
Shipley, near Bradford, in Yorkshire, in 
1821. He was employed by a wool- 
stapler at Bradford, and subsequently 
went into business there on his own 
account. Struck with the superiority 
of the Australian wools, he went out to 
Melbourne in 1847, and after visiting 
Adelaide and other places established a 
wool business in Melbourne in 1848. In 
1853 he joined with Messrs. Edward Bow 
and George Kirk in starting the stock 
and station business of Bow, Kirk & Co. 
Mr. Goldsbrough acquired large station 
property, principally in Riverina, but 
ultimately devoted himself solely to 
wool-broking. In 1862 his brother-in-law, 
Mr. Hugh Parker, came out from England 
and became a partner with him in 1857, 
when the firm was known as Richard 
Goldsbrough & Co. In 1873 Mr. John 
Satellite Horsfall was admitted a part- 
ner in the firm, into which the son and 
nephew of Mr. Hugh Parker, Messrs. 
Arthur and David Parker, were admitted 
in 1876. Five years later Messrs. Golds- 
brough k Co. amalgamated with the 
Australasian Agency & Banking Corpora- 
tion, Limited, the whole of the immense 
combined business being formed into a 
company with a capital of £3,000,000 in 



300,000 shares of £10 each, under the 
style of R. Goldsbrough & Co., Limited 
Mr. Goldsbrough did not live to see the 
further development of the business of 
the Company, which resulted from its 
amalgamation with the great Sydney 
firm of Mort & Co. in 1888. He died on 
April 8th, 188a 

Ooldsworthy, Sir Begtr Tuckfleld, 
K.C.M.G., sometime Colonial Secretary, 
Western Australians the younger son of the 
late Thomas Goldsworthy, of Calcutta, 
by Sophia, daughter of Wm. Tuckfield, 
R.N. He was born in 1839, and educated 
at Sandhurst College. He served during 
the Indian mutiny in the volunteer cavalry 
of Havelock'8 forces; and was present 
in the actions of Oonao, Busserutgunj, 
and at the re-capture of Busserutgunj. 
For these services ne was twice mentioned 
in despatches and received two medals 
and a commission in the 17th Lancers. 
He assisted in the relief and defence of 
Lucknow, and saw much other service in 
India and Africa. In May 1876 he was 
appointed President of Nevis, and was 
Colonial Secretary of Western Australia 
and senior member of the Legislative 
Council from 1877 to 1880. He was 
administrator of the Government, and 
Colonial Secretary of St. Lucia from 1881 
to 1884, when he was appointed Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief of British Hon- 
duras. In 1891 he became Governor of 
the Falkland Islands. He married, in 

1869, Eliza, daughter of John Gawler 
Prior, of Sunderland and widow of 
Captain Egan, R.A. ; was created C.M.G. 
in 1874 and K.C.M.G. on Jan. 2nd, 1889. 

Ooodehap, Hon. Charles Augustus, 
M.L.C., was born in Kent, England, on 
April 2nd, 1837, and educated at Hunt- 
ingdon Grammar School. He went to New 
South Wales in 1853, and obtained a clerk- 
ship in the Colonial Secretary's office, from 
which he was transferred to the Lands 
and Works Department in 1856, and in 
1859 to the Department of Public Works. 
He became Chief Clerk for Railways in 

1870, Secretary for Railways in 1875, and 
Commissioner for Railways in 1878. Mr. 
Goodchap retired from the Civil Service 
of New South Wales in 1888, and was 
returned to the Assembly for Redfern at 
the general election in 1889 in the Pro- 
tectionist interest. At the election in 
June— July 1891 he was defeated, and 



189 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Gor 



was nominated to the Legislative Council 
by the Dibbs Government in May 1892. 

Goodenough, Commodore Jamas Graham, 
C.B., C.M.G., son of Very Rev. Edmund 
Goodenough, Dean of Wells, was born on 
Dec. 3rd, 1830, and entered the navy in 
May 1844. He went to China in the 
Raleigh in 1857, and having become post- 
captain was appointed to the Pearl in 
1873, as Commodore of the Australian 
Station. In August of that year he was 
commissioned by the Earl of Eimberley 
to proceed to Fiji, and in conjunction 
with Mr. Layard, the British consul, to 
inquire into the expediency of annexing 
that island to the Imperial Crown. In 
March 1874 they sent in their report, 
which contained an offer of cession 
from the principal chiefs ; but the terms 
not proving acceptable, they were subse- 
quently modified through the exertions 
of Sir Hercules Robinson, who negotiated 
the conditions of annexation subse- 
quently adopted. On August 12th 
following, during a cruise amongst the 
Polynesian Islands, Commodore Good- 
enough was shot by arrows at Santa 
Crue, and tetanus supervening, he died 
on the 20th of the same month on 
board the Pearl, about five hundred miles 
from Sydney. This distinguished officer, 
whose professional capacities and philan- 
thropic character rendered him an orna- 
ment to the navy, married Victoria, 
daughter of William Hamilton. The 
w Goodenough Royal Naval Home 1 ' in 
Sydney was founded to commemorate 
his virtues and premature death. He 
worked for the Daily News French 
Peasant Relief Fund in 1870, and was 
created C.M.G. in May 1876 and C.B. in 
May 1879. 

Goold, Most Rev. James Alipius, D.D., 
O.S.A., first Archbishop of Melbourne, 
was born at Cork, Ireland, on Nov. 4th, 
1812, and joined the Order of St. Augus- 
tine. Pursuing his ecclesiastical studies 
abroad, he met the late Bishop Ullathorne 
in Rome, and was induced by him to 
enter on the Australian Mission, and 
arrived in Sydney on Feb. 24th, 1838, by 
the Upton Castle, the same vessel which 
conveyed Sir George Gipps to the scene 
of his eventful governorship. Dr. 
Goold was one of the most energetic 
assistants of Archbishop Polding in con- 
solidating the Catholic Church in the 
parent colony, and became Dean of 



Campbell Town in New South Wales. In 
1847 it was determined at the Vatican to 
constitute a separate diocese in the Port 
Phillip district of the colony, and Dr. 
Goold was selected as the first Bishop 
of Melbourne, being consecrated in St. 
Mary's Cathedral, Sydney, in August 1848, 
by Archbishop Polding, assisted by Bishop 
Murphy of Adelaide. He arrived in 
Melbourne on Oct. 4th following, and 
accomplished a great work in the organi- 
sation of his new diocese. In 1850 he 
laid the foundation-stone of the still 
incomplete St. Patrick's Cathedral of 
Melbourne, which in its inchoate state is 
still the finest ecclesiastical edifice in 
the Australasian colonies. In 1872 Dr. 
Goold fulminated against the free, secular 
and compulsory education policy of the 
Francis Government, and in 1880 bad 
much to do in turning the tide against 
the Berry Ministry at the general elec- 
tion. A few months later the Catholic 
vote was thrown into the scale against 
Mr. Service, and in favour of Mr. Berry, 
who, however, did not succeed in coming 
to terms with Sir John O'Shanassy, who 
acted as the representative of the Catholic 
party. Dr. Goold was a member of the 
last (Ecumenical Council, and voted with 
the majority in favour of the dogma of 
Papal Infallibility. In 1874 the Pope, on 
his recommendation, created Sandhurst 
and Ballarat into separate bishoprics, and 
in the same year he was appointed Arch- 
bishop of Melbourne and Metropolitan 
of the province of Victoria, comprising 
the sees of Ballarat, Sandhurst, Adelaide, 
Perth, and Hobart. Dr. Goold, who waa 
a member of the first Provincial Council 
of the Roman Catholic Church in Aus- 
tralia held at Sydney in 1844, and of the 
second Council of the Prelates of the 
Colonies held in Melbourne in 1869, waa 
the object of an attempt at assassination 
by his former solicitor, Mr. O'Farrell, in 
1883, but fortunately escaped without 
serious injury. Dr. Goold died on 
June 11th, 1886. 

Gordon, Adam Lindsay, the favourite 
Australian poet, was the son of Captain 
Adam Gordon, and was born in 1833 at 
Fayal, in the Azores. He was educated 
at Cheltenham College, where his father 
was for some time Professor of Hindustani, 
and after passing on to another school 
was for a time at Woolwich, and, it 
is stated, kept some terms at Mertonv 

90 



Oar] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Gor 



College, Oxford. After a somewhat 
stormy youth, he left England on August 
7th, 1863, for 8outh Australia, where he 
joined the mounted police as a trooper. 
Leaving the police, he became a horse- 
breaker, and married a Miss Park. In 
1864 he received some £7,000 on his 
father's death, and on March 1st, 1865, was 
elected to the South Australian Legis- 
lative Assembly for the Victoria district. 
He was an occasional speaker in the 
House until his resignation on Nov. 10th, 
1866. In 1867 he migrated to Victoria, 
and opened a livery stable at Ballarat. 
At this time he acquired a wide reputation 
as a daring steeplechase rider. In 1869 
he removed to Melbourne, and settled in 
the suburban district of New Brighton. 
Prior to this he had published a collection 
of his poems at Mount Gambier, in South 
Australia. His second volume, "8ea Spray 
and Smoke Drift," published in 1867, 
gave him a reputation throughout Aus- 
tralia, and he was cordially welcomed in 
literary circles in Melbourne. But this 
bright outlook was only temporary, 
owing to the depression induced by the 
failure of his attempt to secure the re- 
version of the estate of Esselmont in 
Scotland. His "Bush Ballads and Gallop- 
ing Rhymes," published in 1870, enhanced 
his fame, but he yielded to feelings of 
morbid discouragement and committed 
suicide by shooting himself on June 24th 
in that year. Another of his productions 
was " Ashtaroth, a Dramatic Lyric." A 
collected edition of his poems was pub- 
lished in 1880, edited by his friend Marcus 
Clarke, the novelist, who was associated 
with him as one of the early members 
of the Melbourne Yorick Club. Some 
additional poems, prose sketches, and 
his political speeches are printed in a 
memoir, by Mr. J. Howlett Boss, entitled 
"The Laureate of the Centaurs," issued 
in 1888. 

Gordon, Hon. Sir Arthur Hamilton, 
G.C.M.G., D.C.L., formerly Governor of 
New Zealand, the fourth son of George, 
4th Earl of Aberdeen, by Harriet, daughter 
of Hon. John Douglas, and relict of James, 
Viscount Hamilton, was born on Nov. 26th, 
1829. He acted as private secretary to 
his father when First Lord of the Trea- 
sury, 1852-5. In July 1854 he was 
elected as a Liberal for Beverley, but lost 
his seat at the general election of 1857. 
Jn Nov. 1858 he accompanied Mr. Glad- 



stone on his special mission as Lord High 
Commissioner Extraordinary to the Ionian 
Islands, and on Feb. 25th, 1860, became 
captain-commandant of the 1st Aberdeen- 
shire Rifle Volunteers. In Oct. 1861 he 
was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of 
New Brunswick ; in Nov. 1866 Governor 
of Trinidad ; and in Sept. 1871 assumed 
the Governorship of Mauritius. In 1874 
he retired from the latter post, but in 
Sept. 1875 became Governor of Fiji, to 
which office was added two years later 
that of Consul-General and High Com- 
missioner for the Western Pacific. At 
the end of 1880 he succeeded Sir Hercules 
Robinson as Governor of New Zealand. 
The new governor found the Government 
busy with the troubles in connection 
with the native land question, and the 
" prophet " Te Whiti ; and in 1881, while 
Sir Arthur was absent in Fiji upon his 
duties as High Commissioner, and during 
the acting governorship of Sir James 
Prendergast, the Ministry carried out the 
well-known raid on Parihaka, which 
culminated in the arrest of Te Whiti. 
Sir Arthur Gordon, while publicly noti- 
fying his opinion that a governor was 
bound to act upon the advice of his 
ministers, whether he regarded them as 
right or wrong, was understood to reserve 
to himself the right of moral disapproval ; 
and it is believed that his dislike to 
native policy of the Government led to 
his resignation of the Governorship in 
1882. In the following year he was 
transferred to Ceylon, and in 1890 re- 
turned to England upon the expiration 
of his iterm of office. He was created 
C.M.G. in 1859, K.C.M.G. in 1871, and 
G.C.M.G. in 1878. Sir Arthur married, 
on Sept. 20th, 1865, Rachel Emily, eldest 
daughter of the late Sir John G. Shaw- 
Lefevre, K.C.B., who died in 1890. In 
June 1892 he took part in the Queensland 
Kanaka labour controversy in a sense 
adverse to the Government policy. 

Gordon, Hon. John Hannah, M.L.C., 
Minister of Education, South Australia, 
has only recently taken a prominent part 
in political life, and having been returned 
to the Legislative Council for the Southern 
district in May 1888, was Minister of 
Education and of the Northern Territory 
in Dr. Cockburn's Ministry from June 
1889 to August 1890. He was appointed 
one of the representatives of South Aus- 
tralia to the Federation Convention held 



191 



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Gar] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY, 



[Gar 



in Sydney in Match 1891. Mr. Gordon is 
the eldest son of the Rev. James Gordon, 
Presbyterian minister of Gawler, 8. A. ( and 
was born in Scotland in 1860. He went 
to South Australia with his parents in 
1859. His early education was obtained 
in Adelaide. After studying for two 
years in the theological classes for the 
Presbyterian Church he turned his atten- 
tion to the law, and in 1876 he was called 
to the bar. For eleven years he practised 
his profession at Strathalbyn, of which 
town he was at one time mayor. He 
then entered into practice in Adelaide, 
and turned his attention to politics. In 
March 1890 Mr. Gordon presided over the 
Intercolonial Postal and Telegraphic 
Conference held in Adelaide, when pro- 
posals were made which resulted in 
important reductions in the cable and 
postal rates between England and the 
colonies. When the Playford Government 
was defeated on Mr. Holder's want of 
confidence motion in June 1892, Mr. 
Gordon resumed his former post as 
Minister of Education in the Government 
formed by Mr. Holder. 

Gordon, Major James Miller, son of 
Carlos Pedro Gordon, of Aberdeenshire, 
was formerly in the Royal Artillery, and 
became connected with the South Austra- 
lian military forces in Jan. 1882. In 
September of that year, when a perma- 
nent force of garrison artillery was formed 
under the provisions of an Act passed in 
1878, and amended in 1880, Major Gordon 
was appointed major-commanding. In 
Feb. and March 1888, during Brigadier- 
General Owen's absence on leave, prior 
to his final retirement, Major Gordon was 
acting-commandant, with the temporary 
rank of colonel. He still commands the 
South Australian Artillery, and is aide- 
de-camp to the Earl of Kintore. Major 
Gordon was married in Melbourne to 
Eily, daughter of the late Edward Fitz- 
gerald, of Castlemaine, Vict., on Feb. 29th, 
1892. 

Qordon, Patrick Robertson, was born in 
Aberdeen in 1834, and emigrated in 1853 
to Victoria, where he engaged in squat- 
ting pursuits until 1864, when he was 
appointed Metropolitan Inspector of 
Stock in Sydney. In Feb. 1868 he ex- 
changed this post for that of Chief 
Inspector of Sheep for Queensland, and, 
on the passing of the Brands Act in 1872, 



was appointed in July of that year Regis- 
trar of Brands, in addition. 

Gordon, William Hontgomerie, was 
appointed clerk to the Consul-General of 
the Western Pacific in August 1879 ; clerk 
of the Executive Council and chief clerk 
of Crown Lands in the colony of Fiji in 
May 1880, and also acted as secretary to 
the Lands Commission; Resident Com- 
missioner and Stipendiary Magistrate for 
the island of Rotumah in May 1882; 
Commissioner to inquire into the claims 
of Europeans to land in Nov. 1882; 
Stipendiary Magistrate in Fiji in April 
1886 ; and private secretary to the Gover- 
nor of Ceylon in June 1887. 

Gore, Sir Ralph St. George Claude, Bart., 
eldest son of the late Sir St. George 
Ralph Gore (?.«.), whom he succeeded 
as 10th baronet in 1887, was born in 
Queensland on May 10th, 1877, and 
resides with his mother at Dunrobin, 
Albion, Brisbane, Queensland. 

Gore, 8ir St. George Ralph, Bart., was 
the son of the late Hon. St. George 
Richard Gore, M.L.C. (#.».) and Frances 
his wife. He was born in 1841 ; and, 
having gone to Queensland with his 
parents, married in 1876 Eugenia Marion, 
daughter of the late Hon. Eyles Irwin 
Caulfield Browne, M.L.C., of Queensland. 
In 1878 he succeeded his cousin as 9th 
baronet of Manor Gore, Donegal. He 
was the immigration agent at Brisbane 
for a number of years, but retired in 
1886, when he was succeeded by Mr. 
Okeden. He died on Oct. 17th, 1887. 

Gore, Eon. St George Richard, M.L.C., 
of the same family as the Earls of 
Arrau, and brother of the 7th baronet, 
of Manor Gore, Donegal, emigrated to 
Moreton Bay (now Queensland); and, 
settling in the Warwick district, was 
returned to the first Legislative Assembly 
of Queensland for the Warwick Electorate. 
He was Secretary for Lands and Works 
in the first Ministry formed under 
responsible government by Mr. (now Sir) 
Robert Herbert from Jan. to March 
1862. Having been in the meantime 
nominated to the Legislative Council, he 
took office in the first Macalister Govern- 
ment as Postmaster-General, and repre- 
sented them in the Upper House from 
Sept. 1866 to August 1867. He was 
again Postmaster-General and leader of 
the Legislative Council in the Lilley 
Ministry from Jan. to May 1870. MLr. 
92 



Gor] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Oct 



Gore, who married in 1840 Francis, 
daughter of the late Edward Coldwell, 
of Lyndhurst, Southampton, England 
(who still survives), died in 1871. 

Gorst, Bight Hon. 8ir John Sldon, M.P., 
Q.C., M.A., second son of the late Edward 
Chaddock Lowndes (formerly Oorst), of 
Preston, co. Lancaster, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of J. D. Nesham of Houghton- 
le-8pring, Durham, was born on May 24th, 
1835, at Preston, and was educated at 
Preston Grammar School, and St. John's 
College, Cambridge, of which he was 
sometime Fellow. He graduated B.A. 
as third wrangler in 1867, and in 1860 
he proceeded to the M.A. degree. He 
entered at the Inner Temple in April 
1857, and in 1860, upon the death of his 
father, he emigrated to New Zealand, 
with the idea of becoming a lay helper 
to Bishop Selwyn. In 1861, having ac- 
quainted himself with the Maori language, 
he was despatched into the Upper Waikato 
district as Civil Commissioner. Here he 
lived at Te Awamutu, occupied in en- 
deavouring to wean the Maoris from 
their allegiance to the " king " movement. 
For this purpose, at his request, the 
Government set up an industrial school, 
and established a newspaper called Ptfun* 
hrt Mokemoke in the native tongue, to 
counteract the influence of the HoMoi, 
which was the organ of tne kingites. 
The Maoris, however, incensed by an 
article in the former, seized the plant, 
and after a stubborn resistance on his 
part, expelled Mr. 1 Gorst from the Wai- 
kato. He returned to Auckland in April 
1863. Subsequently he accompanied Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) F. Dillon Bell to Australia 
to recruit 5000 military settlers for the 
Waikato. Mr. Gorst then returned to 
England, and on May 1st, 1865, was 
called to the bar, and practised on the 
Northern Circuit. From 1866 to 1868 he 
sat 'as Conservative member for Cam- 
bridge, but in the latter year lost his 
seat. Mr. Gorst was appointed Q.C. on 
June 25th, 1875, and in the same year 
was elected to Parliament for Chatham. 
From 1870 to 1877 he was hon. sec. of 
the National Union of Conservative and 
Constitutional Associations, and in Nov. 

1884 was a member of the Royal Com- 
mission on merchant shipping. In June 

1885 he became Solicitor-General in 
Lord Salisbury's Administration, which 
office he held till Jan. 1886, when the 



Conservatives went out of office. In July 
of the same year, when Lord Salisbury 
came in again, he became Under-Secretary 
for India, which office he exchanged for 
that of Financial Secretary to the Treasury 
in 1891. In 1890 he was British plenipo- 
tentiary to the Labour Conference in 
Berlin. He was created knight bachelor 
in 1885, and privy councillor in 1890, 
Sir John Gorst married at Geelong, 
Victoria, on August 18th, 1860, Mary 
Elizabeth, only daughter of Rev. Lorenzo 
Moore, of Christchurch, N.Z., sometime 
incumbent of St. Peter's, Hull. In July 
1892 he was elected for Cambridge 
University. Sir John is the author of 
" The Maori King " (1864). He is chairman 
of the London Board of the New Zealand 
Steam Shipping Company, Limited. 

Gosman, Boy. Alexander, was born in 
Crail, Fifeshire, on Feb. 21st, 1829, and 
received his education at the parish 
school. After some commercial and 
tutorial experience, he studied for the 
ministry at the University of Glasgow, 
and at the Theological Hall of the 
Scottish Congregational Union. His first 
charge was in Haddington, Bast Lothian, 
where he was ordained to the ministry 
in 1855. In 1860 he left Scotland for 
Victoria, under the auspices of the 
London Colonial Missionary Society, and 
arrived in Melbourne in September. His 
first colonial charge was in Ballarat, 
where he remained for three years. In 
1863 he became pastor of the Alma 
Street Congregational Church, St. Eilda, 
which position he filled until the end of 
1877, when he removed to his present 
charge as pastor of the Augustine Church, 
Burwood Road, Hawthorn. Mr. Gosman, 
in 1868 and subsequently, did valuable 
professorial work in connection with the 
Congregational College, and on the death 
of Rev. A. M. Henderson, in 1876, became 
principal of the institution. Mr. Gosman 
has been twice elected to fill the chair of 
the Congregational Union of Victoria, and 
in 1885 the council of the University of 
Melbourne placed him on the board of 
examiners in logic and philosophy, to 
which position he has been elected every 
year since. Mr. Gosman has contributed 
to the colonial press, and has published 
a number of pamphlets, principally of a 
controversial character. 

Gone, William Christie, sometime 
Deputy Surveyor -General, South Australia, 

'3 niniti/fid hv VjOCHTlC 



Digitized by * 



flou] 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Or* 



was the son of Dr. Gosse, and was born 
in 1842 at Hoddesdon in Hertfordshire. 
He went to South Australia with his 
father in I860, and, entering the Govern- 
ment service in 1859, was engaged on a 
trigonometrical survey at the far north. 
After holding various positions in the 
Survey Department, he was sent to explore 
new country lying 800 miles southward of 
central Mount Stuart, with the ultimate 
object of pushing over to Western Aus- 
tralia. He started on April 23rd, 1873, 
from Alice Springs, on the Port Darwin 
telegraph line, with five whites, three 
Afghans (with camels), and a native boy. 
On July 19th he discovered the " Ayers 
Rock " — a mass of granite two miles long 
and one wide— which he named after Sir 
Henry Ayers. He returned to his start- 
ing point in December, having failed, 
through the arid nature of the country, 
in pushing through to Western Australia. 
He, however, acquired an accurate geo- 
graphical knowledge of 60,000 square 
miles of new country. In 1875 he was 
appointed Deputy Surveyor-General in 
recognition of his valuable services, and 
died prematurely on August 12th, 1881. 

Gould, Albert John, M.L.A., is the re- 
presentative of Patrick's Plains in the 
Legislative Assembly of New South 
Wales; and held the post of Minister 
of Justice in the Parkes Ministry from 
March 1889 to Oct. 1891, when he resigned 
with his colleagues. 

Gould, John, F.R.8., was born at Lyme 
in Dorsetshire, on Sept. 14th, 1804. He 
was employed under Mr. Aiton at the 
Royal Gardens, Windsor, from 1818 to 
1824. In 1830 he became possessed of 
a fine collection of birds from the hill 
countries of India, and the next year 
published a work descriptive of them, 
entitled "A Century of Birds from the 
Himalaya Mountains. w Other important 
ornithological works followed, and in 
1837 he issued the great work on the 
" Birds of Europe." The following year 
he visited Australia, for the purpose of 
studying the natural productions of that 
country. The result of this visit was 
the ** Birds of Australia," a work in seven 
folio volumes, containing figures and de- 
scriptions of upwards of six hundred 
species. He also published a ''Hand- 
book to the Birds of Australia 11 in 1865. 
Other great works were " The Birds of 
Great Britain," and the " Mammals of 



Australia," those on the " Birds of Asia * 
and the "Birds of New Guinea" being 
still unfinished at the time of his death. 
Mr. Gould devoted much attention to 
humming-birds, and formed an unrivalled 
collection, which he exhibited in 1851 at 
the Zoological Society's Gardens. These, 
with various other specimens, stuffed with 
extraordinary skill by Mr. Gould, were 
in 1882 purchased by the British Museum. 
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society in Jan. 1843, and contributed 
largely to its proceedings and to other 
scientific journals. He died in London 
on Feb. 3rd, 1881. 

Goyder, George Woodroflb, C.M.G., Sur- 
veyor-General, South Australia, son of the 
Rev. David George Goyder, of the New 
Jerusalem Church of London and Ipswich, 
was born in 1824, and emigrated to 
Australia in 1848. Three years later, 
having gone to South Australia, he en- 
tered the office of the Colonial Engineer, 
Colonel (afterwards Sir A. H.) Freeling, 
and became Chief Clerk in the Lands 
and Survey Department in 1853, Deputy 
Surveyor-General in 1858, and Surveyor- 
General, in succession to Colonel Freeling, 
in 1861. He has undertaken several 
exploring expeditions, and in 1869 to 
1870 fixed the site of the capital of the 
Northern Territory at Palmerston, and 
laid out in sections 500,000 acres in its 
vicinity. For the despatch and skill 
with which he accomplisned this difficult 
work he was complimented by Parlia- 
ment. Mr. Goyder was created C.M.GK 
in 1889. 

Grace, Eon. Morgan Stanislaus, C.M.G., 
M.L.C., Count of the Holy Roman Empire, 
is the son of James Grace, of Sheffield 
House, Queen's County, Ireland, and 
Ellen Mary (Russell) his wife, and was 
born at Clonmel, county Tipperary, on 
Feb. 28th, 1837. He arrived in Auckland* 
N.Z., on June 20th, 1860, and having 
been staff assistant surgeon in the Army 
Medical Department, was appointed, 
surgeon, and subsequently surgeon- 
general, in the colonial military forces. 
In addition to being a member of the 
Legislative Council of New Zealand since 
May 1870, Dr. Grace is a Count of the 
Holy Roman Empire and a Companion 
of the Order of St Michael and St. George. 
He married at Wellington, N.Z., on 
Jan. 26th, 1866, Agnes Mary, daughter 
of the late Hon. John Johnstone, M.L.O. 
194 



ftra] 



BtCtlONAkV OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Gra 



Graham, Hon. George, M.L.A., Minister 
of Water 8upply, Victoria, was returned 
to the Legislative Assembly for Moira 
in March 1886, and for Numurkah and 
Kathalia in 1889 and 1892. In Nov. 1890 
he accepted office in Mr. Monro's Govern- 
ment as Minister of Water Supply, and 
was sworn of the Executive Council. 
When the Ministry was reconstructed 
under Mr. Shiels in Feb. 1892, Mr. Graham 
still retained office, and is now Minister of 
Public Works and Agriculture in addition. 
Grant, Hon. James Kacpherfon, a Vic- 
torian statesman, and one of the most 
prominent land law reformers in Australia, 
was born at Alvie, Inverness, Scotland, in 
1 822. He obtained some schooling at King- 
denie, and at the age of fourteen emigrated 
with his parents to Australia. They took 
np their residence in Sydney, and, with the 
view of becoming a solicitor, Mr. Grant 
was articled to Messrs. Chambers & 
Thurlow, who were in practice there. In 
1842, while still an articled clerk, he was 
attracted to New Zealand by the out- 
break of the Maori war, and served as a 
volunteer in several engagements against 
Heki. In 1847 he returned to Sydney, 
and becoming a solicitor, he practised his 
profession in partnership with Mr. Thur- 
low for some years. In 1850, however, he 
sailed for California, but returned from 
San Francisco on receiving news of the 
discovery of gold in Victoria. He and 
bis brothers went to Bendigo, in that 
colony, and were successful diggers there. 
He determined to settle in Victoria, and 
commenced practice in Melbourne, where 
he soon came to the front as the defender 
of the Ballarat miners, who participated 
in the Eureka stockade affair in 1854. 
He served them without fee, as did the 
counsel engaged in the case, which re- 
sulted in their acquittal. The next year 
he entered the Victorian Parliament as 
the representative of the Sandhurst 
Boroughs (Bendigo), and identified him- 
self in the Assembly, as he had already 
done outside, with the movement for 
throwing open the public lands to the 
people. He also advocated vote by ballot, 
and other Liberal measures. He first took 
office in the Heales Ministry, serving as 
Vice-President of the Board of Land and 
"Works and Commissioner of Public Works 
from Feb. 1861 until the following Nov., 
when the Government were thrown out. 
Whilst in this Ministry he concurred with 



Messrs. Brooke and Ireland in the issue of 
the occupation licences which threw open 
the lands of Victoria to agricultural till 
age. In 1863, when the last CShanassy 
was replaced by the first M'Culloch 
Ministry, Mr. Richard Heales became 
Commissioner of Lands. On his death in 
the following year, Mr. Grant succeeded 
him, and was in office from Sept. 1864 
till May 1868. His administration of his 
department was highly successful, and 
his name is still held in veneration by 
many thousands of well-to-do selectors 
who settled on the land under the cele- 
brated forty-second clause of the Land Act 
of 1865, which he carried through Par- 
liament. When the second M'Culloch 
Government was constituted, in July 1868, 
Mr. Grant again undertook the adminis- 
tration of the Lands Department, and 
remained in office till Sept. 20th, 1869. 
He joined Sir Charles Gavan Duffy in 
June 1871, and continued at the Lands 
Department until June 1872. He was 
Minister of Justice in Mr. Berry's first 
administration, from August to Oct. 1875, 
and in his second Cabinet, from May 1877 
to March 1880. Whilst in office on the 
latter occasion he participated in the 
wholesale dismissal of civil servants in 
Dec. 1878, the services of many of the 
legal functionaries and magistracy being 
dispensed with by his department. From 
July 1881 to March 1883 Mr. Grant was 
Chief Secretary in the O'Loghlen Govern- 
ment. Throughout his whole Parlia- 
mentary career he represented Avoca in 
the Legislative Assembly. He died on 
April 1st, 1885. 

Graves, Hon James Howlin, M.L.A., J.P., 
second son of the late Captain J. Baker 
Graves, 14th Light Dragoons, who was 
a special police magistrate for the dis- 
turbed districts of Ireland in 1848, and 
subsequently a judge in Ceylon, was born 
at Maryborough, Queen's County, on Dec. 
14th, 1827, and educated at Boulogne- 
sur-Mer. Matriculating at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in 1847, he studied for the 
law, which he abandoned for theology ; 
graduated, and completed his professional 
course in 1852. He married Julia Maria, 
second daughter of the late Captain 
J. W. Harvey, Coldstream Guards, a dis- 
tinguished Waterloo officer. Mr. Graves 
for some time farmed his own property 
in Wexford, but on its being sold in the 
Irish Landed Estates Court to pay off 

l 9S 



GraJ 



DICtlOMARV Of AUSfRALASlAM BIOGRAPHY. 



[Ore 



family encumbrances, be emigrated *° 
Australia, arriving in Melbourne in 18V7* 
He at once embarked in pastoral pursu lts 
at Teremia station, near Corowa, N.S.W., 
and after further commercial and pastoral 
experience in New South Wales and 
Victoria was -elected to the Assembly 
fortDelatite as a Liberal and moderate 
Protectionist, and still represents that con- 
stituency. He is a J.P. for the colonies 
of New South Wales and Victoria. 
Having seconded the vote of want of 
confidence in the Berry Government in 
1881, he was, on Sir Bryan O'Loghlen's 
accession to power in July of that year, 
appointed Commissioner of Trade and 
Customs, and held office till March 1883. 

Gray, His Honour Moiei Wilson, was the 
son of the late John Gray, of Claremorris, 
county Mayo, Ireland, and Elizabeth his 
wife, only child of George Wilson, and 
was brother of the late Sir John Gray, 
one of the proprietors of the Dublin 
Freeman** Journal. He was a barrister, 
and emigrated to Victoria in 1856, 
where he took an active part in the 
solution of the land question on liberal 
lines, and was one of the founders of 
the Victoria Land League, under whose 
auspices was summoned a great as- 
semblage of delegates from all parts of 
Victoria to discuss the land question 
with a view to promoting the settlement 
of a farming population on the public 
estate. The Land Convention, as it was 
called, met in Melbourne in 1857, and 
condemned the abortive Haines Land 
Bill then passing through the Lower 
House. Mr. Wilson Gray was elected the 
president of the Convention, which also 
passed resolutions in favour of manhood 
suffrage, equal electoral districts, abolition 
of property qualification, and payment 
of representatives. He was M.L.A. for 
Rodney 1860 to 1862, when he went to 
Otago, New Zealand, where he died a 
district court judge April 4th, 1875. 

Gray, Bobert John, Railway Commis- 
sioner, Queensland, was born at Port 
Macquarie, N.S.W., in 1840, and was 
appointed chief clerk in the office of 
the Colonial Secretary of Queensland in 
1866, and in 1870 Immigration Agent. 
He became Under Colonial Secretary on 
the retirement of Mr. F. C. Rawlins in 
1880, a position he retained until July 
1889, when he was appointed one of the 



196 



Commissioners of Management of Queens- 
land Railways. 

Grooves, Hon. Augustus Frederick 
Adolphus, was one of the first medical 
men who arrived in Melbourne, of which 
city he was Mayor in 1849-50. He for 
some time edited the Port Phillip Qa*ette % 
the first regular newspaper published in 
Melbourne, and was subsequently editor 
of the Melbourne Morning Herald. He 
sat in the old single chamber Parliament, 
and was one of the Select Committee 
which in 1853-4 drafted the present 
Constitution of Victoria. He was returned 
to the first Legislative Assembly of 
Victoria in 1$66 for East Bourke. When 
the first 0*Shanassy Ministry was formed, 
in April 1857, Dr. Greeves accepted office 
as Commissioner of Trade and Customs, 
but failed to secure re-election. The 
Ministry retired the next month. Dr. 
Greeves died in Melbourne on May 23rd, 
1874. 

Gregory, Hon. Augustus Charles, C.M.G., 
M.L.C., J.P., son of the late J. Gregory, 
lieutenant 78th Highlanders, who emi- 
grated to Western Australia, was born in 
Nottinghamshire in 1819, and educated 
privately in England and Australia. He 
arrived in Western Australia in 1829, 
entered the Civil Service of that colony 
in 1841, and from 1846 to 1859 was 
actively engaged in exploration work on 
the Australian continent. In the first- 
mentioned year Mr. Gregory, with his 
brothers Charles and Frank (?.*.), started 
into the interior from Bolgart Spring ; 
but were stopped in their progress east- 
ward by an immense salt lake, which 
compelled them to turn north-west, where 
they discovered some fine seams of coal, 
in the limestone country at the mouth of 
the Arrowsmith. They were forty-seven 
days absent, and traversed a thousand 
miles. In 1848 Mr. Gregory was de- 
spatched northwards to explore the Gas- 
coyne River, and succeeded in reaching a 
point three hundred and fifty miles north 
of Perth, the result of the expeditiop 
being to disclose the pastoral wealth of 
the Murchison and Champion Bay dis- 
tricts. In 1856 Mr. Gregory undertook a 
third exploring expedition under the aus- 
pices of the lioyal Geographical Society 
of London, Baron von Mueller being' one 
of the party. The object was the dual 
one of exploring the interior and o* 
searching for traces of the lost explore 



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Leichhardt, who had been missing for 
seven years. The party started in July, and 
did not return to Brisbane till November 
in the following year, having discovered 
much rich country and new watersheds, 
but no certain traces of Leichhardt. In 
1858 the New South Wales Government 
sent Mr. Gregory to renew his search for 
Leichhardt. The expedition left Sydney 
on Jan. 12th, 1868, and it reached the 
Barcoo in April, returning to Ade- 
laide on July 31st; the only traces of 
Leichhardt which this expedition dis- 
closed being a tree marked L., in lat. 
24° 26', long. 146° 6'. Mr. Gregory, who 
takes a place in the front rank of Aus- 
tralian explorers, and had the gold medal 
of the Royal Geographical Society con- 
ferred on him in 1858, did not take part 
in any further expeditions, being ap- 
pointed Surveyor-General of Queensland 
in 1859, a post which he held till Sept. 
1st, 1879. He was created C.M.G. in 1874, 
a trustee of the Queensland Museum in 
1876, and was nominated to the Legis- 
lative Council in Nov. 1882; but did not 
take his seat till June 188a Mr. Gregory 
has been District Grand Master of Free- 
masonry in Queensland under the English 
constitution since 1868. He is a J.P. of 
the colony, and was a member of the 
Queensland Commission in Brisbane for 
the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 
1886. 

Gregory, Hon. Francis Thomas, M.L.C., 
brother of the above, was born at Farns- 
field, Notts, in Oct. 1821, and having 
gone to West Australia in 1829, where he 
was in the Survey Office, he accompanied 
his brother Augustus in his first exploring 
expedition in 1846. In 1858 he organised 
au expe&tion to examine the country 
between the ffascoyne and Mount Mur- 
chison, in Wett Australia. A million 
acres of good land was discovered, and the 
p***^* returned to Adelaide in July 1861. 
-*•• the bMoa voar he tried to explore the 
interior from the north-west coast ; but 
the sand ridges barred his way, and he 
and his party narrowly escaped destruc- 
tion. ^ it was, they discovered good 
country and new rivers. Mr. Gregory 
went to reside in Queensland in 1862, 
and was nominated to the Legislative 
Council in 1874. He acted for some time 
as Surveyor-General in Western Australia, 
was awarded the gold medal of the Royal 
Geographical Society in 18G3, and was 



joint- author with his brother of •• Journals 
of Australian Explorations" (Brisbane, 
1884). He married at Ipswich, Queens- 
land, on May 11th, 1865, Marion Scott, 
daughter of the late Alexander Hume. On 
Sept. 25th, 1883, he succeeded Mr. More- 
head as Postmaster-General in the first 
Mcllwraith Ministry. The latter were, 
however, thrown out of power on Nov. 
13th following, and he reared with them. 
Mr. Gregory died at Toowomba, Queens- 
land, on Oct. 24th, 1888. 

Gregson, Hon. John Oompton, son of the 
Hon. Thomas George Gregson {g.v.) t was 
Chairman of Quarter Sessions at Launces- 
ton ; but having been returned to the first 
Tasmanian House of Assembly for New 
Norfolk in 1856, he resigned the former 
appointment to become Attorney-General 
in his father's Administration, which only 
lasted from Feb. to April 1857. He died 
on Dec. 16th, 1867. 

Orogsoa, Hon. Thomas George, was 
born in Northumberland about 1799, and 
emigrated to Tasmania in 1821. He was 
a member of the old Legislative Council 
of Tasmania, and one of the " Patriotic 
8ix w who resigned from that body in 
order to frustrate the arbitrary proceed- 
ings of Governor Wilmot in 1845. He 
was presented with a purse of £2000 in 
recognition of his services on this occa- 
sion. In 1850 he was returned for Rich- 
mond as one of the first elected members 
of the Legislative Council, and six years 
later, on the inauguration of free institu- 
tions, was returned for the same district 
to the first Tasmanian House of Assembly. 
Having carried a motion for the reduction 
of the Governor's salary, in spite of the 
opposition of the Champ Ministry, he 
was sent for by the Governor in Feb. 
1857, and became Premier and Colonial 
Secretary of the colony. He only, how- 
ever, held offioe till the following April, 
when he was ejected on a vote of 
censure. Mr. Gregson continued to take 
an active part in politics, sitting as 
member for Richmond in the Assembly 
until his death, which took place at 
Risdon, near Hobart, on Jan. 4th, 1874, 
at the age of seventy-five. 

Oresson, Henry Barnes, late Judge of 
the Supreme Court, New Zealand, son 
of George Leslie Gresson and Clarissa 
(Reynell) his wife, was born in 1809 in 
oo. Meath, Ireland, and educated at 
Westmeath and Trinity College, Dublin, 



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where he graduated. In 1833 he was 
called to the Irish bar, and practised in 
Dublin. In 1854 he emigrated to Auck- 
land, New Zealand, bat soon took up his 
residence in Christchurch, where he was 
shortly afterwards appointed Provincial 
Solicitor for the Canterbury province. In 
Dec. 1854 he was appointed Acting Judge 
of the Southern Districts, including 
Wellington, Nelson, Westland, Canter- 
bury, and Otago. He retired from the 
Supreme Court bench in 1875. Mr. 
Gresson was also President of the Philo- 
sophical Institute, Christchurch, Chair- 
man of the Board of Governors of 
Canterbury College, and Chancellor of 
the Diocese of Christchurch. He was in 
addition a Fellow of Christ's College, 
Canterbury, and married in county Done- 
gal, Ireland, in August 1845, Miss Anne 
Beatty. 

0reville, Hon. Edward, M.L.C., was 
for ten years member for Braidwood in 
the Legislative Assembly of New South 
Wales. He was subsequently appointed 
Commissioner of Land Titles for that 
colony, and still holds the position. He 
originated and is the editor of the " Year- 
book of Australia," a standard work of 
reference on all matters relating to 
Australia. In May 1892 he was sum- 
moned to the Legislative Council of New 
South Wales by the Dibbs Government. 

Grevills, Jehu Boger, the popular Aus- 
tralian comedian, was born in Dublin on 
June 15th, 1834, in which city he began 
his theatrical career. Arriving during the 
" gold fever " in Victoria in 1852, he soon 
left the pick and shovel for the sock and 
buskin, — a phrase which is used literally, 
for, strange as it may appear, Mr. Greville 
in those days essayed Othello. His real 
career began, however, when he joined 
Mr. George Coppin as stage manager at 
Cremorne. After this Mr. Greville was 
an established favourite, and for the last 
thirty years has been constantly before 
the public. His wife (nSe Marshall) was 
at one time a popular actress. 

Grey, Sir George, K.C.B., M.H.R., 
D.C.L., LL.D., sometime Governor and 
Premier of New Zealand, is descended 
from a branch of the Greys of Groby, 
Marquises and subsequently Dukes of 
Dorset, and now represented in the 
peerage by the Earl of 8tamford. He is 
the son of the late Lieut.-Colonel Grey 
of the 30th Foot, who was killed lit Vie 



storming of Badajos, in the Peninsular 
War, was born on April 14th, 1812, at 
Lisbon, and educated at Sandhurst for 
the army. In 1829 he was made ensign 
in the 83rd Foot, becoming lieutenant in 
1833 and captain in 1839, when he sold 
his commission. In 1837, in company 
with Lieut Lushington, he was employed 
on an exploring expedition to the north- 
west of Australia, the object being to 
survey the country between Swan River 
and the Gulf of Carpentaria. They sailed 
from Plymouth in H.M.S. Beagle, and 
landed at the Cape of Good Hope, where 
they hired the schooner Lvnher to convey 
them to Western Australia, landing in 
Port George on Dec. 2nd, 1837. There, 
after severe hardships, in the midst of 
whioh Grey showed great gallantry and 
endurance, they were rescued just in the 
nick of time by the Lynker. Ultimately 
a sheltered cove was discovered, and 
named Hanover Bay, from which point a 
fresh start inland was made on Jan. 17th, 

1838. Hostile natives were encountered, 
and Grey received three spear-wounds 
(from the effects of which he still suffers), 
and was compelled to abandon the ex- 
ploration of the Swan River. Making a 
cUtour inland, they discovered beautiful 
tropical country, and traced the coarse 
of the Glenelg Biver for seventy miles. 
On April 16tn the party returned to 
Hanover Bay, and subsequently embarked 
on board of the Lynher for Mauritius, 
where Grey spent some time in recruiting 
his health. In 1839 he returned, and 
again started on an exploring expedition 
into the interior with thirteen men, the 
object being to survey the coast between 
Sharks Bay and Freemantle. A storm, 
however, arose, and washed away their 
provisions, a/id there was nothing for it 
but to put back to Perth, a distance of six 
hundred miles. The men, however, when 
they had got half way, refused to proceed 
in the leaky craft, and landing, gave them- 
selves up lor lost. And lost they would 
have been but for the pluck of their leader, 
who left them at a well, and pushed on 
to Perth, from whence he sent succour, 
which arrived just in time. The rescued 
remnant reached Perth on April 21st, 

1839, in a wretched plight, and Grey 
departed for Adelaide en route for Eng- 
land, where his admirable '• Journals of 
Discovery n were published. On April 
15th, 1841, he returned to Adelaide with 

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a commission (given him in the previous 
December) to replace Colonel Gawler in 
the government of the settlement, the 
latter having " outrun the constable " in 
promoting the development of the colony, 
and had his bills dishonoured by the 
Home Government, when he drew upon 
them to defray the cost of the works 
which he had started. By a rigid system 
of economy, not very pleasant for those 
whose position was affected by it, Captain 
Grey restored the balance of the finances 
and gained the good opinion of the 
Colonial Office to such a degree, that in 
1845 he was appointed Governor of New 
Zealand, where even greater difficulties 
awaited him — difficulties which the im- 
perial authorities relied (not in vain) 
upon his courage and statesmanship to 
surmount. Lord 8tanley (afterwards 
Earl of Derby) showed his acumen in 
selecting him to succeed Governor Fitz- 
royfa.v.). Sir George arrived at Auckland 
on Nov. 14th. A short time previously 
Kororarika had been sacked by the 
chiefs Heke and Kawiti, who were at 
open war with the Government ; but, by 
his judicious treatment of the neutral 
chiefs, and his vigorous operations against 
the rebels, Captain Grey succeeded in 
quelling the revolt. During the remainder 
of his term of office he had continual 
difficulties with the Maoris to settle, 
and was also involved in difficulty in 
regard to the grants of land to mission- 
aries. On Nov. 29th, 1848, he issued 
an "Ordinance to provide for the 
establishment of Provincial Legislative 
Councils n as a preliminary to the granting 
of representative government to the 
colony. He desired to establish a Legis- 
lative Council, elected by the provincial 
councils, and an Assembly elected by 
the people : unicameral Provincial Coun- 
cils, of which one-third should be nomi- 
nated by the Crown and two-thirds 
elected ; municipal corporations, with 
a £10 burgess and £5 rural suffrage for 
Europeans who could write and read 
and a suffrage for Maoris owning property 
worth £200. On Dec. 19th he appointed 
six members of the Legislative Council 
of New Munster. But this action roused 
the hostility of the colonists, who decried 
it as a piece of " absolutism," and in 1849 
a *' Settlers' Constitutional Association " 
was formed, including amongst its mem- 
bers Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Fitz- 



herbert, Mr. (now Sir) William Fox, 
Dr. Featherston, and Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) Frederick Weld. Earl Grev, how- 
ever, supported the Governor's action, and 
on Dec. 22nd, 1849, the royal approval 
of the Ordinance was given. The dis- 
content in the colony increased; Mr. 
Godley joined the agitation; and Mr. 
Fox sought an interview with the Colonial 
Secretary to protest. In Feb. 1852 
Lord John Russell's Government went 
out of office; and Sir John Pakington, 
who succeeded Lord Grey at the Colonial 
Office, brought in a bill in May by which 
six provinces were created in New 
Zealand — namely, Auckland, Wellington, 
Nelson, Canterbury, Otago, and New 
Plymouth. On Jan. 17th, 1853, Sir 
George Grey proclaimed this Constitution 
Act, and on Feb. 28th he defined the 
limits of the provinces which had been 
left to his discretion, and made other 
regulations as to Crown lands, super- 
intending registration of elections, etc. 
In 1849 he had persuaded the Home 
Government not to deport convicts to 
New Zealand. In Dec 1853 he left 
the colony, at first merely on leave of 
absence, but was appointed Gover- 
nor of the Cape in 1854. There he 
exhibited extraordinary administrative 
and military capacity, breaking the back 
of a threatened Kaffir uprising of very 
dangerous proportions by his diplomatic 
skill, and on his own responsibility send- 
ing troops and money to India during 
the mutiny. The latter incident is thus 
described by an evidently well-informed 
writer : " In 1867, while Governor of Cape 
Colony, he was called upon by Lord 
Elphinstone, then Governor of Bombay, 
to assist in the defence of the British 
Empire in India; and it so happened 
that just at this time a part of Lord 
Elgin's army, on their way to Canton 
to punish the Chinese, touched at Cape 
Town. These Sir George Grey, on his 
own authority, directed to Calcutta, two 
days only after receiving Lord Elphin- 
stone's letters, together with a part of 
the artillery stationed there, fully horsed, 
and transmitted from the Cape Treasury 
£60,000 in specie, continuing to forward 
both men and horses. Knowing the 
cavalry and artillery must be supplied, 
he dismounted his own cavalry and 
artillery, even taking the horses from 
his own carriage to keep up the supply. 



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Vast stores of food for men and horses 
he also provided, and sent on a quantity 
of ammunition. All this Sir George 
Grey did without any authority from the 
Imperial Government, and so quickly that 
the troops which enabled Lord Elphin- 
stone to hold the mutineers in check at 
Bombay, and Sir Colin Campbell to 
relieve Lucknow on Nov. 17th, 1857, 
were largely drawn from the forces 
sent by Sir George from the Cape." 
Colonel Gore Browne had succeeded nim 
in New Zealand, but the native troubles 
developing, in May 1861 Sir George Grey 
was recalled to his old colony to settle 
the difficulty. He resumed the Govern- 
ment of New Zealand for the second 
time on Oct. 3rd, 1861, and at once set 
about his task of reorganising native 
affairs. A system of administration by 
rufumgas (or native councils) was to be 
introduced throughout the Maori country. 
The new plan was welcomed by the loyal 
natives and many others, but despite all 
the Governor's efforts, the Waikato chiefs 
stood aloof. Moreover, his endeavours 
to settle the Waitara block dispute were 
unsuccessful. At this time (1862) the 
Duke of Newcastle consented to the 
devolution of the control of native affairs 
from the Governor upon his responsible 
ministry, and Sir George Grey declared his 
intention of acting in these matters upon 
the advice of his ministers. On April 22nd, 
1864, Sir George recommended the aban- 
donment of the Waitara block, and on 
May 11th this was officially proclaimed. 
Unhappily, however, owing to the delay 
caused by the reluctance of the Ministry, 
the concession came too late, and war 
was inevitable. A party of English were 
murdered at Oakura, and on July 12th 
General Cameron crossed the Maungata- 
whiri, and the Waikato war began. During 
the whole of this campaign the Governor 
was involved in disputes with his Minis- 
try, at one time in regard to the Waitara 
blocks, at another as to the treatment 
of prisoners and the confiscation of rebel 
lands. After the close of the Waikato 
war, in Dec. 1864, the Governor issued 
a confiscation proclamation. The war 
had now spread to the Wanganui region, 
and Sir George Grey instructed General 
Cameron to attack Wereroa Pa, but 
the latter declined, alleging that he 
would require 2000 extra soldiers. Sir 
George then assembled a force of 500 men, 



friendly natives and forest rangers, and 
personally conducted an assault upon the 
pa, which was taken on July 20th, 1865. 
This incident was the occasion of a 
quarrel between the Governor and General 
Cameron, in which the Home Government 
espoused the cause of the latter, who had 
accused the Governor of countenancing 
subversion of discipline. Subsequently, 
in General Chute's famous Taranaki 
campaign, an unfortunate dispute arose 
in connection with the shooting of a 
prisoner of war. Colonel Weare, an 
officer under General Chute, had charged 
the Governor and his Government with 
urging Chute to take no prisoners alive. 
Sir George indignantly denied this, and 
Lord Carnarvon, at the Colonial Office, 
while accepting his denial, rebuked him 
for the tone of his despatches, and re- 
quested him to withdraw them. This 
Sir George refused to do. At this junc- 
ture Mr. Disraeli's Government went out 
of office, and the Duke of Buckingham 
succeeded Lord Carnarvon. But this 
change made no difference to the position 
of Sir George Grey, who would seem to 
have become obnoxious to the Colonial 
Office. On August 27th, 1867, he was 
recalled, and Parliament immediately 
adjourned as a mark of respect for the 
Governor and regret at his recall. On 
Sept. 6th an address from the Houses 
was presented to him, in which the hope 
was expressed that the Queen would 
reward him for his services by some 
signal mark of honour. On Sept 16th 
the Ministry drew up a formal protest 
against the treatment to which Sir George 
Grey had been subjected, and regretting 
the discourteous recall of the Governor, 
expressed their sympathy with him. In 
reply to the Duke of Buckingham's com- 
ments on this document, Sir George 
Grey wrote : " I request your Grace to 
be pleased to state to the Queen that I 
present my duty to Her Majesty, and in 
receiving this notification of my Sove- 
reign's pleasure, I beg to be permitted 
humbly to represent to Her Majesty that 
in the year 1845, a rebellion prevailing 
in New Zealand, I was, by Her Majesty's 
commands, especially sent to this country, 
and that when I relinquished the post in 
the year 1854 it was my happiness to 
leave it in a state of tranquillity and 
prosperity ; that in the year 1861, a re- 
bellion having again broken out in New 



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Zealand, I was once more especially sent 
here ; and that it is again my happiness, 
upon being removed, by your Grace's 
advice, from this Government, to leave 
New Zealand in a state of tranquillity 
and returning prosperity; and that I 
humbly represent to Her Majesty that I 
desire to claim no merit for these cir- 
cumstances, but rather to attribute them 
to the blessing of Divine Providence, and 
to the abilities and exertions of Her 
Majesty's subjects who have advised me 
and aided me in my duties ; and further, 
that 1 humbly trust that the almost 
unanimous voice of Her Majesty's sub- 
jects in New Zealand, amongst whom I 
have laboured In Her Majesty's service, 
will satisfy Her Majesty that I have 
done my utmost to promote the welfare 
and happiness of the inhabitants of this 
part of Her Majesty's possessions." 8ir 
George Bowen assumed office as Governor 
on Feb. 5th, 1868, and at the end of the 
year 8ir George Grey left New Zealand 
to put himself right at the Colonial 
Office in respect of the Weare charges. 
Lord Granville, however, who had be- 
come Colonial Secretary, refused to 
reopen the subject, and he was retired 
on a pension in 1872. In the interim 
Sir George Grey delivered addresses at 
the leading centres of population in the 
United Kingdom, in opposition to the 
policy then advocated by several pro- 
minent statesmen of getting rid of the 
colonies, and became a candidate for West 
Worcestershire and Newark, retiring in 
each case before the poll. Having returned 
to New Zealand, and taken up his resi- 
dence in the island of Kawau, Sir George, 
In 1875, was elected member of the 
House of Representatives for Auckland 
City West, and also in the same year 
superintendent of the Province of Auck- 
land. At this time he came forward as 
an ardent upholder of provincialism when 
the Houses had decided to abolish the 
provinces. He also brought forward a 
Manhood Suffrage Bill and a Triennial 
Parliaments Bill, both of which were 
rejected. In Oct. 1877 the Atkinson 
Ministry was defeated, and on the 13th 
Sir George Grey formed a cabinet, thus 
ruling as Premier a country which, ten 
years before, he had ruled as Governor. 
The beginning of the ministry's term 
of office was marked by a dispute with 
the Governor (Lord Normanby) on a 



question of privilege. On July 29th, 1 879, 
on a motion by Sir W. Fox, the Govern- 
ment was defeated, and after the elec- 
tion which followed was again put in a 
minority, on a motion by Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) John Hall. Sir George Grey, who 
resigned office in Oct 1879, sat in Par- 
liament continuously up to the election 
in Nov. 1890, when he did not offer 
himself. The degree of D.C.L. was 
conferred upon him by the University of 
Oxford in 1854, and he was created 
K.C.B. in 1848. He married, in 1889, 
Harriet, daughter of the late Admiral 
8ir R. W. Spencer, K.H., formerly Govern- 
ment Besident of Albany, West Australia. 
Sir George Grey has lately given his valu- 
able library as a free gift to the town of 
Auckland. He was one of the three 
delegates of New Zealand to the Federa- 
tion Convention held in Sydney in March 
1891, having been in the meantime re- 
elected to the House of Representatives 
for Newton. At the Convention he stood 
almost alone in his advocacy of the " one 
man one vote "principle as the condition 
precedent of federation. He also argued 
in favour of the Governor-in-Chief of the 
projected commonwealth being chosen 
by popular election. After the sittings 
of the Convention closed Sir George 
Grey revisited South Australia, where the 
fiftieth anniversary of his assumption of 
the government of that colony was cele- 
brated with extraordinary demonstrations 
of regard and respect. At all the leading 
centres in South Australia, Victoria, and 
New South Wales Sir George addressed 
gatherings in favour of the " one man one 
vote " principle, gaining an overwhelming 
preponderance of popular support. His 
Life by Mr. W. L. Bees, M.H.B., has lately 
been published by Messrs. Hutchinson, 
London ; and Mr. Brett, Auckland. 

Griffith, Charles Jamas, M.A., was the 
fifth son of Richard Griffith, of Millioent, 
Kildare, Ireland (sometime member for 
the borough of Askeaton in the Irish 
Parliament), by his second wife, Mary, 
daughter of Right Hon. Walter Hussey 
Burgh, Lord Chief Baron of the Irish 
Exchequer ; and was half-brother of Sir 
Richard John Griffith, Bart, the author 
of the famous "valuation" of Ireland. 
He was educated at Dublin University, 
and was called to the Irish bar. He 
emigrated to Victoria in 1840, and was 
appointed, by Governor Latrobe, chairman 



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of the Board of Commissioners of Sewers 
and Water Supply, and in this capacity 
took a prominent part in the construction 
of the works for bringing the water 
supply of the City of Melbourne from 
Yan Yean, a distance of nineteen miles. 
Mr. Griffith also took an active part in 
the erection and establishment of the 
Melbourne Church of England Grammar 
School, the foundation-stone of which was 
laid in 1856. He was also a prominent 
member of the Church Synod. He 
married Miss Jane Magee. Mr. Griffith 
was engaged in pastoral pursuits, and 
was appointed a nominee non-official 
member of the first Legislative Council 
of Victoria on Nov. 3rd, 1851. After the 
concession of responsible government 
he was returned to the first Legislative 
Assembly for the district of Dundas and 
Follett. At the meeting of parliament 
he was a candidate for the Speakership, 
but was beaten by Mr. (afterwards 8ir) 
Francis Murphy. Mr. Griffith was the 
author of a work published in Dublin in 
1845, entitled " Position and Prospects of 
the Port Phillip District of New South 
Wales." He died in Melbourne in 1863. 
Griffith, Hon. Sir Samuel Walker, 
K.C.M.G., M.A., Premier of Queensland, 
is the son of the late Rev. Edward 
Griffith, formerly Congregational minister 
at Merthyr Tydvil in South Wales, but 
for many years residing in Brisbane, and 
was born at Merthyr on June 21st, 1845. 
In 1854 Sir Samuel Griffith's family emi- 
grated to the colony of which he is now 
Premier, but which was then only the 
Moreton Bay district of New South 
Wales ; settling first at Ipswich, then at 
Maitland, and finally at Brisbane. Sir 
Samuel was educated in the first instance 
under Mr. Horniman at Sydney, and sub- 
sequently at the High School, West Mait- 
land, of which the Rev. W. Mclntyre was 
head master. In 1860 he proceeded to 
Sydney University, graduating B.A. in 
1863 and M.A. in 1870. He early selected 
a legal career as his future r6le % and was 
called to the bar at Brisbane in 1867. In 
1870 he married Julia Janet, daughter of 
Mr. James Thomson, for some time Com- 
missioner of Crown Lands at Maitland. 
Sir Samuel Griffith soon obtained a con- 
siderable legal practice, and in 1872 
entered Parliament as member for East 
Moreton. The district being subdivided 
in 1873, Sir Samuel was returned for the 



Ozley portion, which he continued to 
represent till 1878, when he was elected 
for the metropolitan constituency of 
Brisbane, which he has since represented. 
In August 1874 Sir Samuel was appointed 
Attorney-General in the Macalister Min- 
istry f becoming Q.C. in 1876], and con- 
tinued to hold office under the subsequent 
Administrations of Messrs. Thorn and 
Douglas, with the additional portfolio of 
Minister of Education, and subsequently 
as Minister of Publio Works, until Jan. 
1879. In his first session he originated 
the Telegraphic Messages Bill, a measure 
which provided for the transmission by 
of all legal processes .and other 



documentary matter requiring authenti- 
cation. This was successfully carried, 
and in 1874, whilst still outside the 
charmed circle of the Cabinet, he intro- 
duced and carried an Insolvency Bill. 
The latter measure was based in its 
general principles upon the English Act 
of 1869, but included a great many pro- 
visions since embodied in Mr. Cham- 
berlain's recent Act. It also contained 
clauses against fraudulent preference, 
whioh are asserted to be the most strin- 
gent in force in any part of the world. In 
1875, whilst Attorney-General, Sir Samuel 
Griffith introduced a ministerial measure 
for the adoption of a free, secular and 
compulsory system of State education. 
This was successfully carried, and he 
assumed charge of the department formed 
under the statute. At this period, too, 
he participated in carrying Judicature 
and Local Government Acts. In 1879 
the McDwraith Government came into 
power, and continued to hold sway till 
1883, when, mainly through the exertions 
of Sir Samuel Griffith, they were ejected 
from office, and a large majority returned 
in opposition to their policy regarding 
the importation of coolie labour for the 
purpose of working the northern sugar 
plantations, and their proposals for the 
construction of the Queensland transcon- 
tinental railway on the land grant system. 
In Nov. 1883 Sir Samuel became Premier, 
and in the following years carried a 
Land Act and measures for the regula- 
tion of the Polynesian labour trade, which 
largely mitigated the evils of a system 
which nearly approached the horrors of 
the African slave traffic. The Defence 
Act passed by the first Griffith Ministry 
contributed to the national security ; 

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and they also succeeded in carrying a 
Licensing Act, which embodied the prin- 
ciple of local option without compensa- 
tion. Sir Samuel followed the policy of 
his predecessor in reference to Australian 
Federation, and was a prominent member 
of the Convention which met at Sydney 
in 1883; the drafting of the Federal 
Council Bill, which ultimately passed 
the Imperial Parliament, being confided 
to his hands. When the Federal Council 
held its first sitting at Hobart, Sir Samuel 
was appointed first Chairman of the 
Standing Committee, and was subsequently 
elected President. During the Queens- 
land parliamentary session of 1886 Sir 
Samuel passed an Act which codified the 
entire body of law relating to the duties 
and powers of justices of the peace. 
His Offenders' Probation Aot was also a 
piece of advanced legislation. In 1887 
Sir Samuel was associated with Sir James 
Garrick in the representation of Queens- 
land at the Colonial Conference held in 
London in that year, and took a promi- 
nent and successful part in its proceed- 
ings. At the Conference he proposed a 
resolution, which was carried, affirming 
the desirableness of preferential treat- 
ment of British products throughout 
the British dominions. At the general 
election in the spring of 1888 the sup- 
porters of the Griffith Government were 
placed in a minority, and they accord- 
ingly resigned in June. After leading the 
Opposition to the Mcllwraith and More- 
head Ministries until August 1890, the 
latter resigned, and the Governor invited 
Sir Samuel Griffith to form a second Ad- 
ministration, which he succeeded in doing 
in combination with his former opponent, 
Sir Thomas Mcllwraith, and still holds 
office as Premier. Sir Samuel was one of 
the representatives of Queensland at the 
Intercolonial Federation Conference held 
in Melbourne in 1890, and at the Sydney 
Convention of 1891. Of the latter 
body he was unanimously appointed 
Vice-Chairman. He has occupied for 
a number of years the leading position 
at the bar in Queensland. In 1889, 
while in opposition, he introduced, and 
succeeded in passing, a codification of 
the law of defamation, and also passed 
through the Assembly an Eight Hours 
BUI, which, however, was defeated in 
the Legislative Council. In the follow- 
ing year, being still in opposition, he 

293 



introduced a Bill to declare the natural 
law relating to the acquisition and 
ownership of private property, the fun- 
damental principle of which is that the 
products of labour (whether of mind or 
body) belong of right to the persons 
who have contributed to their production 
(including the possession of the property 
to whioh the labour is applied) and be- 
long to them in proportion to the value of 
their respective contributions. He main- 
tains that this principle is the only alter- 
native to the rule that each man shall 
get and keep as much as he can from 
neighbour. This Bill, which was 



intended to be followed by another to 
define the procedure for assessing the 
value of the contributions of the several 
contributors to production, attracted 
some attention, but has not yet become 
law. On the whole Sir Samuel Griffith 
must be regarded as having occupied the 
premier position at the Federation Con- 
vention of 1891, the Commonwealth Bill 
being virtually drafted by him, though 
he received valuable assistance from 
Messrs. Barton, Deakin, Clark, and King- 
ston, and the measure was somewhat 
modified by the Convention sitting as a 
whole. Early in 1892 Sir Samuel Griffith 
astonished the world by announcing his 
conversion to the necessity of renewing 
the importation of Kanaka labour for the 
cultivation of the sugar plantations of 
Northern Queensland for a further period 
of ten years. He also announced the 
intention of the Government to encourage 
the construction of railways on the land 
grant system. In the former case his 
plea was that he could not allow the 
sugar interest to be ruined at the bidding 
of labour combinations which, whilst 
opposed to the importation of coloured 
labour, would not permit of the plantation 
work being done by white hands. As 
regarded the land grant railways, he 
justified his change of opinion on the 
ground that it was now impossible to 
borrow money on the English market for 
the construction of lines necessary for 
the development of the country. Mea- 
sures for the effectuation of the policy 
thus announced were carried in the 
session of 1892, and though there has 
been a huge outcry alike from pseudo- 
philanthropists and genuine enthusiasts 
against the renewal of the Kanaka labour 
traffic, Sir Samuel Griffith relies on the 

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strict enforcement of the more stringent 
regulations now enacted for the pre- 
vention of the evils which were prevalent 
prior to the revision of the system in 1884. 

Griffiths, George Samuel, F.G.8., 
F.R.G.S., is the son of Samuel Griffiths, 
the first white settler in the Elwood or 
Port Ormond district of Port Phillip. 
He was born on August 16th, 1847, in 
Demerara, and arrived in Victoria with 
his parents in 1851. Mr. Griffiths, who 
has been a member of the managing 
committee of the Melbourne Stock Ex- 
change, and of the Council of the Royal 
Society of Victoria, has taken a very 
active interest in the proposal to explore 
the Antarctic, and when the Royal 
Society of Victoria and the Geographical 
Society of Australasia decided to appoint 
a joint committee to promote the project, 
he was, with Professor Kernot and Mr. 
Ellery, chosen to represent the former 
Society. In 1878 Mr. Griffiths was married 
to the daughter of the late Mr. Atkinson, 
of the Western district 

Grimes, Eight Rev. John Joseph, D.D., 
first Roman Catholic Bishop of Christ- 
church, N.Z., is the son of Richard 
Grimes and Elizabeth his wife, and was 
born at Bromley, Kent, on Feb. 11th, 
1842. Having been ordained to the 
priesthood, Bishop Grimes was Professor 
of Belles Lettres and Rhetoric in St. 
Mary's College, Ireland, till 1873, and from 
that year till 1880 was Professor, Director, 
and President of Jefferson College, Louisi- 
ana, U.S. A., where he narrowly escaped 
death in the great yellow fever epidemic 
of 1878. From 1880 to 1887 Dr. Grimes 
was Rector of St. Mary's, Paignton, 
Devonshire, and President of the mis- 
sionary training college there. At Paign- 
ton Dr. Grimes built the first Catholic 
church erected there since the Reforma- 
tion. In May 1887 he was appointed by 
Pope Leo XIII. the first Catholic Bishop 
of Christchurch, being consecrated on 
July 26th of the same year. Bishop Grimes, 
whose diocese comprises the whole of the 
provinces of Canterbury and Westland, a 
portion of the province of Nelson, and the 
Chatham Islands, arrived in New Zealand 
to assume his episcopal functions at the 
end of 1887. 

Groom, William Henry, M.L.A., was born 

on March 9th, 1833, at Plymouth, and 

aceived his education at St. Andrew's 

chools, Jn 1357 he emigrated to 



Queensland, and settled at Toowoomba, 
where he became a storekeeper in 1858, 
and in 1860 first mayor of the newly 
made municipality, an office he held for 
three consecutive years. Mr. Groom was 
elected to represent Toowoomba in the 
Assembly in 1862, being re-elected the 
following year. In 1866, in consequence 
of the Bank of Queensland failure, he 
assigned his estate and retired from the 
Assembly, but was re-elected without 
opposition, banquetted, and presented 
with a purse of sovereigns, and has ever 
since continued to represent the con- 
stituency, being what is popularly 
known as ** Father of the House." On 
Nov. 7th, 1883, Mr. Groom, who had 
previously refused the chairmanship of 
committees offered him by Sir T. 
McHwraith, was elected Speaker of the 
Assembly, and held the position till the 
dissolution on April 4th, 1888. 

Gudgeon, Lieutenant Thomas Wayth, 
was for seven years employed in the 
Income and Property Tax Department 
of Somerset House. Having resigned his 
appointment, he came to New Zealand on 
Jan. 10th, 1860, settling in Taranaki, and 
afterwards in Wanganui. At the out- 
break of the Wanganui war he entered 
the Wanganui militia, and subsequently 
became lieutenant Mr. Gudgeon is the 
author of " Reminiscences of the War in 
New Zealand"; "The History and Doings 
of the Maoris from 1820 to the Signing 
of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840* 
(Brett, Auckland); "The Defenders of 
New Zealand" (Brett, Auckland, 1887> 
He died in Melbourne, Vict., in 1890. 

Guenett, Thomas Harbottle, is the son of 
Rev. John F. Guenett by his marriage 
with Elizabeth Harbottle, and was born 
at Fleetwood, Lancashire, on June 22nd, 
1850. Mr. Guenett was a pupil of Sir 
Charles Halle and Mr. Ebenexer Pront, 
and went to Australia for his health in 
1872, settling in Melbourne, where he was 
for several years President of the Musical 
Association of Victoria and one of the 
examiners for diplomas and certificates. 
He was also the founder of the Melbourne 
popular concerts (string quartette music), 
and, in addition to acting as musical critic 
of the Melbourne Argus and A%gtral<uugn t 
is one of the examiners for licences and 
certificates to teach music in the State 
schools of Victoria. Mr, Guenett rnarrietl 

204 



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DICTl6NAfcY Ofr AtJStftAtASlAM BIOGRAt>kV. 



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at Balmain, Sydney, on July 18th, 1874, 
Miss Ellen Geard. 

Guerard, Jean Eugene von, son of the 
Court Painter to the Emperor Francis I. 
of Austria, went to Italy with his father 
at an early age, and under his supervision 
studied the old Italian masters. After 
a period of residence at Dusseldorf, he 
came to Australia in 1853, and painted 
numerous Australian and New Zealand 
landscapes. In 1866 his picture of Mount 
Kosciusko was purchased for the Public 
Gallery of Victoria, of which, in June 
1870, he was appointed master and 
curator. 

Ouilfoyle, William Bobtrt, son of M. 
Guilfoyle, a botanist of repute, was born 
at Chelsea, London, in 1843, and went 
to New South Wales with his parents 
in 1853. In 1868 he accompanied the 
Challenger Expedition to the South Seas, 
and subsequently cultivated a sugar 
and tobacco estate In Queensland. In 
1873 he accented the appointment of 
Director of the M elbourne Botanic Gardens, 
a position he still holds. Mr. Guilfoyle 
has written several works on botanical 
subjects, and has contributed copiously to 
the scientific journals. 

Ghillett, Henry, the well-known Aus- 
tralian journalist, is the son of an old 
colonist in the Lancefield district of Vic- 
toria, and early embraced journalism as 
a profession. He is best known as the 
editor for many years of the Melbourne 
Australasian, a high-class weekly journal, 
published in connection with the daily 
Argus, in the conduct of which he suc- 
ceeded Mr. James Smith. Mr. Gullett, 
who is an admirable writer, imparted a 
high literary and critical tone to the 
paper, and placed it in the front rank of 
its class as a family political and sporting 
newspaper for the intelligent classes. In 
1885 he severed his connection with the 
Australasian and removed to Sydney, 
where he became a proprietor of the 
Daily Telegraph, editor of the weekly 
journal, the Tribune, published in connec- 
tion therewith, and a constant contri- 
butor to the leading columns of the 
former. In 1890 he resigned bis literary 
connection with the Daily Telegraph, 
and is now encaged as a leader-writer 
and assistant editor on the Sydney Morn- 
ing Herald. Mrs. G uUett has contributed 
largely to the journals with which her 



husband has been connected, mainly on 
topics of feminine interest. 

Chun, Bobert Campbell, F.B.S., F.L.S., 
son of William Gunn, of Caithness, Scot- 
land, lieutenant in the 93rd Highlanders, 
and Margaret his wife (nee Wilson), was 
born at the Cape of Good Hope April 4th, 
1 808. In 1829 he emigrated to Tasmania. 
He arrived at Hobart in Feb. 1830, and 
was at once appointed by Governor 
Arthur to a post in the Convict Depart- 
ment. He was appointed Superintendent 
of Convicts for tne Northern Division in 
1830, magistrate for the Territory in 
1833, police magistrate at Circular Head 
in 1836, assistant police magistrate at 
Hobart Town in 1838, private secretary 
to Governor Sir John Franklin and clerk 
to the Executive and Legislative Councils 
in 1839, and retired from the public 
service in 1841. In 1855 he was elected 
a member of the old Legislative Council 
for Launceston, and on the introduction 
of free institutions in 1856 he entered the 
House of Assembly, and sat for some 
years as member for the district of Selby. 
In 1860 he received the appointment of 
Deputy Commissioner of Crown Lands and 
Clerk of the Peace at Launceston, and in 
1865 that of Deputy Recorder of Titles at 
Launceston under the Real Property Act, 
holding the office until 1876, when he 
retired on a pension. In 1868 he was one 
of three commissioners appointed at the 
request of the New Zealand Government 
by the Governments of New South Wales, 
Victoria, and Tasmania, to decide on the 
most suitable site on Cook Straits for the 
capital, the commissioners unanimously 
making choice of Wellington. It was by 
his work as a naturalist that Mr. Gunn 
was best known. He was an able and 
enthusiastic botanist, and in bis botanical 
excursions, beginning in 1831, he rambled 
over nearly every part of the island, dis- 
covering many new species of plants, and 
adding largely to the knowledge of the 
flora of the colony. The results of his 
labours are recorded in Hooker's " Flora 
of Tasmania," and in many articles con- 
tributed by him to scientific journals. He 
was editor of the Tasmanian Journal of 
Natural Science (Hobart Town, 1842-9). 
He died at Newstead, Launceston, on 
March 13th, 1881. Mr. Gunn married 
first at Antigua, West Indies, in 1826, 
Eliza, daughter of James Ireland, lieu- 
tenant 93rd Highlanders; secondly, at 



205 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BtOGRAPttV. 



fitin] 

Glen Leitb, near New Norfolk, Tasmania, 
Margaret Legrand, only daughter of David 
Jamieson, of Glen Leith. 

CHinity Johannes Werner, M.D., was 
born at Amsterdam, Holland, May 31st, 
1826, and landed in Sydney, N.S.W., in 
May 1852. Shortly afterwards he com- 
menced practice as an allopathic physician, 
and was appointed analytical chemist to 
the Government of New South Wales. In 
1854 he visited New Caledonia, and claims 
to have been the first European who set 
foot there. His companions, nine in 
number were killed and eaten by the 
natives ; and Dr. GUnst only saved himself 
by hiding in the mountains till he was 
taken off by a passing vessel,' after 
several, months of exposure, danger, and 
suffering. After practising his profession, 
combined with sugar growing on the 
Clarence and Richmond rivers in New 
South Wales, he went with an exploration 
party to Madagascar, and on his return 
through Paris was decorated with the 
cross of the Legion of Honour. Having 
abandoned allopathy, he has practised as 
a homoeopathic physician in Melbourne 
for upwards of twenty years. 

Ctarner, Henry Field, sometime Crown 
solicitor of Victoria, was the second son of 
John Gurner, of Sydney, N.8.W., solicitor, 
who arrived in that colony in Feb. 1817 
as chief clerk of the Supreme Court, with 
Judge (Barron) Field, the friend of Charles 
Lamb. He was born in Sydney on March 
31st, 1819, and at the latter end of 1834 
became a clerk in the Supreme Court 
Office at Sydney. Having resigned that 
appointment, he was in March 1841 ad- 
mitted to practise as a solicitor in New 
South Wales. In 1841 he was appointed 
deputy registrar of the Supreme Court 
of New South Wales for the Port Phillip 
district, and accompanied Judge Willis 
to what is now Victoria. Mr. Gurner 



[SftA 



was the first person admitted as a solicitor 
in Melbourne; this was on May 9th, 1841, 
and in October of the same year he re- 
signed his appointment as deputy regis- 
trar, entering upon the active practice of 
his profession as an attorney in Melbourne. 
In Jan. 1842 he was appointed to the 
office of Crown solicitor and clerk of the 
peace at Port Phillip, and in Sept. 1842 
was made first town clerk of Melbourne, 
under the Act incorporating the town. 
In July 1851, upon the separation of 
Port Phillip from New South Wales, Mr. 
Gurner became Crown solicitor of the 
colony of Victoria, a post which he held 
for some twenty years. In 1841 he pub- 
lished the "Rules and Orders of the 
Supreme Court of New South Wales for 
the District of Port Phillip," in 1871 
the (< Practice of the Criminal Law of 
the Colony of Victoria,** and in 1876 
" Chronicles of Port Phillip." He died on 
April 17th, 1883. 

Gwynne, Edward Castres, was born at 
Lewes, in Sussex, in 1811, and having been 
called to the bar, practised his profession 
in England. He emigrated to South 
Australia in 1839, and was a nominee 
member of the mixed Legislative Council 
from 1861 to 1856. When responsible 
government was conceded he was elected 
to the new Legislative Council, in which 
he sat from 1856 to 1859. He held office 
as Attorney-General in the Baker Ministry 
from August to September 1867. In 
March 1869 he was appointed third judge 
of the Supreme Court of South Australia, 
and in 1867 second judge of the Supreme 
Court and primary judge in Equity, and 
was for some time Acting Chief Justice 
in 1869-70, retiring from the Bench on 
Feb. 28th, 1881 . He took a great interest 
in viticulture, and had one of the largest 
and best orangeries in the colonies at 
the Glynde, near Adelaide. He died on 
June 10th, 1888. 



Haast, Sir Jehn Francis Julius von, 
K.C.M.G., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
C.M.Z.S., son of Mathias Haas, in Bonn, 
Germany, was born on May 1st, 1824, 
and educated at the schools of Bonn and 
Cologne, and at the University of Bonn. 

t college he devoted himself to geolo- 



gical studies, and for some years resided 
in France. In 1858 he arrived in Auck- 
land, N.Z., and accompanied Dr. Hoch- 
stetter in his tour through the colony. 
Being employed by the authorities of 
Nelson to explore the western and 
southern parts of the province, he made 



206 



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DiCTlONAkY OF AUSTRALASIA** BIOGRAPHY. 



[Had 



many geological and topographical dis- 
coveries in that region, and a report of his 
explorations was printed by the Govern- 
ment In 1861 he was appointed Provin- 
cial Geologist of Canterbury, and made 
numerous scientific expeditions into the 
Unknown uplands and into Westland, the 
results being embodied afterwards in a 
volume on the geology of the provinces 
of Westland and Canterbury. In recog- 
nition of these services the Royal Univer- 
sity of Tubingen granted him the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy in 1862, and he 
was made a Fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1867. Dr. von Haast was instrumental 
in founding the Canterbury Museum in 
Christchurch, which has the reputation 
of being the finest in the southern hemi- 
sphere, and of which he was director 
down to the time of his death. In 1872 
he joined in founding the Canterbury 
Collegiate Union, from which sprang 
Canterbury College, in affiliation to the 
New Zealand University, of which he was 
a Fellow and a member of the Senate. 
From its foundation till his death Dr. 
von Haast was Professor of Geology and 
Palaeontology in Canterbury College. In 
1862 he founded the Philosophical Insti- 
tute of Canterbury. In 1884 he received 
the gold medal of the Royal Geographical 
Society, the first bestowed for exploration 
in New Zealand. In 1886 he went to 
England as Commissioner for New Zea- 
land at the Colonial and Indian Exhibi- 
tion, and in the same year was created 
K.C.M.G., having previously been C.M.G. 
He died after his return to New Zealand, 
on August 15th, 1887. Sir Julius von 
Haast married in 1863 Mary, daughter 
of Edward Dobson, C.E n M.I.E.C., of 
Christchurch, N.Z. (q.v.), who still sur- 
vives. 

Habeas, Bar. William James, B.A., In- 
spector-General of Schools, New Zealand, 
was born at Brighton in 1839, and 
educated at Puget School, in that town, 
and at Hackney College, London. In 1 862 
he graduated at the London University, 
and in Jan. 1864 went to New Zealand 
as minister of Trinity Congregational 
Church, Christchurch, a position which 
he held till July 1878. From Jan. 1877 
to May 1878 he was Secretary to the 
Canterbury Board of Education, and in 
April 1878 was appointed Inspector- 
General in the New Zealand Education 
Department. In 1879 to 1880 Mr. Habens 

207 



was a member of the Royal Commission 
to inquire into the operations of the New 
Zealand University and its relations to 
the secondary schools. He also acted as 
secretary to the commission, and in 1880 
was appointed a Fellow of the New 
Zealand University. Since 1886 he has 
performed the duties of Secretary for 
Education in addition to those of In- 
spector -General. 

Hack, John Barton, one of the pioneer 
colonists of South Australia, was the 
descendant of one William Hack, who 
died at Froyle, Hants, in 1699, and was 
the son of Stephen Hack, banker, of 
Chichester in Sussex, by his marriage 
with Iffaria Barton, sister of Bernard 
Barton, the Quaker poet and friend of 
Charles Lamb. Mrs. Hack was the author 
of •« Grecian Stories," * English Stories," 
and other works, which had a large circu- 
lation in their day. John Barton Hack 
was born at Chichester on July 2nd, 1805. 
Having decided to emigrate, he first went 
to the Cape, and thence to Tasmania, 
proceeding to South Australia in Feb. 
1837, three months after the colony was 
founded. From Tasmania he brought a 
considerable number of sheep and cattle 
in the ship Isabella, which he chartered 
for the purpose, and which was com- 
manded by Captain John Hart, after- 
wards several times premier of South 
Australia. There was great difficulty in 
securing suitable land For farming opera- 
tions, owing to the backward state of 
the Government surveys ; bat ultimately 
Mr. Hack took up a property at Mount 
Barker, most of his stock having in the 
meantime perished. Having considerable 
capital, he engaged in commercial pur- 
suits, and became probably the principal 
merchant in Adelaide. In the meantime 
he carried on his agricultural operations 
at Mount Barker, opened a dairy farm at 
Yankalilla, and associated himself with 
the South Australian Company in whale 
fisheries at Encounter Bay. The whaling 
was conducted under the supervision of 
Captain Hart, but involved Mr. Hack in 
heavy pecuniary losses. His ruin was 
completed in the financial crisis which 
resulted from the dishonour of Governor 
Gawler's drafts on the Home Government. 
Most of the business residents were in 
his debt, and he was mixed up in govern- 
ment contracts and transactions. Mr. 
Hack was the first colonist of South 



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Australia to take out special surveys of 
land — viz., at Little Para and the Three 
Brothers, near Echunga. He was one of 
the committee appointed to name the 
streets of Adelaide, and purchased sixty- 
four acres at the first Government sale 
of town lands, so that had he been able 
to retain his property he would have 
become one of the wealthiest men in 
Australia. As it was, he had to begin 
life over again, and was much handi- 
capped in the race. When the Burra 
mines were opened he started as a carrier 
between the capital and the mines, and 
then took the position of mercantile 
manager in a solicitor's office. In 1852 
he went to the Victorian diggings, and 
was fairly successful. Returning to Ade- 
laide, he embraced various employments, 
and then purchased a station on the 
Coorong, which also proved a failure. 
After further vicissitudes he was, in 1870, 
appointed accountant in the goods de- 
partment of the Government Railways. 
When the Goods and Traffic departments 
were amalgamated he became assistant 
accountant, later on accountant, and 
finally accountant and comptroller of 
all railway accounts. This position he 
held until his retirement, owing to fail- 
ing health, in June 1883. Mr. Hack 
married at Hardsbaw, Lancashire, on 
July 9th, 1829, Bridget, daughter of 
William Watson and Martha his wife, who 
died in 1881. He died at the Semaphore 
on Oct 4th, 1884. His brother, Stephen 
Hack, who shared his misfortunes, did 
some valuable exploring work under the 
South Australian Government. One of 
Mr. J. B. Hack's sons, Mr. Theodore Hack, 
was elected a member of the Legislative 
Assembly in 1890 ; and a granddaughter, 
Miss Guli Hack, daughter of his son, 
Charles, was the winner of the Elder 
Scholarship to the Royal College of 
Music, where she greatly distinguished 
herself. 

Haokett, Hon. John Winthrop, M.L.C., 
was called to the Irish bar in Nov. 1874, 
and to that of Victoria in March 1876. 
He was Sub-Warden of Trinity College, 
Melbourne, and entered into the political 
controversies of the day as a strong 
Liberal on the land question, contesting 
Handridge in that interest against Dr. 
Madden. Removing to Western Aus- 
tralia he became part-proprietor of the 



When responsible government was con- 
ceded, at the end of 1890, he was 
nominated a member of the new Legis- 
lative Council, and one of the Western 
Australian delegates at the Federation 
Convention in Sydney, in 1891. 

Haddon, Frederick William, editor of 
the Melbourne Argus, was born on 
Feb 8th, 1839, at Croydon, Surrey, and 
educated at private schools. He was 
for some time simultaneously Assistant- 
Secretary of the Statistical 8ociety of 
London, and of the Institute of Actuaries 
of Great Britain and Ireland. He also 
assisted to edit the Journal of the 
Statistical Society, and wrote on statis- 
tical subjects in several London journals. 
Leaving England at the age of twenty- 
four, he arrived in Victoria in Dec. 
1863; under engagement to the proprietors 
of the Argus, of which he was first a 
contributor and afterwards sub-editor. 
He was appointed editor of the Austra- 
lasian early in 1865, and editor of the 
Argus, a position which he still holds. 
On Jan. 1st, 1867, Mr. Haddon visited 
India, the continent of Europe, and 
England in 1874, returning to Australia 
by way of America. He revisited England 
in 1879 on account of ill-bealtb, and 
was requested to informally champion 
the views of the Victorian Constitutional 
party in influential quarters at home, in 
opposition to the Berry embassy, which 
was then in London. In pursuance of 
this object, he interviewed nearly all the 
leading British statesmen and metro- 
politan editors, wrote letters to the 
Times and other journals, and published a 
pamphlet giving a history of the Consti- 
tutional difficulty in Victoria, which was 
laid before the British Cabinet and sent 
to every member of both Houses of 
Parliament, and the editor of every 
political newspaper in Great Britain. 
Mr. Haddon returned to Victoria after 
the conclusion of the embassy, in 1879. 
He has been twice married. 

Hadfield, Bight *•▼. Ottavius, Bishop of 
Wellington and Primate of New Zealand, 
son of Joseph Hadfield, of Bonchurch, Isle 
of Wight, was born in 1816, and matri- 
culated at Pembroke College, Oxford, 
on Feb. 19th, 1832, but was obliged to 
leave the University because of ill-health. 
He proceeded to Australia, and while in 
deacon's orders accompanied the Bishop 



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208 



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DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Hal 



in 1838 in H.M.S. Pelorut. Upon the 
application of Banparaha for a mission- 
ary to be sent to Otaki, in Cook Straits, 
Mr. Hadfield volunteered. He was 
accordingly admitted to priest's orders 
by the Bishop, and sailed with Rev. 
Henry Williams to Port Nicholson. Here 
he settled and laboured for many years. 
In 1843, after the slaughter of Captain 
Wakefield and others by Rauparaha, at 
Wairau, that chief roused his tribe to 
arms to prevent the enslaving of the 
Maori race, and had it not been for the 
intervention of Mr. Hadfield and Te 
Rangitake, the Ngatitoa would have 
descended upon the new settlement of 
Wellington. Later in 1859-60 he pro- 
tested against the treatment of Te Ban- 
gitake by the Government over the 
Waitara affair, and in April 1860 sent a 
petition, signed at Otaki by the Maoris, 
praying for the removal of Governor 
Browne on account of the seizure of 
Waitara. This he was accused of having 
inspired, bat was able to show that it 
was spontaneous on the part of the 
natives. Mr. Hadfield, who was appointed 
by Bishop Selwyn Archdeacon of Kapiti, 
remained at Otaki from 1839 to 1865. 
When the Hauhau fanaticism broke out, 
and the missionary Volkner was mur- 
dered, he stood to his post at the immi- 
nent risk of his life, declaring that he 
was ready to lay his bones where he had 
so long laboured. Archdeacon Hadfield 
was commissary to Bishop Selwyn for 
ten years, and was subsequently com- 
missary to the first Bishop (Abraham) 
of Wellington. In Oct 1870, upon the 
resignation of Bishop Abraham, he was 
appointed to succeed him, the election 
being by the colonial episcopate without 
the Queen's mandate. In 1889, when the 
Bishop (Harper) of Christchurch, who 
was also Primate of New Zealand, re- 
tired, Bishop Hadfield was elected to 
the primacy. As there was considerable 
doubt as to the proper constitution of 
the electing body, the validity of the 
election was disputed, and Bishop Suter, 
of Kelson, was nominated by the dis- 
sentient party. In the end, however, 
the claims of Bishop Hadfield were 
acknowledged. 

Hairnet, Hen. William Clarke, M.I*A., 
first Premier of Viotoria, was born in 
England in 1807, and educated for the 
medical profession. After practising as 

209 



a surgeon he emigrated to Viotoria in 
1848. Three years later, when that oolony 
was separated from New South Wales, 
he was nominated a non-official member 
of the semi-elective Legislative Council 
then formed. In 1864, when Mr. Foster 
was sacrificed by Governor Hotham in 
the hope of propitiating popular favour, 
Mr. Haines, who had farmed unsuccess- 
fully near Geelong, was appointed to 
succeed him as Chief Secretary, and held 
that position until responsible govern- 
ment was conceded, when he and his col- 
leagues resigned their posts, with a view, 
as was alleged, of securing the pensions 
allotted to them under the Constitution 
Act, in case of their being released from 
office on political grounds. For this con- 
duct they only escaped censure in the 
Council by a single vote. In Dec. 1865 
the Haines Government, who had been 
reappointed in the previous month to 
their former places, as the first respon- 
sible ministry, were defeated on Mr. 
Nicholson's ballot resolution, and resigned 
office. Mr. Nicholson not, however, being 
in a position to form a government, Mr. 
Haines and his colleagues were recalled, 
and remained in power until March 1867, 
when they were defeated on a vote of 
want of confidence, and Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) John O'Shanassy formed a ministry, 
which only, however, lasted seven weeks, 
a motion censuring their conduct in not' 
having a representative in the Upper 
House being carried against them on the 
first night on which they met Parliament. 
Mr. Haines, who in the previous year had 
been returned to the first Legislative 
Assembly for South Grant, once more 
resumed the premiership with the office 
of Chief Secretary, but was again de- 
feated, and succeeded by Mr. O'Shanassy 
in March 1868. He then paid a visit of 
three years to Europe, and on his return, 
in 1861, was elected to the Assembly for 
Portland. In the same year he took office 
under his old opponent Mr. O'Shanassy, 
and acted as Treasurer from Nov. 1861 
to June 1868. Although he carried the 
measure granting universal suffrage, Mr. 
Haines was in many respects a Con- 
servative, opposing the ballot, and com- 
bining with Sir John O'Shanassy in the 
attempt to strangle the national system 
of state education. He died in 1864. 

Hale, Bight Bey. Matthew Blagden, 
D.D., late Bishop of Brisbane, descends 



Digitized by 



Go<sgk 



Hal] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Hal 



from the family of the celebrated 8ir 
Matthew Hale, and is the third son of 
the late Robert H. Blagden Hale of 
Alderley, Gloucestershire, and Cottles 
House, Wilts, by his marriage with Lady 
Theodosia Bourke, daughter of the 3rd 
Earl of Mayo. He was born in 1811 at 
Alderley, and educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1835 and M.A. in 1838. Having 
been successively curate of Tresham and 
Wotton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire, 
he was in 1839 appointed to the incum- 
bency of Stroud in the same county. 
The next year he married Sophia, daugh- 
ter of George Clode, of London, on whose 
death in 1845 he resigned Stroud, and 
was subsequently rector of Alderley, 
and then of Atworth and Wrazall in 
Wilts. In 1847 he met the late Bishop 
Short of Adelaide at a friend's house, and 
the latter persuaded him to go out to 
South Australia as his archdeacon. They 
went out in the same ship, and landed 
at Adelaide in Dec. 1847. The next year 
Archdeacon Hale accompanied the bishop 
on a visit to Western Australia, which at 
that time was included in the diocese of 
Adelaide. Here he married Sabina, 
eldest daughter of Lieut.-Colonel Molloy, 
an old Peninsular and Waterloo officer. 
In 1850 the archdeacon established the 
well-known aboriginal mission station 
at Poonindie, near Port Lincoln, S.A., 
and acted as its superintendent till 
1856, when he resigned the arch- 
deaconry of Adelaide on his being ap- 
pointed first bishop of the newly 
constituted see of Perth, W.A. After 
paying a second visit of some months to 
Western Australia, Bishop Hale pro- 
ceeded to England, and was consecrated 
in the chapel of Lambeth Palace on 
July 25th, 1857. He administered the 
diocese of Perth till 1875 ; when, on the 
unanimous nomination of the bishops of 
Australia and Tasmania, he was trans- 
lated to the bishopric of Brisbane, Qd. 9 
rendered vacant by the retirement of 
Dr. Tuffnell. In March 1885 Bishop Hale 
resigned the latter see, and returned to 
England, where he officiated for some 
time as rector of Osleworth, Gloucester- 
shire. He has latterly resided at Chelten- 



HaU, Edward fwarbreek, was born in 
England in 1804. Having entered the 
medical profession, he emigrated to Tas- 



mania in 1833, and was appointed a 
medical officer under the Government, 
and subsequently house surgeon to the 
Hobart Hospital, which office he resigned 
in 1855 for private practice. He was 
active in philanthropic work, and es- 
pecially exerted himself on behalf of 
the children in the Queen's Orphan 
Asylum and the inmates of the Govern- 
ment charitable institutions. In 1881 
he was presented with a public testi- 
monial from the citizens of Hobart in 
recognition of his services. In 1875 he 
was appointed Health Officer for Hobart. 
For twenty-five years he compiled and 
published the vital statistics of the 
colony. He is author of "Who Trans- 
lated the Bible?" (Hobart, 1876), a work 
showing the part taken in the translation 
and dissemination of the Scriptures by 
the Roman Catholic Church, of which he 
was a member. He died at Hobart 
July 30th, 1881. 

Hall, Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G„ M.H.R., 
formerly Premier of New Zealand, son of 
George Hall, of EUoughton, near Hull, 
was born at Hull on Pec. 18th, 1824, and 
educated on the Continent. In 1840-43 
he was in a merchant's office, and subse- 
quently became private secretary to the 
Secretary of the General Post Office. In 
1852 he went out to Lyttelton, N.Z., and 
settled as a sheep farmer in Canterbury. 
Mr. Hall soon went into public life, 
entering the Canterbury Provincial Coun- 
cil in 1853, and in 1855 becoming Pro- 
vincial Secretary, and in 1864 Secretary 
of Public Works. Until the abolition 
of provincial government Mr. Hall was 
thoroughly identified with Canterbury. 
In 1856 he was Resident Magistrate 
for Lyttelton, and Sheriff and Com- 
missioner of Police, and in 1858 was 
appointed Resident Magistrate for Christ- 
church. In 1855 he was elected to 
represent Christohurch in the House of 
Representatives, and held office as 
Colonial Secretary in the Fox Ministry 
from May 20th to June 2nd, 1856. In 
1862, after his return from a visit to 
England, he was nominated to the Legis- 
lative Council ; but, resigning his seat in 
1866, was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives for Heathcote, and took office 
in the Stafford Administration as member 
of the Executive Council (August 24th, 
1866, to June 28th, 1869), Postmaster- 
General (August 24th, 1866, to Feb. oth, 



210 



Digitized by 



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Hal] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Ham 



1869), and Electric Telegraph Commis- 
sioner (Oct. 16th, 1866, to Feb. 5th, 1869). 
In 1867 he attended the Intercolonial 
Conference on Ocean Postal Communica- 
tion in Melbourne. In 1872 he was once 
more called to the Legislative Council, 
and was a member of the Executive 
Council in the Fox-Vogel Ministry from 
July 20th to Sept. 10th, 1872. After the 
defeat of the Stafford Government, Mr. 
Hall was Colonial Secretary in the Water- 
house Cabinet from Oct. 11th, 1872, to 
March 3rd, 1873. Subsequently Mr. Hall 
was a member of the Executive Council 
in Mr. Atkinson's first Ministry, from 
Sept 1st, 1876, to Sept 13th. In 1879 
Sir George Grey was defeated on an 
amendment by Sir William Fox, and 
appealed to the country. Mr. Hall at 
this juncture once more resigned his seat 
in the Upper House despite Sir George 
Grey's opposition, and was elected to the 
House or Representatives for Selwyn. 
When Parliament met in Oct. 1879 the 
Grey Government was defeated by two 
votes, and Mr. Hall was called upon to 
form a ministry, Oct. 8th. He remained 
Premier till April 21st, 1882, when he 
was obliged by ill-health to retire, and 
was succeeded by Sir Frederick Whi taker. 
During his term of office the Triennial 
Parliaments Bill and the Universal 
Suffrage Bill were passed; also the 
much-debated Maori Prisoners Bill and 
the Maori Prisoners Detention Bill, which 
were intended to meet the Te Whiti 
difficulty. Subsequently the Government 
despatched troops to Parihaka, and 
arrested Te Whiti. Sir John Hall has 
filled numerous local offices, having been 
Chairman of the Westland and Selwyn 
County Councils, and of the first Christ- 
church Municipal Council. He has also 
been a prominent member of the Anglican 
community in New Zealand. He was 
created K.C.M.G. in 1882. He married 
in 1861 Bose Anne, daughter of William 
Pryden, of Hull. 

Halloran, Henry, C.M.G., son of the 
lata Bev. L. H. Halloran, was born at 
Capetown, where his father was Chaplain 
to the Forces, in 181 1. He came with the 
latter to New South Wales, and, entering 
the Civil Servioe of that colony, in 1828 
became principal Under-Secretary in 
1866. This post he held till 1878, when 
be retired on a pension and was created 
C.M.G. Mr. Halloran, who married, in 



1841, Elizabeth Henrietta, daughter of 
Joseph Underwood, of Ashfield Park, 
Sydney, was a lieutenant of Volunteer 
Cavalry and Mounted Rifles from 1864 to 
1864, and has been a J.P. of New Sootn 
Wales since 1867. He has been a con- 
tributor to the press, principally in verse, 
and has published a volume entitled 
" Poems, Odes, Songs •» (1887). 

Ham, Hon. Cornelius Job, M.L.C., is the 
youngest son of Bev. John Ham, and was 
born at Birmingham on Jan. 13th, 1837, 
going to Port Phillip five years later with 
his father, who was the first pastor of 
Collins Street Baptist Chapel, Melbourne. 
Mr. Ham, whose eldest brother, Jabes, was 
one of the first editors of the Melbourne 
Age, started business as aland and estate 
agent in that city in 1865, and was Mayor 
of Melbourne in 1881-2. In Nov. 1882 he 
stood for a seat in the Legislative Council 
of Victoria in opposition to the late Dr. 
Beaney and Mr. George Coppin, and was 
triumphantly returned, being re-elected 
in 1886. Mr. Bam accepted a seat in the 
Munro Ministry without portfolio in Nov* 
1890, and was sworn of the Executive 
Council. Twelve months later he re 
signed office after voting against the 
Government Bill establishing the one 
man one vote principle, but resumed 
office on the measure being abandoned. 
In Feb. 1892, however, when the Ministry 
was reconstructed under Mr. Shiels, he 
left the Cabinet. He married in 1868 
Hattie, daughter of John Latham, of 
West Virginia, U.S.A., formerly United 
States Consul-General in Melbourne. 

Hamilton, Edward Angus, was member 
for light in the Legislative Assembly of 
South Australia from April 1870 to July 
1871, when he resigned. He was Trea- 
surer for a few days in May 1870, in Mr, 
8trangway8' reconstructed Government* 
Mr. Hamilton was formerly colonial 
architect of South Australia, and is now 
believed to be residingin America. 

Hamilton, Edward William Terries, is 
the second son of Anthony Hamilton, 
Archdeacon of Taunton and Rector of 
Loughton. Essex, by Charity Graeme, his 
wife, third daughter of Sir Walter Farqn- 
har, Bart. He is the younger brother of 
the late Bishop of Salisbury, and was 
born in 1809. He was educated at Eton, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge (of which 
he was Fellow), B.A. (Fifth Wrangler) in 
1832, and M.A. in 1835. He was M.P. 



211 



o 



Hast] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Hut 



for Salisbury from 1866 to 1869. Mr. 
Hamilton resided in New South Wales 
from 1839 to 1855. In 1844 he married 
Ann Catherine, second daughter of John 
Thacker, of the Sydney firm of Thacker, 
Daniel & Go. On Jan. 20th, 1863, Mr. 
Hamilton was appointed parliamentary 
agent in England for the colony of New 
South Wales. Mr. Hamilton, on his re- 
turn to England, took up his residence 
at Charteris, Sunninghill, Yorks, of 
which county he is J. P. and D.L. 

Hamilton, George, arrived in Adelaide, 
S.A., on Oct. 1st, 1829, with cattle from 
Port Phillip (now Victoria), and in 1848 
was appointed second clerk in the 
Colonial Treasury, afterwards under- 
taking the management of the Bullion 
Office. In 1853 he entered the police 
force, and was appointed Commissioner 
in 1867. This post he held till 1882, 
when he retired. He was the originator 
of the Adelaide Club, and died on August 
3rd, 1883. 

Hamilton! Sir Robert George Crook- 
shank, K.C.B., M.A., LL.D., Governor of 
Tasmania, is a son of the late Rev. 
Zachary Macaulay Hamilton, D.D., 
minister of Bressay, Shetland, N.B M and 
grandson of Rev. Gavin Hamilton, of 
Hoy, Orkney, and Helen (Macaulay), his 
wife, aunt of Lord Macaulay. He was 
born in Shetland in 1836, and edu- 
cated at Aberdeen University, where he 
graduated M.A. in 1857, receiving the 
LL.D. degree in 1885. He entered the 
Civil Service as a temporary clerk in 
the War Office in 1855, and the same 
year was attached to the Commissariat 
Department in the Crimea. On his 
return, in 1857, he was employed in the 
Office of Works, and subsequently in 
the Education Department, where he was 
accountant from 1861 to 1869. He was 
accountant to the Board of Trade from 
1869 to 1872, assistant secretary from 
1872 to 1878, secretary to the Civil 
Service Inquiry Commission from 1874 to 
1875, and accountant-general of the 
Navy from 1878 to 1882. In May of 
the latter year Lord North brook appointed 
him Under-Secretary to the Admiralty; 
but he had scarcely entered upon his 
duties, when he was called on to take 
the place of the murdered Mr. Burke, as 
Acting Under-Secretary for Ireland, which 
position he retained until April 1883, when 
he was made Under-Secretary, retaining 



the position till Nov. 1886, when he was 
appointed Governor of Tasmania. 8ir 
Robert Hamilton, who was made K.C.B. 
in 1884, had, as a result of his official 
experiences, become a convert to Home 
Rule, and it was felt to be an anomaly 
that he should continue in office under 
a Unionist Administration. Henoe his 
transfer to the Colonial Service. Sir 
Robert at different times took a leading 
part in the reorganisation of various de- 
partments of the English Civil Service, 
and in 1879 served on the Royal Com- 
mission to inquire into the condition of 
colonial defences. He married first, in 
1863, Caroline, daughter of Frederick A. 
Geary (who died in 1875) ; and secondly, 
in 1877, Teresa Felicia, daughter of Ifajor 
Reynolds, 57th Regiment, who long re- 
sided at HobartviUe, Richmond, N.8.W. 
He was appointed Governor of Tasmania 
in Dec. 1886, and entered on the duties 
of his office in March 1887. Sir Robert 
was one of the patrons of the Melbourne 
Centennial Exhibition in 1888. 

Hamilton, Boy. B., M.A., D.D., arrived 
in Victoria from Scotland in 1851, and 
almost immediately took up the pastorate 
of the Fitsroy Presbyterian Church, which 
position he held until 1883, when he re- 
tired from active ministry. Dr. Hamilton 
was well known as an advocate of the 
Second Advent doctrine, upon which sub- 
ject he wrote and published several books, 
but he was best known amongst Presby- 
terians for his " History of the Presby- 
terian Church of Victoria," and for this 
he received the degree of D.D. The wel- 
fare of the aborigines occupied a promi- 
nent place in his thoughts, and many 
years ago he selected a tract of land at 
Healesville which he dedicated to their 
benefit. He died in 1891, at the age of 
seventy-eight. 

HamUy,jfajor-0eneral Franeis Gilbert, 
eldest son of the late Joseph Hainley, 
was born in 1815, and entered the army 
as ensign 12th Foot in 1835. He 
was senior officer in command of the 
Imperial troops in the colony of South 
Australia on the death of Governor Sir 
Dominic Daly, on Feb. 19th, 1868. The 
next day he was sworn in as Admini- 
strator of the Government of the Colony, 
and remained Chief of the Executive till 
the arrival of Sir James Fergusson on 
Feb. 15th, 1869. He was then only 
lieut-colonel. General Hamley died in 



212 



o 



Sain] 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Han 



London on Jan. 12tb, 1876, at the age of 
fifty-six. 

Hampton, John Stephen, sometime 
Governor, Western Australia, was in the 
Medical Department of the Royal Navy, 
and came out to Van Piemen's Land in 
1843, in the convict ship Constant, of 
which he was surgeon-superintendent. 
On arrival be took part with the oppo- 
nents of Governor Sir John Eardley 
Wilmot He was appointed Comptroller- 
General of Convicts in Van Diemen's 
Land in succession to Captain Forster, 
and was subsequently censured, with 
other officials, by the local executive for 
having derived profit from the labours of 
prisoners through utilising some trifling 
articles of convict manufacture. On the 
Legislative Council in 1865 appointing 
a select committee to inquire into the 
administration of the Convict Depart- 
ment, Mr. Hampton refused to appear 
before it, and the Governor, Sir Henry 
Young, declined to order his attendance, 
on the ground that the penal establish- 
ments were under Imperial control. The 
Council declared him " in contempt," and 
ordered the serjeant-at-arms to arrest 
him. Mr. Hampton threatened to resist 
forcibly, but ultimately allowed the war- 
rant to be executed, on Sept. 15th. A 
writ of habeas corpus was taken out, but 
the Council still insisted that Hampton 
should' appear at their bar, which he de- 
clined to do. The Governor thereupon 
prorogued the Council, with the result 
that the Speaker's warrant lapsed, and 
the Supreme Court in the meantime de- 
cided that the proceedings against Hamp- 
ton were illegal, and that the Council 
had erred in assuming general parlia- 
mentary privilege. Mr. Hampton, having 
obtained leave of absence, visited Sydney, 
and went thence to England, the Court 
of Appeal affirming, in Feb. 1858, the 
judgment in his favour delivered by the 
Tasmanian Court. Mr. Hampton was 
favourably received by the Colonial 
Office, and in 1862 (Feb. 27th) was 
appointed Governor of Western Australia, 
the only one of the Australian colonies to 
which transportation was still permitted. 
Mr. Hampton quitted the government in 
Nov. 1868, and transportation was sus- 
pended the same year. He died on Dec. 
1st, 1869. 

Handyside, Hon. Andrew Dodds, M.P., 
Commissioner of Public Works, South 



Australia, has represented the Albert 
district in the Legislative Assembly of 
that colony since 1887. In June 1892 be 
accepted the post of Commissioner of 
Public Works in the Holder Government. 
Hannafbrd, Samuel, son of Samuel H. 
Hannaford, was born at Totnes, Devon- 
shire, in 1828. In 1851 he published 
" Catalogue of Flowering Plants and 
Ferns in the Neighbourhood of Totnes." 
In 1853 he emigrated to Melbourne. 
While resident in Victoria he was a 
frequent contributor of scientific articles 
to the press, and for a time edited the 
Victorian Agricultural and Horticultural 
Oautte. He also published "Jottings 
in Australasia; or, Notes on the Flora 
and Fauna of Victoria " U856), and «• Sea 
and Riverside Rambles. Removing to 
Tasmania, he became editor of The Laun- 
ceston Timet, and, as the result of his 
work in the botany of the colony, printed 
" The Wild Flowers of Tasmania* ^Mel- 
bourne, 1866). In 1870 he was appointed 
Librarian of the Tasmanian Public Li- 
brary at Hobart. He died at Hobart 
Jan. 3rd, 1874. 

Hannam, Willoughby, M.I.C.E., was 
apprenticed to M. Du Bays, C.E., of 
Reading, England; and was assistant 
surveyor of the Melbourne and River 
Murray Railway, Vict., in 1860; en- 
gineer of the Moreton Bay Tramway 
Company, Brisbane, from 1861 to 1863; 
district engineer (southern district) 
Queensland Government railways from 
1863 to 1868 ; contractor's engineer on 
same from 1868 to 1872; district en- 
gineer and in charge of surveys (central 
division) of Queensland railways from 
1872 to 1885, in which year he was 
appointed chief engineer of the northern 
division. In July 1889 he was reap- 
pointed engineer in charge of surveys, 
and left the service in October of the 
same year. 

Hannay, W. M., was for ten years in the 
employment of the Glasgow and South- 
western Railway, and entered the New 
Zealand Government railway service in 
May 1876. He was appointed assistant 
traffic manager in June 1878, traffic 
manager in 1879, and assistant general 
manager in 1880. In 1890 Mr. Hannay 
was appointed one of the Railway Com- 
missioners of the colony. 

Hanson, Hon. Sir Richard Davies, 
sometime Chief Justice of South Aus. 



213 



o 



Han] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Han 



trails, was the second son of B. Hanson, 
and was born in St. Botolph's Lane, 
London, where his father was a fruit 
merchant and importer, on Dec. 6th, 
1805. He was educated at a private 
school at Melbourne, in Cambridgeshire, 
and was admitted an attorney and soli- 
citor in London in 1828. From 1830 to 
1834 he co-operated with Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) George Kingston, Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) John Morphett, Mr. John Brown, and 
others, in promoting Mr. Wakefield's 
scheme for the colonisation of South 
Australia, and addressed meetings in 
its favour, until legislative sanction 
was at last given in the latter year. 
He contributed to the Globe and 
Morning Chronicle, and was appointed 
by Lord Durham Assistant Commis- 
sioner to inquire into Crown Lands and 
Immigration in Canada. In this capacity 
he accompanied Lord Durham to that 
colony, and conducted an investigation, 
the results of which were subsequently 
embodied in a report signed by the 
late Charles Boiler, as head of the Com- 
mission, and laid before Parliament. On 
the death of Lord Durham, to whom he 
had acted as private secretary, in 1840, Mr. 
Hanson went with the first contingent 
of settlers to Port Nicholson (Welling- 
ton), N.Z., where he was one of the 
council appointed by the colonists to con- 
trol the administration of justice in the 
infant community. British sovereignty 
was subsequently formally proclaimed, 
and at the end of 1841 Mr. Hanson was 
appointed Crown Prosecutor at Welling- 
ton. He also edited the New Zealand 
Colonist. Five years later he resigned 
that post, and settled in South Aus- 
tralia, where he practised at the Adelaide 
bar. In 1851 he was returned to the 
partially elective Legislative Council 
for Yatala; but before he could take 
his seat he was appointed Advocate- 
General, and thus became an official 
member of the Council. In Oct. 1856 
he was appointed Attorney-General, 
and held the post under responsible 
government till August 1857. In March 
of that year he was returned to the 
Assembly for the city of Adelaide, and 
held the seat till his appointment to the 
bench in Nov. 1861. In Sept. 1857 Mr. 
Hanson became Premier of South Aus- 
tralia, with the portfolio of Attorney- 
General, and held office till May 1860. 



When Sir Charles Cooper, the first Chief 
Justice of the colony, retired in the next 
year, Mr. Hanson was appointed his 
successor. In 1869 he revisited England, 
and was knighted by the Queen in July. 
From Dec. 1872 to June 1873 he adminis- 
tered the government from the departure 
of Sir James Fergusson to the arrival of 
Sir Anthony Musgrave. In the following 
year, when the University of Adelaide 
was constituted, he was elected the first 
Chancellor, and held the office until his 
death on March 4th, 1876. Trained in 
Nonconformity (it being asserted that he 
was a pupil of the late Thomas Binney), 
Sir Richard was thoroughly in accord 
with the principles of civil and religions 
freedom which inspired the founders of 
South Australia, and only accepted the 
position of Advocate-General in 1861 on 
the understanding that he was permitted 
complete liberty of action in regard to 
the vexed question of State aid to religion. 
Voting against his official colleagues, he 
formed one of the triumphant majority 
which put an end to the grant in South 
Australia. In 1852 he passed the District 
Councils Act, which formed the basis of 
all subsequent measures of local self- 
government in the colony. He also 
carried the first act adopted in the Aus- 
tralian colonies for legalising marriage 
with a deceased wife's sister, and in- 
troduced the measure, since copied in 
England and the other colonies, abolish- 
ing the public execution of criminals. 
He at first opposed the Torrens Real 
Property Act, but directly the principle 
had been affirmed by the South Aus- 
tralian Legislature he exerted his utmost 
endeavours to effectuate its operation. 
It should have been premised that Sir 
Richard took a prominent part in the 
agitation for securing responsible govern- 
ment for 8outh Australia, and drafted 
the act under which it was granted in 
1856. He was the author of " Law in 
Nature, and other Papers read before the 
Adelaide Philosophical Society" (1865), 
"The Jesus of History " (Williams k 
Norgate, 1869), "Letters to and from 
Borne" (Williams k Norgate, 1869), and 
and *' The Apostle Paul and the Preaching 
of Christianity in the Primitive Church " 
(1875). In all of these works the criti- 
cisms of modern rationalism were ap- 
plied to the miraculous narratives of the 
Biblical writers. 
214 



Bar] 



DICTIONARY OP AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Hareus, William, J.?., was a native 
of England, and brought up to the 
ministry of the Independent Chnrch. 
He emigrated to South Australia in 
1866, and occupied the pulpit of Clayton 
Church, Norwood, in that colony; but 
soon left the ministry to join the staff of 
the South Australian Register. Subse- 
quently he became editor of the Adver* 
User— a position which he held till his 
death. He was commissioned by the 
Government to compile an account of 
the colony, which was published by 
Messrs. Sampson Low & Co., under the 
title M 8outh Australia: its History, Be- 
sources and Productions.** He died on 
August 10th, 1886, at the age of fifty-six. 

Harding, Horn. Cteorge Sogers, Puisne 
Judge, Queensland, is the only son of the 
late Rev. George Rogers Harding, LUB., 
vicar of St. Anne's, Wandsworth, Surrey, 
by Elisabeth, daughter of P. Winter, 
of Bishop's Lydeard, Somerset, and was 
born on Dec. 3rd, 1838, at Ash Priors, 
Somerset. He was educated at Magdalen 
College, Cambridge, but did not graduate. 
He entered at Lincoln's Inn on June 1st, 
1858, and was called to the bar on April 
30th, 1861. He married, on May 7th, 
1861, Bmily, fourth daughter of Thomas 
Morris, of Stone House, Worcester; and 
secondly, at Brisbane, on Deo. 23rd, 1889, 
Miss Isabella 8. Grahame. He emigrated 
to Brisbane in 1866, and was admitted to 
the Queensland bar the same year. He 
was appointed a commissioner under the 
Civil Procedure Reform Act of 1872, and 
senior Puisne Judge of Queensland in 
1879. He was Acting Chief Justice in 
the absence of Sir Charles Lilley, 1883-4. 
Judge Harding visited England in 1890. 
He is author of treatises on the Acts and 
Orders of the Supreme Court of Queens- 
land, Civil side, ditto Crown side, the 
Insolvency Act with notes, joint stock 
companies, and ecclesiastical law. He 
was one of the delegates of New Zealand 
to the Federation Conference held in 
Melbourne in 1890. 

Hardman, Edward Townley, F.R.G.S.I., 
sometime Government Geologist of West 
Australia, was engaged on her Majesty's 
Geological Survey in Ireland, and became 
an Associate of the Royal College of 
Science in Dublin. He emigrated to 
West Australia, and was Government 
Geologist of that colony from 1882 to 
1884, when he returned to Ireland, where 



[Hat 

be died on April 30th, 1887, at the age of 
forty-two. Mr. Hardman was attached 
to Kimberley (Western Australia) Survey 
Expedition in 1884, and furnished a 
valuable report of the expedition, illus- 
trated with numerous sketches. 

Hare, Charles Simeon, was born in 
America in 1808, and arrived in South 
Australia in Sept. 1836, with 8ir John 
Morphett, to whom he acted as private 
secretary, and was subsequently em- 
ployed by the South Australian Company. 
He was a vigorous opponent of State 
aid to religion and transportation, and 
sat in the Mixed Legislative Council for 
West Torrens from July 1861 to June 
1854, when he resigned. In Jan. 1866 he 
was appointed a Commissioner for effec- 
tuating the wishes of Parliament in rela- 
tion to the Adelaide and Gawler Railway 
BilL In March 1857 he was elected to 
the first Legislative Assembly for Yatala, 
but resigned in the following May, on 
being appointed Superintendent of the 
Stockade. Mr. Hare became Manager of 
Railways in succession to Mr. Drake, in 
July 1860, but was removed from office 
in May 1865, in consequence of an acci- 
dent to a train carrying the Governor and 
Ministry, for which a Commission of 
Inquiry held him culpable. After an ex- 
perience of several years as a planter in 
Fiji, Mr. Hare returned to 8outh Aus- 
tralia and managed a mine near Moonta. 
In 1875 he was an unsuccessful candidate 
for the representation of the latter dis- 
trict in the Assembly, his defeat being 
due to his opposition to the men's de- 
mands during the great Moonta strike, in 
1874. Mr. Hare met with better success 
in 1878, and represented the district till 
1880, when he resigned and revisited 
England, returning to South Australia in 
the following year. He died on July 
22nd, 1882. 

Hargrave, His Honour the Hon. John 
Fletcher, M.A., sometime Puisne Judge, 
New South Wales, was the eldest son of 
Joshua S. Hargrave, an ironmonger in 
Greenwich, where he was born on Dec. 
28th, 1815. His father was a prominent 
Wesleyan, and he was educated in the 
tenets of that denomination. Going to 
London University when fourteen, he won 
a first-class certificate of honour for 
rhetoric in 1831 ; and was an intimate 
friend of the late Dr. Woolley, after- 
wards Principal of 8ydney University. 



"5 



o 



Har] 



DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALASIAN BIOGRAPHY. 



[Har 



In the autumn of 1831 Mr. Hargrove 
became one of the first students at King's 
College, London, and in 1833 matriculated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated B.A (Senior Optime) in 1837, 
and M.A. in 1840. In Sept. 1836 he 
entered as a student at Lincoln's Inn, 
and in Jan. 1841 he was called to the 
bar. In the same year he published a 
treatise on the Thellusson Act and on 
44 Trusts for Accumulations " ; and in 1843 
he edited the first volume of the 21st 
editon of " Blackstone's Commentaries." 
Mr. Hargrove, who married, on Sept. 
20th, 1843, his cousin Ann, daughter of 
William Hargrove, of Woodhouse, Leeds, 
practised in London at the equity bar 
until 1866, when he decided to emigrate 
to Australia, arriving in Sydney in Feb. 
1867. He was shortly afterwards ap- 
pointed a District Court Judge and 
Chairman of Quarter Sessions ; but re- 
signed this position with a view to 
entering political life, being appointed 
Solicitor-General in the Cowper Ministry, 
in succession to Mr. Dalley, in Feb. 1869. 
He was immediately returned to the 
Legislative Assembly for Bast Camden, 
and at the general election, a few months 
later, for Wollongong. He retired with 
his colleagues in the Cowper Ministry in 
Oct. 1869, and a few days later was reap- 
pointed Solicitor-General in Mr. Forster's 
Government, but without a seat in the 
Cabinet, which only, however, held office 
till March 1860, when, after another in- 
terval of a few weeks, Mr. Hargrove 
again accepted office as Attorney- General 
in the Robertson Ministry. Having been 
in the meantime nominated to the Legis- 
lative Council, Mr. Hargrove acted as the 
representative of the Government in the 
Upper House till Jan 1861, when Mr. 
Robertson transferred the premiership to 
Mr. Cowper, under whom Mr. Hargrove 
continued to act as leader of the Legis- 
lative Council and Attorney-General until 
July 1863, when he resigned the latter 
post to Mr. (afterwards Sir) J. B. Darvall, 
his senior in politics and at the bar, 
and took the inferior post of Solicitor- 
Genera